A Journal of Travel from New York to Indiana in 1827

Samuel Bernard Judah


Indiana Magazine of History, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 338-352

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A Journal of Travel from New York to Indiana in 1827


The author of this little journal, Dr. Samuel Bernard Judah, was born in New York City in 1777, and was the son of Samuel Judah, the immigrant, who, coming from London about 1760, was a leading merchant of New York thereafter. This first Samuel Judah is mentioned in the Jewish Encyclopedia as an ardent supporter of the American Revolution, to which indeed he devoted the greater part of a not inconsiderable fortune. The only recompense he ever received for this was a personal letter of thanks and appreciation from George Washington, and that also was afterwards lost in a fire.

Dr. Judah lived in New York city all his life except a few years spent at New Brunswick, New Jersey, where his son Samuel Judah (later of Indiana) was a student at Rutgers college. This last named Samuel Judah graduated from college in 1816, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1818, and shortly thereafter made his way to Indiana, locating in 1819 at Vincennes, then one of the most important towns in the state. By 1827 Samuel Judah had made for himself a professional reputation throughout the southern and central parts of the state, and for two years had been married. To visit his son was the principal object of Dr. Judah's trip.

The traveller was no longer young, physically rather delicate, and accustomed to what are called the comforts of life. One is amazed at his acceptance of rigors and hardships of travel which would appal and exhaust a strong man of today.

The Journal was written solely for the use of the writer himself, for future reference, statistics and recollections, without any thought of form or care to avoid repetition.

The only interest that these notes con now claim is as data of a long journey into our own west nearly a century ago; and as a description of life and conditions that happened to attract the writer's rather discursive attention. And it contains here and there personal touches disclosing the distinctive qualities of "types" whom the writer met, as well as something of the sophisticated attitude of an elderly city-man for the first time in a new country.



New York, 13 Oct, 1827. This afternoon I went on board the steamboat "Constitution," Capt Cochran, and at 8 minutes past 5 we left New York with 186 passengers.–Supped at 6 o'clock–Played a rubber of whist and won a glass of brandy and water. A gentleman exchanged his berth for my settee. Went to bed at 10 o'clock.

Oct. 14th–Arose at 4 o'clock A. M.–wind and tyde against us.–At J-2 past 7 breakfasted–better breakfast than supper. Passed various places during the night and arrived at Albany at 9 A. M. 150 miles from New York. Went to Cousin K. Solomon's.

Oct. 15th–I am well–Dined at H. Hart's, and spent the evening and slept at Solomon's. This morning I breakfasted at Mrs. Leonard's and Dr. Stewart's–drank Tea at Dr. Stewart's and spent the evening at H. V. Hart's.

Oct. 16th. Left Albany at 9 A. M. in Thorpe's stage-passed Philip Schuyler's county seat–a 1 o'clock arrived at Schenectady, 15 miles from Albany–A great many Dutch houses–a dead-and-alive place–not time to visit Union College. The canal runs through this from Albany and is 360 miles to Buffalo.–200 bridges on the canal between this place and Utica. Nine passengers came with us from Albany to Schenectady, one woman, myself and seven others who were all Jacksonians. Given's House here to be avoided. We went on board the DeWitt Clinton packet on the canal at 2 p. m.– Passed through an aqueduct–∗4 past 9 p. m. went through Schcharie creek which is a dangerous place in the night–We were passed along by a line. At 10 o'clock went to bed–disagreeable and very Uncomfortable bed and bedding–supper nothing to boast of.

