Main Article Content
This study examined the effect of a home-based six-week motor skill intervention for children with CHARGE syndrome. Six families with children with CHARGE syndrome participated in this study. The children were assessed on their motor skills with the Test of Gross Motor Development 3 prior to the intervention and then again on the four most practiced motor skills after the intervention. Parents were also given a parental perceptions questionnaire before and post intervention. The families were provided a Gross Motor Development Curriculum, videos, tip sheets, and equipment to support the intervention. Families maintained weekly logs of their specific training practices. Each family was interviewed, and the transcripts were analyzed for themes. The four themes that emerged were Personal goals, Improvement, Barriers, and Overcoming challenges. Results revealed that it is feasible to utilize this protocol to improve motor skills for children with CHARGE syndrome.
Following is the journal's Publishing Agreement. The submitting author will be asked to sign an agreement form once the submission has been accepted for publication.
A. GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS
I (Author) hereby warrant that:
- The article I have submitted to the Journal for review is original, has been written by the stated authors and has not been published elsewhere.
- The article is not currently being considered for publication by any other journal and will not be submitted for such review while under review by this Journal.
- The article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in my article.
- If I am using any personal details or images of a third person, I have obtained written permission or consent from this person.
- If the article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this publishing agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.
- The Author assigns to the Journal the right to publish, republish, transmit, sell, distribute and otherwise use the Contribution in whole or in part in electronic and print editions of the Journal throughout the world, in all languages and in all media of expression now known or later developed.
- The Author agrees that the Journal may, without changing the content, translate the Contribution to any medium or format for the purpose of preservation.
- The Author agrees that the Journal may keep more than one copy of this Contribution for purposes of security, back-up and preservation.
- Reproduction, posting, transmission or other distribution or use of the final Contribution in whole or in part in any medium by the Author as permitted by this Agreement requires a proper citation to the Journal suitable in APA form. Additionally, the following copyright statement must be included: “Copyright YEAR by the Division for Physical, Health and Multiple Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children. Reproduced with permission from Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services.”
C. PERMITTED USES BY AUTHOR
As Author, the Journal licenses you to certain uses of the Contribution. These rights are retained and permitted without the need to obtain specific permission from the Journal. These include:
- the right to make copies (print or electronic) of the journal article for your own personal use, including for your own teaching use;
- the right to make copies and distribute copies (including via e-mail) of the journal article to research colleagues, for personal use by such colleagues;
- the right to present the content of the journal article at a meeting or conference;
- patent and trademark rights and rights to any process or procedure described in the journal article;
- the right to use the journal article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of works of the author, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of the article in the journal); and
- the right to prepare other derivative works, to extend the journal article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the Journal.
Altunsöz, Hürmeriç, I., & Goodway, J. D. (2016). SKIPing to motor competence: The influence of project successful kinesthetic instruction for preschoolers on motor competence of disadvantaged preschoolers. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 21(4), 366-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2015.1017453
An, J., & Goodwin, D. L. (2007). Physical education for students with spina bifida: Mothers'
perspectives. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 24(1), 38-58. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.24.1.38
Barnett, L., Hinkley, T., Okely, A. D., & Salmon, J. (2013). Child, family and
environmental correlates of children's motor skill proficiency. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16(4), 332-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.08.011
Blake, K. D., & Prasad, C. (2006). CHARGE syndrome. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 1(1), 34. https://doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-1-34
Bremer, E., Balogh, R., & Lloyd, M. (2015). Effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention for 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study. Autism, 19(8), 980-991. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361314557548
Brian, A., Taunton, S., Lieberman, L. J., Haibach-Beach, P., Foley, J., & Santarossa, S. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 for children with visual impairments. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 35(2), 145-158. https://doi.10.1123/apaq.2017-0061
Camp Abilities (N.D). Instructional Materials.www.campabilities.org
Chaapel, H., Columna, L., Lytle, R., & Bailey, J. (2013). Parental expectations about adapted physical education services [Reports-Research]. Journal of Special Education, 47(3), 186-196. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466912447661
Clancy, C., Jackson, B., Dimmock, J. A., & Thornton, A. L. (2017). Parents and the
Pygmalion Effect: Exploring relations between parent efficacy beliefs and children's fundamental movement skills. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 39, S56-S56.
Clark, J. E. & Metcalfe, J. S. (2002) The mountain of motor development: A metaphor. In J. E. Clark & J.H. Humphrey (Eds) Motor development: Research and reviews, volume 2 (pp. 163-190). National Association for Sport and Physical Education. https://edisciplinas.usp.br/pluginfile.php/3696568/mod_resource/content/1/2002_Clark_Metcalfe_Mt_MD.pdf
Coughlan, D., & Brydon-Miller, M. (2014). Critical Friend. The Sage encyclopedia of action research. Doi.org/10.4135/9781446294406.n91
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education (7th ed).
