The Undergraduate Journal of Law & Disorder <p>The Undergraduate Journal of Law &amp; Disorder is a journal in Special Education and Law featuring manuscripts written by undergraduate students which pertain to learners with exceptionalities and policy.</p> en-US The Undergraduate Journal of Law & Disorder <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>1. By submitting to The Undergraduate Journal of Law &amp; Disorder, the author grants to The Undergraduate Journal of Law &amp; Disorder the non-exclusive right to reproduce, translate (as defined below), and/or distribute your submission worldwide in print and electronic format and in any medium, including but not limited to audio or video, as licensed under a <a href="" rel="license" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License</a>.</p><p>2. 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Introduction to Issue 5 <p>Law &amp; Disorder is a journal dedicated to publishing articles written by undergraduate students about disabilities and laws. Issue five of the journal begins with a perennially important question: When is special education necessary? This issue ends with a highly heated and often misunderstood question of where the best place to render special education services is. The answers to these questions are deceptively simple, but the authors of the eight articles in Issue 5 know the difficulty of answering these seemingly obvious questions.</p><p> The first set of four articles revolves around the question of identification. Roberts launches Issue five by seeking an answer to the ever-looming concern faced by general educators about how to best educate students with disabilities. General educators often have limited knowledge about disabilities and the process of making a referral for evaluation. They may not be aware of the wide spectrum of socioeconomic backgrounds that students come from, and therefore may be ill-informed about how low socioeconomic status students have not had the exposure to academic experiences that higher SES students enjoy. This lack of experience puts these students at an academic disadvantage. The answer to Robert’s question is important because of the danger of confusing disability with cultural difference. Delaney, Radke, and Zimmerle ask a controversial question few teachers will admit to answering for themselves. When students in elementary and secondary school experience academic difficulties, are they lazy, or is there a possibility of a learning disability? In the face of what is invisible, as learning disabilities often are, teachers wrongfully, but understandably, assume that the child who appears without a disability is simply not trying hard enough or is giving up. The authors explore the answer to this question through a hypothetical child constructed from behaviors typically seen in children of elementary school age who struggle in school because of a learning disability. Schumacher shifts from questions to direct guidelines about the process of identifying students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). She describes students with the ADHD diagnosis and provides guidance in the identification process within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Less directly, but similarly convincing and important to educators, Timberlake uses literature on psychopathy, a diagnosis reserved for the most extreme and severe cases of adults with behavioral disorders, to connect markers of maladaptive behavior in children. Her goal, in arguing for early identification of behavioral disorders in children displaying callous-unemotional traits, is to identify early to prevent the development of psychopathy as adults. </p><p>The second set of articles provides recommendations for how to teach students with disabilities.  Thompson and Anderson offer a cognitive behavioral approach for general education teachers to use in their classrooms, pointing out that the approach has been shown to be particularly effective at building pro-social skills in learners with high functioning autism. Fries, a music major in the Jacobs School of Music at Indiana University, looks more holistically at students and points out that general education teachers are required by special education law to include students with disabilities in the music classroom. He notes a connection between music, creativity, and depression and offers suggestions for modifications in the music classroom to teach students with depression through music. Pasyk reminds educators that learners with visual impairments do not see the world through the same lens. She offers concrete teaching advice such as aural and tactile strategies to mitigate the challenges that this population of students with disabilities encounter in the general education classroom. Eller, Fisher, Gilchrist, Rozman, and Shockney, all receiving a license in both general and special education, close the issue with the most vexing question in special education: Where should students with disabilities be educated? Their question is less argumentative and more informative, as they provide a summary of the literature indicating positive learning outcomes for students with learning disabilities and behavioral disorders along with a list of options for educators to consider as they teach these students. Through the research performed by the authors of these eight articles, some of the questions of identification and special education services will be answered. Issue five contains great detail of what it is like to search for answers in these important, but somewhat difficult, processes.  </p><p>Theresa A. Ochoa and Alyssa LaBrash</p> Theresa A Ochoa Alyssa Labrash ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 6 7 Issues & Recommendations in the Education of Students from Minority and Low Socioeconomic Status: When is special Education Placement Necessary? <div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>There is a longstanding concern about the overrepresentation of students from low SES and ethnic minorities in special education classrooms. This article describes the challenges a teacher faces when a student’s academic problems displayed in the classroom are misin- terpreted as disabilities rather than cultural differences, and provides recommendations to meet the IDEA’s nondiscriminatory evaluation guidelines. </span></p></div></div></div> Katherine R. Roberts ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 8 13 Are Academic Struggles the Cause of a Learning Disability or Laziness? <p>This article explores the possible causes for students with learning disabilities being deemed “lazy,” and identifies potential positive approached that may help students meet their academic goals. The article utilizes a hypothetical situation to show the contrasting opinions that people often have concerning the effects that a learning disability has on a student’s academic progress. We argue that when looking at the criteria to make a diagnosis of LD, the student’s academic shortcomings are not due to laziness, but are evidence of a learning disability. This article also explores specific characteristics that are common for these students and shows how these characteristics can be misconstrued as a lack of effort on the student’s part.</p> Allison Delaney Caitlin Radke Katlyn Zimmerle ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-01-05 2016-01-05 5 14 20 Identifying and Teaching Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder <p>For a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, school is full of challenges. It is a teacher’s responsibility to identify these students and understand their rights to an education. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act are key disability laws that outline students with disabilities’ rights to a free appropriate public education. This article describes the characteristics of students with ADHD, and what the law requires of educators in general education.</p> Jessica Schumacher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-01-05 2016-01-05 5 21 28 Using Evidence of Adult Brain Plasticity to Inform Early Identification of Extreme Antisocial Behavior in Children <p>As of 2010, approximately 500,000 adult psychopaths were incarcerated for heinous crimes. Historically, incarceration has been the response to extreme antisocial behavior of adult psychopaths, but research consistently shows that punitive measures are ineffective treatment to reform psychopaths. In contrast, current research on the plasticity of the adult human brain argues that the brain can change through adulthood and that therapy should therefore be sought for them. This article highlights brain plasticity in the adult, and argues that teachers should know early markers of psychopathy in order to design interventions for children who display extreme antisocial behaviors, and therefore reduce the likelihood that children with conduct problems will become adult psychopaths.</p> Elizabeth Timberlake ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 29 36 Addressing Autism in the Classroom with a Cognitive Behavioral Approach <p>For students with Autism, social interactions present both a behavioral and a social struggle that can lead to increased anxiety. Because their impaired communication skills affects their speech, it is difficult for others to understand them, and it contributes to their inability to understand appropriate speaking times.  Students with autism are protected under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which establishes procedures assuring that children with disabilities are educated with those who are not disabled to the maximum extent possible. Cognitive behavioral therapy includes several techniques that allow students with High-Functioning autism to improve social and behavioral skills. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy uses goal-oriented and systematic procedures to address inadequate adaptation of behaviors and cognitive processes. The following will address strategies for teachers to foster the skills of their students through a cognitive-behavior approach.</p> Emily Anderson Danielle Thompson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-01-05 2016-01-05 5 59 63 Using Music to Move Towards Providing More Holistic Methods in the Music Classroom for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders <p>This article promotes the use of more holistic and individualized instructional methods in general education music classrooms that could be developed for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs), particularly depression. Although seemingly disparate, the topics of creativity, perception and depression, and music therapy are all different angles of the interaction between individuals with EBDs and music. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) describes the legal requirements of music teachers.</p> Andrew Fries ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-01-05 2016-01-05 5 64 71 Providing a Multicultural Education for Students with Visual Impairments <p>This article examines how general education teachers can incorporate strategies for teaching students with visual impairments about multicultural education. Students who have visual impairments do not have the same learning advantages as other students, so it is imperative that teachers understand how to differentiate instruction for these students. Students with visual impairments may have minimal vision while others may be completely blind, so teachers must learn about the students’ backgrounds and specific characteristics of their disability. Aural and tactile strategies are important for improving these students’ conditions for learning. Utilizing multiple senses during instruction improves the quality of education that students receive. Students with visual impairments all into one of the twelve disability categories of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Hulett, 2009); therefore, teachers must follow legal guidelines for satisfying the educational and developmental needs of students with visual impairments. The following article specifically lists strategies for teaching students with visual impairments and suggests a lesson activity that combines both multiculturalism and these strategies. Teachers can implement this lesson idea as well as the general teaching strategies when providing an appropriate education to students with visual impairments.</p> Christina Pasyk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-01-05 2016-01-05 5 72 78 Is Inclusion the Only Option for Students with Learning Disabilities and Emotional Behavioral Disorders? <p>This article addresses the debate regarding the placement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders and learning disabilities in inclusive classrooms. This review discusses the factors that suggest why students with EBD and LD succeed more in separate settings emotionally and academically. It also discusses other educational options that bring inclusion and separate settings together, such as co-taught classrooms. There are both academic and social benefits of separate settings for students with LD’s. The actuality of inclusion being implemented is addressed with regards to how teachers and school districts are planning for inclusive classrooms. The following research supports that students with LD and EBD are better served in separate settings.</p> Madalyn Eller Emily Fisher Ashley Gilchrist Audrey Rozman Samantha Shockney ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-01-05 2016-01-05 5 79 86 Issues and Recommendations in the Education of Students From Minority and Low Socioeconomic Status: When is Special Education Placement Necessary? <p>There is a longstanding concern about the overrepresentation of students from low SES and ethnic minorities in special education classrooms. This article describes the challenges a teacher faces when a student’s academic problems displayed in the classroom are misinterpreted as disabilities rather than cultural differences, and provides recommendations to meet IDEA’s nondiscriminatory evaluation guidelines.</p> Katherine R Roberts ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-01-06 2017-01-06 5 8 13 A Critical Life <p class="Body">She inhales a life</p><p class="Body">that doesn’t belong to her</p><p class="Body">and in her mind</p><p class="Body">everything is wrong to her</p><p class="Body">knowing that they won’t understand</p><p class="Body">how it feels to lose</p><p class="Body">Someone they love, at their own hands</p><p class="Body">She cries trying to figure out</p><p class="Body">How and why it happened</p><p class="Body">Hearing the laughter come</p><p class="Body">From the mouths of those who judge</p><p class="Body">from those who’s main priority</p><p class="Body">is to make her business, theirs</p><p class="Body">The pastor was right</p><p class="Body">life really ain’t fair</p><p class="Body">Pain sears her like</p><p class="Body">the wound on the lifeless</p><p class="Body">She never thought life was like this</p> S. E. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 39 39 Anger Scars <p>I let the rage takeover.</p><p>Gun in hand, palms sweaty.</p><p> </p><p>First &amp; foremost I was more than ready.</p><p> </p><p>The thoughts came rushing in like tidal waves,</p><p>Banging and crashing into my brain.</p><p> </p><p>The face he will make if I pull the trigger, will he beg</p><p>Me not to, will he beg to… pull the trigger…</p> A. S. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 41 41 Breaking the Cycle <p>Did you <strong>really</strong> think it was okay?</p><p>Were the <strong>drugs</strong> more important than me?</p><p>Like choosing a cigarette,</p><p>Over your last breath.</p><p>Was I just a mistake you wanted to <strong>erase</strong>?</p><p>Or was I just a <strong>hit</strong> you couldn’t take?</p> M. S. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 42 42 Daddy? <p class="Body">Daddy I’m born It’s me why’d you leave?