17. Got up at ½ past 5. Good breakfast–came to Little Falls–5 locks–walked ½ miles to the village during the time the boat was going through the locks–an aqueduct across a stone bridge over which the boat crossed–a romantic spot, fit for gardens–A fine view of the Falls of the Mohawk–Very stony and rocky. The country is fine from Schenectady to the Little Falls–Great privileges for manufacturing purposes– New brewery erecting, of brick;–10 o'clock a. m. German Flats–fine country and agriculture to perfection. Passed a village and old stone house which appeared to have been fortified during the Revolution–Saw Herkimer Village from a distance–handsome prospect–Rich country.–Passed boat loaded with oysters from New York towed by a canal boat. The bow of our boat ran hard against a lock & capsized everything in the Cabin–Stove & pipe down–Women all in a fright –Passed a boat called "The Jobs & Fox of London." 4 p. m. arrived Utica–The canal 4 ft. deep, rise and fall 9 to 13 ft–I went to a house kept by Mr. Wells, on the canal–first rate house, Utica is a very handsome village. Dressed & delivered my letters to John E. Hinman. Was received politely. Spent the evening with him and returned to Wells' House–Good bed and room. The Canal runs through Utica 1½ miles. It is a very flourishing place–Appears in every respect commercial –Boats departing and arriving–Wagons etc–Business very lively indeed. I like this place. Genesse St. very handsome– beautiful buildings.

Oct. 18th. This evening met Henry Stewart–Good breakfast–Wrote home–Visited Hart & Ponds Foundry, also the Utica Insurance Co.–Roman Catholic Chapel, 600 members –many new buildings going up–Mechanics the most wealthy people in the place. The Universalists hold their worship in the Court House. Spent the evening at J Green's, Secy to the Insurance Co. and dined with Hinman, with 5 Baptist Ministers.–Spent my time very pleasantly. At 4 p. m. started in the Eagle lines of stages to H Stewart's at Vernon–had a view of Clinton College. Arrived at Stewart's at 7 p. m. Good supper and bed. Town beautifully situated–Merchant mill– Glass works for bottles etc.–window glass factory–3 stores –2 taverns out of 7 buildings. Stewart's tavern well situated and has a great run of custom.

Oct. 19th.–Left Vernon at 8 a. m. Came to Oneida, a poor miserable village–Drunken Indian–Sullivan–Univer-salist Church, blacksmith the preacher–School House–Seminary–Manlius a pretty town–Cotton factory–Merchant Mill–Onondaga Hollow is beautiful–Meadows and farms handsome–Grist Mill–Academy–Indians–Miserable hill to ascend. Arrived at Auburn at 8 p. m. Put up at Hudson's– good house.

Oct. 20th–Delivered my letters to Mr. Powers–Visited State's Prison–Had a view of everything–513 male and 23 female prisoners–saw them march to Dinner. Chaplain said prayers–Pine town, many good buildings. Visited Sally Martin–Bank Court House, ec. ec. dept. 2 o'clock I left Auburn in the opposition line of Stages. Col Mann & family from Boston were in the party. Crossed Cayuga Lake on a bridge 1 mile long–pretty town–steam boat in view coming down the Lake. On the canal boats coming here from the Erie Canal they rig masts and sails & navigate the Lake which is 40 miles long.–Geneva, a pretty town–Oil Mill, Woolen Factory– Pail Factory. Arrived here (Geneva) at 7 p. m. put up at the Madison House–very poor. This evening rain fell in torrents with a hurricane.

Oct. 21st–Still at Geneva–Pretty place–took no dinner, did not like the provision. Still rainy, stormy, disagreeable weather–6 barbers, 3,000 inhabitants–mostly Jacksonians. Slept here, the stage not arriving as expected. Supped as ordered by myself–pretty good.

Oct. 22nd–Weather still disagreeable. Stage arrived & I left here at 3 p. m., arriving at Canandagua at 7 p. m.–still raining.

Oct. 23rd–Canandagua is a beautiful place–Steam mill and windmill–steamboat on the lake, which is 20 miles long. There are 2 banks, Female Seminary, Academy, Court House, Arsenal, Jail–8 a. m. left this place–12 o'clock reached Bushnels, New Presbyterian Church building. Here whisky began to appear. Two very pretty girls got in here to go as far as Rochester–very agreeable. At 3 o'clock arrived at Rochester. To say anything in its favor would be needless– Very busy life–3 new churches building, and new houses in abundance–muddy over shoe tops–no rain, but cloudy with high winds. Put up at Noye's–good, genteel house. Delivered my letters to S. M. Smith–very polite–showed me the town, ec. I dined with him–7,000 inhabitants–Town is 3 miles from Lake Ontario–considerable trade with upper Canada. There is a Roman Catholic Chapel and a Quaker meeting, 4 very good public houses. Wool, Cotton, Pail and Sash factories–8 acres given by an individual for a college. A beautiful aqueduct on a bridge over which the canal boats pass and repass–Astonishing! Met Billy Van Dorn–much altered.