Colombo-Dougovito, A.M., & Block, M.E. (2019). Fundamental motor skill interventions for children and adolescents on the autism spectrum: A literature review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-019-00161-2
Cools, W., De Martelaer, K., Samaey, C., & Andries, C. (2011). Fundamental movement
skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(7), 649-660. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.551540
Dammeyer, J. (2012). Development and characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 76, 1292-1296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.05.021
Haga, M. (2008). The relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in
children. Child Care Health Development 34(3), 329-334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00814.x
Haibach-Beach, P., Perreault, M., Foster, E., & Lieberman, L. (2019). Gross motor skill performance in children with and without CHARGE syndrome: Research to practice. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 91, 103423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2019.05.002
Haibach-Beach, P., Perreault, M., Lieberman, L., & Foster, E. (2020). Independent
walking and balance in children with CHARGE Syndrome. British Journal of Visual
Haibach, P. S., & Lieberman, L. J. (2013). Balance and self-efficacy of balance in children with CHARGE Syndrome. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 107(4), 297-309.
Hamilton, M., Goodway, J., & Haubenstricker, J. (1999). Parent-assisted instruction in a motor skill program for at-risk preschool children. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16(4), 415-426. https://doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.16.4.415
Harter, S. (1987). The determinants and mediational role of global self-worth in
children. In: Eisenberg, N., Ed., Contemporary topics in developmental psychology (pp. 219-242). New York: Wiley.
Hartshorne, T. S., Hefner, M. A., Davenport, S. L. H., & Thelin, J. W. (2011). CHARGE
syndrome. Plural Publishing. https://www.pluralpublishing.com/publications/charge-syndrome
Hilgenbrinck, L., Cavanaugh, L. K., & Lieberman, L. J. (2020). Gross motor
assessment results and placement in physical education of five students with CHARGE syndrome, Palaestra, 34(3), 27-36. https://js.sagamorepub.com/palaestra/article/view/10809https://js.sagamorepub.com/palaestra/article/view/10809
Houwen, S., Visser, L., van der Putten, A., & Vlaskamp, C. (2016). The interrelationships
between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 53–54, 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.01.012
Hurley, K. S., & Burt, T. L. (2015). Development of physical competence through motor skill acquisition for children and youth with disabilities: Parental perceptions. Health Psychology Report, 3(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpr.2015.47623
Imel, G., Hartshorne, T.S., Slavin, L.J., & Kanouse, S.K. (2020). Participation in and barriers to
recreation in CHARGE Syndrome. Palaestra, 34, 38-43. https://js.sagamorepub.com/palaestra/article/view/10458
Jackson, B., Whipp, P. R., Chua, K. P., Pengelley, R., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2012). Assessment of tripartite efficacy beliefs within school-based physical education: Instrument development and reliability and validity evidence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(2), 108-117. https://doi.org/10/1016/j.psychsport.2011.10.007
Kenton, W. (2020, July 1). Feasibility study defined. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/feasibility-study.asp
Lalani, S. R., Safiullah, A. M., Fernbach, S. D., Harutyunyan, K. G., Thaller, C., Peterson, L. E., & Hefner, M. (2006). Spectrum of CHD7 mutations in 110 individuals with CHARGE syndrome and genotype-phenotype correlation. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 78(2), 303-314. https://doi.org/10.1086/500273
Lane, K., Lieberman, L. J., Beach, P., Perreault, M., & Columna, L. (2020). Parental
perspectives on physical education services for children with CHARGE Syndrome. Special Education Journal. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466920942769
Lent, R. W., & Lopez, F. G. (2002). Cognitive ties that bind: A tripartite view of efficacy
beliefs in growth-promoting relationships. Journal of social and Clinical Psychology, 21(3), 256-286. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.21.3.256.22535
Lieberman, L.J., Ericson, K., Lepore-Stevens, M., & Wolffe, K. (2021).
