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Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in higher education programs that prepare health professionals for their clinical careers, such as undergraduate nursing programs. Even though undergraduate nursing education and radiography education have similarities, studies that focus on the effectiveness of PBL in radiography have not been documented in the literature. While the nature of the nursing and radiography disciplines may lead radiography educators to believe that PBL use in radiography education may be appropriate, based on existing research in nursing, its effectiveness and student attitudes need to be researched before curriculum-wide PBL implementation is planned. A mixed methods evaluative case study was conducted to investigate if a PBL module had an effect on radiography students’ image critique skills and their perceptions. Quantitative data collection instruments consisted of a pretest and a posttest to assess students’ image critique skills before and after PBL. Qualitative data collection instruments included a pre- and post-PBL survey, as well as structured reflections after the PBL module. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the pretest and the posttest, suggesting that the PBL module improved image critique skills in radiography students. In addition, students reported to feel significantly better prepared for image critique after PBL, and perceived working in a group as a good way to practice critiquing images. Difficulties reported were related to working in a group and transitioning to PBL, most likely due to being accustomed to lecture-based instruction.
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