Oct. 24th–Left Rochester at 5 a. m. Traveled with a very clever fellow named Dibble–a lawyer–passed Gainsborough, Bridgeway, Hartland–here commenced the Ridge road. I never saw a more perfect road. At ½ past 9 p. m. arrived at Lewiston–a village of Tuscarora Indians, upper Canada opposite. Placed burned during the last war. Now rebuilt.

Oct. 25th–Left Lewiston at ½ past 7 a. m.–arrived at Niagara Falls at 9. Falls grand beyond description. Large paper mills. I do not like the village. At 2 p. m. arrived at Tonawanda, on Niagara River–roads very bad. ½ past 4 p. m. arrived at Buffalo. I suppose there are greater prospects of increasing commerce here than at any place in the State of New York. Lake Erie–a beautiful prospect. The Steamer Superior left here at noon. The Henry Clay does not leave until the 30th–So I left Buffalo on the Steamboat Pioneer for Dunkirk. Owing to shaft breaking put back to Buffalo.

Oct. 26th–Left Buffalo at 6 a. m. in a common wagon with oil cloth cover with 6 passengers over a railroad–fine view of the lake. Breakfast at Hamburg 10 a. m.–4 p. m. arrived at Cataraugus Creek. Here I came near to getting into a hobble. From Buffalo to this place there was a foot traveler who kept ahead of us. On getting here he was here before us. He was meanly dressed and carried a pack on his back. On stopping at the Tavern I spoke to him and offered him a drink, commending his spirit in walking. He declined and took a seat in the stage. I now learned that he was a Judge of Cataraugus County, a drover–had been to New York, was rich. I was mortified–a good lesson to me. Traveled 30 miles along the Lake Shore to this place. A fine bridge owned by Rufus S. Reed, who receives toll. Here we took post coaches and at 9 p. m. arrived at Freedonia 3 miles from Dunkirk on Lake Erie. Baptist and Presbyterian Churches here-Nasty, dirty bed and bedding. Left this place with pleasure– never disliked a place so much in my life.

Oct. 27th–Left Fredonia at 9 a. m., and at 12 arrived at Westfield where we had a good breakfast–and then to Ripley. This finishes my tour in the good and great State of New York–587 miles to New York City. At 3 p. m. entered the State of Pennsylvania at the village of North East, where an Irishman keeps a tavern in a log cabin. Says he has been here 28 years–happy and contented. Says he is a prince. Has a farm of 150 acres, with everything plenty about him. At ½ past 7 p. m. arrived at Erie on the Lake–still rainy and stormy. At 9 p. m. passed the line, into Ohio. Rode all night.

Oct 28th–At 4:30 a. m. arrived at Salem and at 8 at Ashtabula for breakfast. A bood wholesome girl traveled with with us the last 43 miles, hunting her husband who had left her–poor thing–get another! Crossed Grand River–2 Forges, 4 Furnaces, Grist Mill–beautiful meadows here to be seen–pretty village. Mr. Bayard, of Princeton, NJ., joined me at Erie–Town at Chaplin. Thus far, through Pennsylvania, it is common for the farmers to have their barns on the front of the road and their log cabins behind. Common for the women to break and hackle the flax and work in the fields. Plenty of buckwheat raised. At 8 p. m. arrived at Cleveland –still rainy & very stormy–waters very high & dangerous to cross–very bad roads. Cleveland is a very handsome place. Ohio canal completed 38 miles to Akron. Prospects of business here are very great.

Oct. 29th–Had to remain at Cleveland this day for want of a stage. 4 packet boats & 8 canal boats on the canal. Living is cheap–foreign goods low priced–people well informed –log cabins planty–good orchards–7 lawyers.

