Main Article Content
The article sets out to explore the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level in order to improve students’ proofreading ability at the level of text. Learners of English in a foreign language environment frequently fall into a reliance on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support with some utterances, it frequently leads to predictable and persistent errors. Such fossilization leads to on-going inaccuracies that detract from student composition and that require focused instruction and repeated practice in order to eradicate the errors. The current paper reports on an experiment in consciousness-raising about specific categories of errors with a group of 30 trainees teachers in Zayed University, Dubai during the spring semester 2014. Results on post-tests compared with scores on the pre test indicate a significant improvement in students’ performance as a result of focused instruction.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (JoSoTL) right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License, (CC-BY) 4.0 International, allowing others to share the work with proper acknowledgement and citation of the work's authorship and initial publication in the Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.
- Authors are able to enter separate, additional contractual agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.
- In pursuit of manuscripts of the highest quality, multiple opportunities for mentoring, and greater reach and citation of JoSoTL publications, JoSoTL encourages authors to share their drafts to seek feedback from relevant communities unless the manuscript is already under review or in the publication queue after being accepted. In other words, to be eligible for publication in JoSoTL, manuscripts should not be shared publicly (e.g., online), while under review (after being initially submitted, or after being revised and resubmitted for reconsideration), or upon notice of acceptance and before publication. Once published, authors are strongly encouraged to share the published version widely, with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics. 1(1), 1 – 47.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2011) Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Cook, V. (2013). Second language learning and second language teaching. (4th edition). New York: Routledge.
Corder, S. P (1967). The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5, 161 – 169.
Coulmas, F. (2003). Writing Systems: An introduction to their linguistic analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crompton, P. (2011). Article errors in the English writing of advanced L1 Arabic learners: The role of transfer. Asian EFL Journal. 50 (February 11), 4-32.
Debboune, Z., & Tebib, D. (2010). Notes from the effectiveness of proofreading in minimizing mistakes in students’ writing: The case of third year students. Algeria: University of Constantine.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2002). The place of grammar instruction in the second/foreign language curriculum. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in the second language classroom (pp. 17-34). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ellis, R (2002). Methodological options in grammar teaching materials. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp.155-179). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Farghal, M., & al-Zoubi,I. (2004). The Qur’anic definite article in translation: The case of citing animals. In. R. Elhamy, H. Mansour & J.R. Aydelott (Eds.), Contrastive rhetoric: Issues, insights and pedagogy (pp. 61-68). Cairo: American University Press.
Khodabandeh, F. (2007). Analysis of students’ errors: the case of headlines. The Asian ESP Journal, 3(1), 6 – 15.
Foss, S.K., & Waters, W. (2007) Destination dissertation: A traveler's guide to a done dissertation. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Fry, R. (2002). Last minute term papers. New Jersey: Career Press.
Galko, F. D. (2001). Better writing right now: Using words to your advantage. New York: Learning Express.
Gass, S. Behney, J., & Plonsky, L. Second language acquisition: An introductory course. New York: Routledge.
Grenville, K. (2001). Writing from start to finish: A six-step guide. New South Wales: Allen & Unwin.
Hacker, D. (2002). The Bedford handbook. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Hamlin, C. (2011). The writing process: Step-by-step approach curbs plagiarism, helps students build confidence in their writing ability. Faculty Focus. Retrieved 30 May 2014, from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/the-writing-processstep-by-step-approach-curbs-plagiarism-helps-students-build-confidence-in-their-writingabilities/
Heaton, J.B. (1979). Writing English language tests. London: Longman.
Hinkel, E. (2004). Teaching academic ESL writing. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Hinkel, E., & Fotos, S. (2002). New Perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
James, C. (1969). Deeper contrastive study. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 7 (2), 83-95.
Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. California: Pergamon Press.
Kharma, N. (1981). Analysis of the errors committed by Arab university students in the use of English definite-indefinite articles. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 19(4), 331-345.
Kharma, N., & Hajjaj, A. (1997). Errors in English among Arabic speakers: Analysis and remedy. Beirut: York Press Librairie du Liban.
O’Brien, J. (2010). Tense and aspect in the interlanguage of Gulf Arab learners. Saarbrucken: Verlag.
O’Brien, J. (2011). Teaching English to Arab learners: A case for a pedagogical grammar. In C. Gitsaki (Ed), Teaching and learning in the Arab World (pp.442-461). Berne: Peter Lang.
Pagel, L.G., & Nostrom, B. (2010). Proofreading & editing precision (6th edition, pp. 442-461). Ohio: Cengage Learning.
Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned (3rd ed.). Oxford: OUP.
Raimes, A. (1985) Techniques in teaching writing. Oxford: OUP.
Rutherford, W., & Sharwood-Smith, M. (1985). Consciousness – raising and universal grammar. Applied Linguistics, 6(3), 274 – 282.
Schmidt, R.W. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129 – 159.
Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 10(3), 209-234.
Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness raising and the second language learner. Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 159 – 168.
Smith, D.A., & Sutton, H.R. (1994). Powerful proofreading skills tips, techniques and tactics. Canada: Crisplearning.
Suzuki, R. (2007). Designing consciousness-raising tasks for and Economics English course. The Asian ESP Journal, 3(1), 22-36.
Swan, M. (1994). Design criteria for pedagogic and language rules. In M. Bygate, A. Tonkyn, & A. Williams (Eds.), Grammar and the language teacher. Tokyo: Prentice Hall.
Umale, J. (2011). The effect of consciousness raising on errors in L2 question formation: An investigation of Omani students. Arab World English Journal, 2(4), 88-135.
Van Patten, B. (1990). Attending to form and content in the input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 12, 287-301.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. Mind and Society. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press.