The expanded core curriculum areas experienced by campers during Camp Abilities: A qualitative study. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 115, 28-41. DOI: 10.1177/0145482X20987021
Lieberman, L. J., & Haibach, P. (2016). Gross motor development curriculum for children with
visual impairments. American Printing House for the Blind. https://sites.aph.org/files/manuals/GMDC/
Lieberman, L.J., Kirk, T.N., & Haegele, J. A. (2018). Physical education and transition planning experiences relating to recreation among adults who are deafblind: A recall analysis. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 112, 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482X1811200107
Lieberman, L. J. (2001). Physical activity, including physical education, sport, and recreation for children who are deafblind (pp. 211-225). In M. Hefner & S. Davenport (Eds.), CHARGE Syndrome: A Management Manual for Parents. CHARGE Syndrome Foundation. https://www.chargesyndrome.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Educational-Professional-Packet.pdf
Linsenbigler, K., Petersen, S., & Lieberman, L. (2018). Barriers to physical activity for children
with visual impairments: How far have we come and where do we still need to go? Palaestra, 32(1), 26-31. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330026120_BARRIERS_TO_PHYSICAL_ACTIVITY_FOR_CHILDREN_WITH_VISUAL_IMPAIRMENTS_HOW_FAR_HAVE_WE_COME_AND_WHERE_DO_WE_STILL_NEED_TO_GO
McKittrick, L. L. (2019). Strategies that mothers of children who are deafblind employ to foster
collaboration within individualized education program teams. Published. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado] https://digscholarship.unco.edu/dissertations/560
Möller, C. (2011). Overview of balance and the vestibular system (pp. 43-49). In Hartshorne, T. S., Hefner, M. A., Davenport, S. L. H., & Thelin, J. W. (Eds.) CHARGE syndrome. Plural Publishing. https://www.pluralpublishing.com/application/files/9716/0978/3059/charge2e_SamplePages.pdf
Osmund, G., & Cohn, E. S. (2015). The distinctive features of a feasibility study. Occupation Participation Health, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1539449215578649
Piek, J. P., Baynam, G.B., & Barrett, N.C. (2006). The relationship between fine and gross
motor ability, self-perceptions and self-worth in children and adolescents. Human Movement Science, 25(1): 65-75. https://10.1016/j.humov.2005.10.011
Perreault, M., Haibach-Beach, P. S., Foster, E., & Lieberman, L. J. (2020). Relationship between motor skills, balance, and physical activity in children with CHARGE Syndrome. Journal of Visual Impairments & Blindness. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482X20939469
Reed, E. S. (1991). Cognition as the cooperative appropriation of affordances. Ecological
Psychology, 3(2), 135-158. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326969eco0302_5
Salem-Hartshorne, N. & Jacob, S. (2005). Adaptive behavior in children with CHARGE syndrome. American Journal of Medicine Genetics A, 133A, 262-267. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.30546
Lieberman, L.J., Haibach, P., & Schedlin, H. (2012). Physical education and children with CHARGE Syndrome: Research to practice. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 106(2) 106-119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482X1210600205
Scully, J.B., & Lord, R. (2019). Developing physical activity interventions for children with a visual impairment: Lessons from the First Steps initiative. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 37 (2), 108-123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0264619618823822
Silva, S. D., Flôres, F. S., Corrêa, S. L., Cordovil, R., & Copetti, F. (2017). Mother’s perception of children’s motor development in southern brazil. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 124(1), 72-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512516676203
Štěrbová, D., & Kudláček, M. (2014). Deaf-blindness: Voices of mothers concerning leisure-time physical activity and coping with disability. Acta Gymnica, 44(4), 193-201. https://doi.org/10.5507/ag.2014.020
Stodden, D., Goodway, J., Langendorfer, S., Roberton, M., Rudisill, M., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582
Thelin, J. W., & Swanson, L. A. (2006). CHARGE syndrome: Multiple congenital anomalies including disorders of all senses and speech, language, feeding, swallowing, and behavior. The ASHA Leader, 11(14), 6-42. https://doi.org/10.1044/leader.FTR1.11142006.6
Vaismoradi, M., Jones, J., Turunen, H., & Snelgrove, S. (2015). Theme development in
qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Journal of Nursing Education and
Practice, 6, 100-110. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v6n5p100
Wachtel, L. E., Hartshorne, T. S., & Dailor, A. N. (2007). Psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medications in CHARGE syndrome: A pediatric survey. Journal of Developmental Physical Disability, 19, 471-483. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-007-9064-6
Wagner, M., Haibach, P. S., & Lieberman, L. J. (2013). Gross motor skill performance
in children with and without visual impairments - research to practice. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(10), 3246-3252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.06.030
Webster, E. K., & Ulrich, D. A. (2017). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development—Third edition. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 5(1), 45-58. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2016-0003
Wrotniak, B. H., Epstein, L. H., Dorn, J. M., Jones, K. E., & Kondilis, V. A. (2006). The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics, 118(6), 1758-1765. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-0742