Oct. 30th–It having rained & stormed to such a degree that bridges were carried away, I left Cleveland at 7 a. m. Breakfast at Bedford–Mrs. King got in–passed through a large stream–very high water–Misery in all its shapes here began to make its appearance–Children naked–mud up to their knees & appeared not to have been washed for a month. Whisky more & more drank. Plenty appeared to be in the hands of every one & independence in reality. Passed Town of Hudson–a new college used as an Academy, Handsome country–miserable roads–rainy & stormy. Then Middlebury –a neat town in a swamp. Arrived at 7 p. m. and stopped at pretty good house kept by a Yankee–2 weeks in this country –yet a real clever Yankee–has a son, a minister, and 2 handsome daughters, kept out of view, but peeking to see the passengers.

Oct. 31st–Left Middleburg at 6 a. m., very bad roads– drunken driver–swamped–still raining. At 10 p. m. arrived at Wooster–Oil mill, Saw mill, Grist mill–very bad roads– continual accidents–broke down 8 miles from Wooster. Mr. Bayard and driver went 2 miles for help. Esq. Smith came and repaired us so as to proceed to Wooster. Jovial landlord, good supper, poor bed, dirty house, fine country, plenty & cheap. Cornstalks 10 ft high. Still stormy & rainy.

November 1.–At 7 a. m. left Wooster. Commenced with bad roads & up & down hill. Breakfast at Lowden's–could not eat. 11 p. m. arrived at Mt. Vernon–stage upset and I lost my night cap & handkerchief. Rode through a swamp 12 miles without seeing a cabin. Mrs. King fainted. Considerable business here. Butter 6 d. Wheat flour I 12; Corn 12j^ c bushel Fowls 4 d; turkeys 183/4; ducks 61/4 Geese 9 to 12½ Pork ½ to 2; Beef 2 c to 3 d lb. veal 4 c to 6 c Mutton 2 c; wood 75 c a cord; Dry goods and groceries very high– about twice New York prices.

Nov. 2nd–Up at 7 a. m. no stage till tomorrow. Five of us hired an open wagon & left Mt. Vernon. 27 miles to Curtis's at 9 p. m.–wealthy farmer–Good house and meals.

Nov. 3rd–Left Curtis's at 10 a. m. having been detained on acct. of storm and at 3 p. m. arrived at Columbus. Good Tavern–spent a pleasant evening.

Nov. 4th–Delivered my letters to R. Osborn and Dr. Good-ell–well received. Visited the State House & Penitentiary– poor miserable dirty building–116 prisoners–Mr. McLean Keeper of Penitentiary very polite–brother of the Post Master Genl. Went this morning to the Presbyterian Church– about 100 persons present.

Nov. 5th–2 a. m. left Columbus–fair weather. At 20 miles stopped at a log house miserable in the extreme for breakfast. Young man just departed this life with the sick stomach, a common disease in some parts of Ohio. Noon, Springfield–rich country–handsome Court House–6 p. m. arrived at Dayton.

Nov. 6th–Left Dayton at 2 a. m. Passed Miamisburg– Franklin–Hamilton–pretty town–covered bridge 1/3 mile long–then bad roads & dangerous raining. 7 p. m. arrived at Cincinnati & put up at Washington Hall. Passed in this State 181 waggons of emigrants going west.

Nov. 7th–Delivered my letters to Messrs. Lydall, Bates, Barr, Jonas–well received and was also introduced to Dr. Price and Dr. Wright. Fine weather at last. Spent a pleasant time. Visited the Medical School with Dr. Wright and heard Mr. Slack deliver his lecture introductory to the study of Chemistry–Since I left New York this makes 6 fine days out of 24–Indian Summer now. At the lower market I counted 198 waggons–prices 1/3 higher than 50 miles back –plenty of every thing–fine fish–apples 6c the peck turnips & potatoes 25c the bushel–dry goods & groceries nearly as cheap as in New York–Greater bustsle & stir here than in New York in proportion. In 1818 there were 4,000 inhabitants here. Now there are 18,000 to 20,000. Fine State, happy people, independent and easy in every particular.

