Critical Citizenship Education for Multicultural Societies

Joan G. DeJaeghere


Multicultural societies face many challenges with regard to how citizenship is defined and enacted for the development and sustainability of democracy in our changing times.  Some of these challenges include intercultural conflict and racial/ethnic tensions that result in exclusion and discrimination of some members of society, and inequality in social, economic and political opportunities.  This paper proposes a model of critical citizenship education as pedagogical approaches to be implemented in schools to address these challenges present in our multicultural societies.   In this paper, I define critical citizenship education and contrast it with minimal and maximal forms of citizenship education.  I describe four pedagogical approaches and provide examples of them in classrooms.  The article concludes with considerations for implementing critical citizenship education in the classroom.