Digital Reconstruction of the Akhenaten Torso in the Brooklyn Museum

Main Article Content

Matei Traian Tichindelean

Abstract

The Torso of Akhenaten in the Brooklyn Museum is an excellent example of Amarna style sculpture—an artistic technique employed during the reign of the “heretic” pharaoh Akhenaten. This study uses photogrammetry to render an accurate 3D state model and a subsequent reconstruction model intended to help address questions regarding the nature of worship centered on the Aten. The reconstruction is based on theological and royal iconography specific to the Amarna period. It sheds light on the religious reorganization of the New Solar Theology and aims to facilitate a better understanding of the role of royal statuary in the context of an Egyptian temple.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tichindelean, M. T. (2019). Digital Reconstruction of the Akhenaten Torso in the Brooklyn Museum. Studies in Digital Heritage, 3(1), 16–39. https://doi.org/10.14434/sdh.v3i1.27179
Section
Research Articles

References

DHaupt. "FPS-Arms". Retrieved May 24, 2019 from https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/fps-arms22274e479c794377b58671f1652f61fc

Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Standfigur Des Echnaton Mit Stele. Available at: http://www.smb-digital.de/eMuseumPlus?service=direct/1/ResultLightboxView/result.t1.collection_lightbox.$TspTitleImageLink.link&sp=10&sp=Scollection&sp=SfieldValue&sp=0&sp=1&sp=3&sp=Slightbox_3x4&sp=396&sp=Sdetail&sp=0&sp=F&sp=T&sp=407 . Accessed April 15, 2018.

Aldred, C. 1978. Akhenaten and Nefertiti. London: Thames and Hudson.

Amarna King. Brooklyn Museum. 2018. Available at: https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3305 . Accessed May 7, 2018.

Assmann, J. 2001. The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Baines J. 1985. Color Terminology and Color Classification: Ancient Egyptian Color Terminology and Polychromy. American Anthropologist. 87, 2 (1985), 287-297

Bodziony K. 2007. The Amarna Technique of Composite Sculpture. Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization.(10):1-9. Available at: http://www.saac.archeo.uj.edu.pl/documents/16319255/129267890/10.3.pdf/b7ac2941-45dd-472b-9964-90b1923ed99a . Accessed March 20, 2018.

Cooney, J. D. 1967. Amarna Reliefs from Hermopolis in American Collections. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.

Davies, N. de G. 1903. The Rock Tombs of El Amarna: Part I-The Tomb Meryra. London: Gilbert and Rivington Limited.

Davies, N. de G. 1905a. The Rock Tombs of El Amarna: Part II-The Tombs Panehesy and Meryra II. London: Gilbert and Rivington Limited.

Davies, N. de G. 1905b. The Rock Tombs of El Amarna: Part III-The Tombs Huya and Ahmes. London: Gilbert and Rivington Limited.

Davies, N. de G. 1908. The Rock Tombs of El Amarna: Part V-Smaller Tombs and Boundary Stela. London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited.

Eaton-Krauss, M. 1977. The “Khat” Headdress to the End of the Amarna Period. Studien zur Altaegyptischen Kultur, Bd. 5, pp. 21-39.

Formwerk 3D. Echnaton/Krone - Museum August Kestner. Sketchfab. Accessed November 20, 2017. https://sketchfab.com/models/da40f11348464d78a33dc7b69b496f79

Griffith.ox.ac.uk. 1921. Catalogue of The Amherst Collection of Egyptian & Oriental Antiquities. [online] Available at: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/gif-files/Amherst_17.jpg [Accessed 6 Apr. 2018].

Grandorge, G. "Tour of Model." Amarna Project. Accessed November 5, 2017. http://www.amarnaproject.com/pages/model_of_the_city/index.shtml#8 .

Hill, M. 2018a. Understanding Statuary from the Great Aten Temple. Horizon, The Amarna Project and Amarna Trust newsletter. 19 (Autumn 2018), 11-18.

Hill, M. 2018b. The Petrie-Carter Statuary Fragments from the Sanctuary Zone of the Great Aten Temple: The decoration of Amarna sacred architecture. In Marc Gabolde & Robert Vergnieux, eds. The Buildings from the Reign of Amenhotep IV-Akhenaten: Urbanism and Revolution. Montpellier, CENiM 20: 53-85

Hornung, E. 1971. Gedanken zur Kunst der Amarnazeit. Zeitschrift fuer Aegyptische Sprache. 97, pp. 74-77.

Hornung, E. 1999. Akhenaten and the Religion of Light. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

James, T. G. H. 1974. Corpus of hieroglyphic inscriptions in the Brooklyn Museum. Vol. 1. New York: Brooklyn Museum.

Kemp B. and Miriam Bertram. 2018. Great Aten Temple: Report on Recent Work (Autumn 2017, Spring and Autumn 2018). Retrieved February 9 2019, from http://www.amarnaproject.com/documents/pdf/GAT-report-Autumn-2017-2018-HI.pdf

Khat. Accessed December 7, 2017. https://www.unc.edu/courses/2005fall/art/080a/001/EGYPT%20INTRO%20&%20MISC/royal%20headdresses/khat.htm

Kozloff A, Bryan B, and Berman L. 1992. Egypt's Dazzling Sun. Bloomington, IN: The Cleveland Museum of Art.

Manniche, Lise. 2000. Akhenaten Colossi of Karnak. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. Accessed October 16, 2017. ProQuest Ebook Central.

The British Museum. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019. https://www.britishmuseum.org/join_in/using_digital_images/using_digital_images.aspx?asset_id=336661001&objectId=111353&partId=1

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018 https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/549661

Murnane, W. J. 1995. Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

Petrie, W. M. Flinders, Archibald Henry. Sayce, Francis Llewellyn. Griffith, and Flaxman Charles John. 1894. Tell el Amarna. By W.M. Flinders Petrie. With Chapters by A.H. Sayce, F. Ll. Griffith, and F.C.J. Spurrell. London: Methuen & Co.

Renton S. 2008. Hatshepsut's 'propaganda'(?). Electronic Egyptology Forum (EEF). Available at: http://www.egyptologyforum.org/archeef/EEFarchives.html Accessed April 1, 2018.

Robins, G. 1997. The art of ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press for the Trustees of the British Museum.

Sambon, A. 1931. Apercu general de l’evolution de la sculpture depuis l’antiquite jusqu’a la fin du XVIe siècle. Paris. Pp. 18, pl. III.

Scott, J., and Scott. L. 1968. Egyptian Hieroglyphs for Everyone: An Introduction to the Writing of Ancient Egypt. New York.

Sethe K. 1909. Urkunde IV. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’she Buchhandlung. Pp. 1971

Talatat: sanctuary of the Great Temple. Museum of Fine Arts Boston. 2018. Available at: http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/talatat-sanctuary-of-the-great-temple-46195 Accessed April 15, 2018.

Teeter, E. 2011. Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, R. C. 1930. Two Egyptian Torsos from the Main Temple of the Sun at El ‘Amarneh. Metropolitan Museum Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Dec., 1930), pp. 81-99.

Wolf, W. 1957. Die Kunst Aegyptens: Gestalt und Geschichte. Stuttgart.