Nov. 9th–Having reed, so much politeness and attention while here I left with regret, and at 5:30 p. m. went on board the steamboat Cincinnati for Louisville. 10 miles below Cincinnati

  • 1 It may be interesting to notice the conditions of travel between Cincinnati and Louisville a few years before Dr. Judah's trip. In the fall of 1816 Armstrong Brandon removed from Piqua, Ohio, to Corydon the new state capital of Indiana. His family consisted of his wife and little daughter, Harriet, 8 years old, who afterwards became the wife of Samuel Judah of Vincennes. She thus describes their trip:
  • "We traveled by land to Cincinnati and there with Mr. Lodge's family embarked in a small flatboat called a family boat. When the boat landed, to stop for any length of time, I followed my father in his rambles over the country. My d3light was greatest first seeing an orchard of rosy apples. I suppose it was not a strange thing to see orchards about Cincinnati, but in the vicinity of Piqua the orchards were still young. We landed at Jeffersonville and hired wagons to take us to Corydon–passing through New Albany where there were 2 or 3 cabins, one with a coonskin nailed on the outside.
  • Two years after, in the summer of 1818 we made a visit to our friends in Ohio. We went from Corydon to Jeffersonville. On examining the boats they were found to be so inconvenient that my father thought it best to go by land. The boats to go up the Ohio called barges, were propelled by oars and sometimes sails, when the wind was favorable. The time from Louisville to Cincinnati averaged 2 weeks. As yet there was not a steamboat plying the river above the falls at Louisville. To go by stage we had to go up to Georgetown, Ky., and from there to Cincinnati. On the Indiana side the mail was carried on horseback."
  • Hulbert, The Ohio River states that beginning in 1811 three or four steamboats built on the upper Ohio, descended to New Orleans, but their engine power was insufficient for returning aeninst the current. He fixes the fall of 1817, as the date of the commencement of steam navigation in the Mississippi valley, more powerful engines having been invented and then first employed between New Orleans and Louisville, where the falls were an obstacle. He does not give any date as to steam navigation of the upper Ohio. Probably it should date from 1819. J. M. J.
we took on 54 coops, 520 turkeys, for New Orleans. Night view of Lawrenceburg & passed several other places. Other places which may be known by reference to Morse's Geography. Excellent & plentiful table on boat. Disagreeable night–had to anchor 3 hours on acct. of fog. Gave my card to Maj. Ely of Ky.

Nov. 10th–Jeffersonville, Ind.–a Penitentiary in view. At 11 a. m. landed at Louisville. Put up at Allen's–first rate house. Took my passage in. mail stage for Vincennes, starting at 2 a. m. tomorrow. This place is not to be compared with Cincinnati. About 10,000 inhabitants, 400 prostitutes. Poor market.

Nov. 11th 5 a. m.–Left Louisville in stage to Portland, below the Falls and crossed in a house boat.–7 a. m. At 8 p. m. arrived at Paoli, and took quarters in a log cabin–5 beds in a room–2 in a bed–had a bed to myself. Bill Lynch's house. Academy, Court House–Mill–Tannery. Settlers mostly Quakers, decent people.

Nov. 12th–Breakfasted at Judge Foils–very good, but I ate too much wild turkey–first I have seen. Crossed White River in a scow–Hindostan–dined at Washington, Daviess Co. At 7 p. m. arrived at Vincennes. Very disagreeable ride. Supped at Clark's Tavern, and at 8 went to Samuel's he being at Indianapolis, attending the Supreme Ct. Received by Mrs. Judah and her mother Mrs. Brandon.