</p><p class="Body">Am i not good enough for you</p><p class="Body">I am your seed.  Like a flower I grew and I grew</p><p class="Body">Got sent off to this man I never knew.</p><p class="Body">He looked me up and looked me down</p><p class="Body">Smiled at my brother</p><p class="Body">then gave me a frown.</p><p class="Body">I loved my dad</p><p class="Body">He made me laugh</p><p class="Body">We had some good times</p><p class="Body">Then they turned to bad. </p> V. J. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 43 43 Dear Father <p class="Body">Dear father</p><p class="Body">Please hold me in your arms</p><p class="Body">Where I don’t even have to do</p><p class="Body">anything for attention</p><p class="Body"> </p><p class="Body">When you denied me</p><p class="Body">and called me someone else’s child</p><p class="Body">I got in the corner and</p><p class="Body">bawled my eyes out</p><p class="Body">Broke my heart and I</p><p class="Body">didn’t know where to start</p> L. C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 44 44 Death after tomorrow <p class="Body">I can be smiling today and crying tomorrow</p><p class="Body">the next day isn’t promised</p><p class="Body">so prepare for the sorrow.</p><p class="Body">Why don’t we live forever and ever</p><p class="Body">Why do people die young with they could have lived better.</p><p class="Body">is it my fault?</p><p class="Body">was I the cause?</p><p class="Body">People always saying</p><p class="Body">“I’m sorry for your loss.”</p><p class="Body">Death is Beauty</p><p class="Body">and Beauty is Pain</p><p class="Body">Losing someone makes life not the same. </p> V. J. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 46 46 Hi Mom <p class="Body">Hi mom!</p><p class="Body">How are you? I miss you, Mom...</p><p class="Body">Do you miss me too?</p><p class="Body">Hey Mom!</p><p class="Body">Let me tell you this story.  God keeps</p><p class="Body">leaving it for me... to tell you. </p> C. B. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 47 47 Kenny <p class="Body">Kenny is my very first love, my happy and my sad.</p><p class="Body">He’s my love and my hate, my sunshine and my rain.</p><p class="Body">Kenny is the beat in my very heart, a little piece of hope when all is falling apart.</p><p class="Body">He is the beat to my drums, and the lyrics to my hums.</p><p class="Body">Yes he’s the smart to my dumb, my favorite little “bum”</p><p class="Body">Kenny is my headache and my cure, but my lefty for sure. </p> J. R. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 49 49 Little Girl <p>Little baby,</p><p>Born crying,</p><p>Then she opened an eye,</p><p>And saw her mother smiling.</p><p> </p><p>Daddy was so happy,</p><p>He was overwhelmed,</p><p>Sitting next mommy,</p><p>Little baby changed his life. </p> H. C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 50 50 Poetry <p>On a pink piece of paper with blue lines</p><p>I wrote a poem.  I called it Gucci, because that was the name of my dog, and that’s what it was all about.  My teacher gave me an A and a gold star.  And my mother hung it on the kitchen door and read it to my aunts.  And that was the year my sister was born with tiny toenails and red curly hair.  Mother and Father kissed a lot.  And then the girl around the corner sent Maria a Valentine’s card with a row of X’s at the bottom and she had to ask Mommy what it meant.  And Mommy was always there to tuck Maria in bed at night and was always home to do it.  </p> M. E. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 52 52 Scars! Are they worth it? <p class="Body">I have a scar in the center of my hand from playing with friends and having a lot of broken glass around.  My friend decided it’d be fun to play hide and seek.  She chased me right into the area of the glass.  Down I went onto the broken glass.  The impact of the fall shoved the glass into my hand.  it was pulled out with tweezers. </p> J. G. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 53 53 Someday <p>Pulling up to the small white house with the long driveway and weeping willow tree in the front yard.</p><p>Hopping out of the car, making a run for the porch, then the front door.</p><p>Feeling free like nothing can hurt me anymore, but when I step inside chaos burns in my eyes.</p><p>About 5 guys standing around my brother with lighters in their hands threatening that if he couldn’t stop peeing the bed at night they’d burn his privates off with the lighters.</p><p>Like candle light turning into wax, except it wasn’t such a pretty sight as that. </p> A. V. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 54 54 Untitled <p>Sometimes love can’t even keep you together. &lt;/3</p><p>The bridge is burned</p><p>The eag is broken and the trust is gone</p><p>No one is here, no one</p><p>Is there and you realize</p><p>Everything is gone</p> K. G. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 56 56 Untitled <p class="Body">You can’t beat the way things happen,</p><p class="Body">you can only change the way you respond.</p><p class="Body"> </p><p class="Body">So I sit here and remember the choices I made,</p><p class="Body">and try to find a way to accomplish my goals in life.</p><p class="Body"> </p><p class="Body">I need to find my destiny, so I need to find myself. </p> S. W. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 5 57 57