Nov. 14–Today at 4 p. m. Samuel returned–I have spent my time very pleasantly the last two days–Had a view of the prairies on fire at night from Samuel's piazza. I am now 1,260 miles from New York. Vincennes is a melancholy-looking place. Good brick Court House–brick seminary–a few good brick houses, Genl Harrison's the most attractive. Samuel lives in a 2 story frame. 26 ft front 20 deep, 3 rooms below, also Kitchen & Smoke house, poorly built–Indeed all the houses in the west are so. There are 1600 inhabitants–7 stores well stocked–trade for 40 miles around–profits large. $10,000 worth of goods is a full stock for the largest merchant for a year. The principal inhabitants get their groceries from New Orleans. There is a cotton factory on a small scale operated by an Ox-mill, and a good public Library of 1800 vols. Very few of the houses are painted. Town lots are $35 to $50 the acre. Soil is sandy loam. Horticulture not much attended to. Samuel has the best garden here, tho only 1 year old. He has asparagus & celery, which are not common. His lot is 2½ acres, fine well–sheep; 2 horses, 2 cows, bee hives.

Emigrants pass daily, the poor to Illinois, the richer to Missouri, the middle class of emigrants go to Indiana and Michigan, Illinois has a bad name, bad roads and bad public houses.

Indiana now has a population of 270,000; and this County (Knox) has 5000. Laborers wages are 37½C a day and found.

Was present at Samuel's offce at an examination of some witnesses, sworn without book. Their words were written down by Saml and repeated by a Judge Moon. They were Canadian French. These people resemble the Canadians of Upper Canada & have all their ways & customs, and are the descendants of those employed here by the fur traders 60 or 70 years ago.

The County Clerk is Homer Johnson. He is also Major-General of Militia, tavern keeper, schoolmaster, surveyor, doctor, & singing master.

This being Sunday I went with Mrs. Brandon to the Methodist Meeting. 25 women, 18 men–considering all things it was pretty good. A raw young countryman exhorted–bad singing. Mr. Perrin, the Presbyterian preacher, said to be good. The people here are generally more on the moral order than given to priest craft; ministers are not much encouraged.

Nov. 20th–Winter has commenced very early here. Indian Summer is ended.

Nov. 21st–Fine morning–bright sun, but very cold. Flour $2.00 cwt, corn 10c bushel–cows $6–Beech & Sugar wood 75c cord. The plain people live on cornbread & hominy. Children are fed on mush & milk, economy is the custom. People are generally poorly clad–many blacks, poor miserable race. So much can be raised that the people in general labor but little. They have a great dnal of pride.

Was introduced to a lawyer, General Johnson–not a military man–looked like anything but his name–poorly clad– summer pantaloons, shabby clothes & a cloak to hide all.

Though Whisky is drunk like water, considering the large population of Ohio and Indiana, I have seen fewer drunkards than I expected. Men drink it by the quart & even the wealthy prefer it to any of the foreign liquors. Orchards and fruits are abundant. The apples about Louisville were fine.

I have been makeing up my accounts. I spent 13^ days on the way when not traveling–delayed by storms & alterations of stage-days, viewing different places and a stop of 3 days in Cincinnati. Including washings and postage, the total is $75.85. Generally I have ridden until 10 or 11 o'clock at night:–often up by 2 or 3 o'clock in the morning–but had only 2 whole night's rides, and only slept 2 nights in log Cabins.

Nov. 24th–It seems that the prevailing desire in the Western States is to have land, rather than money, tho land is very cheap. Yet I do not think a man of family can live cheaper in Vincennes than in New Brunswick, N. J. Fine farms near Vin-cennes can be bought at $2 or $3 the acre. A hard working man can buy the best of land from the U. S. at $1.25 the acre & in a very few years by industry can become an independent farmer and be what is called a good liver–that is, eat plenty of corn-bread–and pork into the bargain–but no molasses. Deliver me from their cookery.

I have been perfectly well since I have been in Vincennes –look & feel better. I can not drink whiskey. Saml has some which is old, though it smells somewhat like bedbugs. I must say that I have eaten more than I did during the time I was coming from Buffalo here. The food at Samuel's is very good, tho, they have too much of everything–because it's plenty & cheap.2

Nov. 26th–I have now been 15 days in Vincennes and have concluded to start home tomorrow morning–have taken my

  • 2 It was told afterward that the young mistress of house, in her desire to offer something fine to her father-in-law, procured with difficulty some salt codfish, which she served to the guest with modest pride–much to the secret amusement of her husband, who later in private explained to her that codfish to a man from the seaboard was not so much a delicacy as the quail, venison and wild turkey which were so frequently part of their own fare. J. M. J.
passage in the stage for Louisville. I shall sleep at Clark's Tavern to be in readiness for starting at 4 a. m.

Nov. 27th–Left Vincennes at 4 a. m.–breakfasted at Perry's at 7½. Got to Washington, Daviess Co. at 10½ a. m. Corn 6 d. the bushel–whiskey 16c the gallon here–stopped at Paoli to water & went on to Judge Chambers', 10 p. m.

Nov. 28th–Breakfasted at Chamber's & started at 7 a. m. –rainy and disagreeable. 4 p. m. got to New Albany and crossed the Ohio in a horse-boat. Lewisville 5 p. m. At 5:30 engaged passage to Wheeling, 600 miles, for $18.00, being a saving of $3, as against going to Cincinnati, & thence to Wheeling. Left Lewisville at 6 p. m.–Steamer Fairy–fine little boat–6 passengers in the Cabin, 34 on deck–Very fortunate in finding a boat at Lewisville. Good supper at 8 o'clock & to bed at 11.

Nov. 29th–Was introduced to Dr. Canby of Madison, Ind. State Senator and a well-informed man. He is a friend of Samuel's whom he expects to see in Indianapolis next week. F. W. Smith, a Kentucky gentleman very clever, is going to near Washington City & we have concluded to keep company. On this boat we have breakfast at 8: Luncheon at 12, Dinner at 2: Tea at 6. and "Cold Cut" at 9 p. m. all of first rate cooking and provisions–Passed Fredericksburg, Ky. Here on the shore they were killing 2800 hogs, & melting & barrelling lard for the New Orleans Market–a very great sight. Arrived at Cincinnati at midnight.

Nov. 30–Cincinnati. Slept at Cromwell's. During our stay here I take my meals on the boat. In the same room with me at Cromwell's was a young Kentuckian, who on getting up came to my bed and said. "Sir, are you from the East?" I told him I was, He then said: "Sir, I have graduated at Transylvania College, my name is Peter Breckinridge, with an M.D. to it. I am going to Philadelphia with my horse and gig to attend the Medical Lectures, and after that with my horse & gig to New York, and thence to New Orleans and then home." He wished my advice as I was an eastern man. I told him to take his horse & gig home & return & go up the river and take stage to Philadelphia & New York, and in the spring return and take one of the packets to New Orleans and return. He was thankful, said it was the best advice he had rec'd. He was full of cash, and appeared to be everything but an M.D. He returned to Ky. with his horse & gig, and I saw him no more. At Louisville I was offered a passage on a packet to New Orleans for $20.

Went to Reading Room & read the New York papers. Made various calls–Dr Price–Dr Wright–Robt F Lydell, who took me to the Criminal Court where we saw 2 trials–1 for theft and 1 for assault & Battery. Mr De Young and Miss Joseph were married on the 21st. I called on them–Cakes & wine. They gave me a packet of Bridescake to be delivered to Piexotto at Philadelphia for distribution to the damsels there.

Met Dr Asher a quack who was in New Brunswick 8 or 9 years ago & who did commit a theft by taking Joe Dunn's silver spoons. Had a very agreeable day & at 5 p. m. went on board the Fairy again, & at 6:15 we bade adieu to Cincinnati, with 11 new cabin passengers, 3 of them ladies & I don't know haw many deck passengers–Played a rubber of whist, Fine evening.

Dec. 1st–Most of the Kentuckians are gamblers. The Ken-tuckians generally seem full of cash. Seven of the passengers played at cards till 1 a. m. Most of the passengers are Jack-sonians. In the night one of the Deck passengers made off with the boat. We stopped at Limestone, the proper name of which is Maysville–pretty town.

Dec. 2d–Got up at 6 O'clock–found the men unloading 40 tons of lead on to the bank at Portsmouth, Ohio. The boat being now light we go faster. 11 a. m. stopped to repair one of the wheels. Went ashore & walked–After an hour the repair being made, we proceeded. 6 p. m. passed mouth of the Big Sandy River. At 9 we overtook the steamer Pennsylvania aground. She left Cincinnati 2 days before us. We took her passengers.

Dec. 3rd–Cloudy morning–Big Kanawha River–Coal mines. We have dragged on bottom several times. Moonlight night–Unwell.

Dec. 4th–Rainy & disagreeable–I am better, Views on the River are beautiful. The Indian name Ohio signifies beautiful stream & it deserves this title. It is a grand and novel sight for one who had no idea of the western States to hourly see boats ascending & descending the inland river–besides the great number of flat or keeled boats loaded with produce for New Orleans. In the east it would be considered a dangerous navigation, but nothing is thought of it here, tho many strikes sawyers & sink & great loss is sustained. This trade gives employment to hundreds of men. These flatboatmen return up the river in steamboats as deck passengers which costs them nothing. Deck passengers are required to help loading & unloading. Ten years ago the flatboatmen returned on foot & experienced great hardships. Case is now altered. The advancement of the West is surprising. Happy people; all they want is the ambition of the East–Too little labor.

The morning fogs are very disagreeable, & unless you take some liquor you feel the effects. Of course, say the people of the west whisky, is the first of all good. I have not however, seen an habitual drunkard, tho whisky is drunk like water. The Tuscaloosa & Monongohala whiskies are the best. The wine of Vevay may rank as good summer wine, but I do not like it.

Arrived at Wheeling at 11 p. m. Stormy, rainy & Dark– 762 miles from Vincennes–96 miles by water to Pittsburg, and 50 by land.

Dec. 5th–I have lived well & enjoyed myself on board the Fairy–At 5 a. m. being yet dark went to Sanmis's Tavern– good house. The stages start from it. Very muddy. Not much business except transportation. At 1 p. m. left in the mail stage for the East–Road runs along Wheeling Creek 70 miles–on the National Road, 5 are stone bridges–at 10J^ p. m. arrived at Washington, Pa., 32 miles–had supper and at 12 a. m. started again.

Dec. 6th–7 a. m. breakfasted at Brownsville. Left at 8 a. m.–Uniontown 11 a. m. Left after 30 minutes–ascended Laurelville Mountain–vast view. In midst of the Allegany Mountains, Crossed Yiogheny River on a bridge, Frosttown, Maryland, 8:30 p. m. slept 3 hours and had supper.

Dec. 7th–Started at 12 a. m.–16 miles round meadows mountain–arrived at Cumberland at 6 a. m., too dark to see the town, began the ascent of Martin's Mountain, Polished Mt. Green Ridge Mt. Savage Hill Mt. Town Hill Mt. and then sideling Hill Mt. Passed 28 droves of hogs, containing 21360 animals for Baltimore. At 10 p. m. arrived at Hagerstown. Farewell to the mountains.

Dec. 8th–Left Hagerstown at 5 a. m.–at 8 a. m. arrived at Fredercktown in rain & storm. Breakfasted and left at 10 a. m. Arrived at Georgetown & put up at Tilleys Good table and good house–Still raining & storming very hard.

Dec. 10th–Went to Washington–City Hotel. Visited the Capitol and public offices.

Dec. 11th–Did not go out–Weather dull & cloudy.

Dec. 12th–Attended to what I had to do and saw what I had not already seen.

Dec. 13th–Left for Baltimore at 8 a. m. Good turnpike. At 4 p. m. arrived at Baltimore. Put up at Beltzhover's Indian Queen–went to the Theatre and saw Paul Pry.

Dec. 14th–Baltimore–fine streets–houses look clean–An elegant monument and fine Exchanges–US Bank.

Dec. 15th–Left Baltimore at 10 a. m. by steamboat for Philadelphia.

(The journal ends here. It is known however that the writer spent several days in Philadelphia where he had friends and connections; and then by stage to New York, he finished his long journey.)

Published by the Indiana University Department of History.