Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 2020-01-19T20:23:46-05:00 Michael Morrone Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (JoSoTL) is a forum for the dissemination of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in higher education for the community of teacher-scholars. ISSN&nbsp;1527-9316.</p> Social Justice in Action 2020-01-19T20:23:43-05:00 Emily Spitzman, PhD Alexandra Balconi, PhD <p><em>Teachers of all students, particularly English Learners (ELs), need to integrate social justice pedagogy into their lessons so that all learners are included in the learning process, thinking critically about curriculum and taking action in the face of injustice. There has been some research into teacher preparation programs focusing on how they integrate culturally responsive and social justice pedagogy into their curricula and whether there has been a positive impact on teachers’ self-awareness, social justice knowledge and classroom practices as a result (Ruffin, 2016; Thieman, 2016). However, these studies do not address lesson content. This document analysis study, framed theoretically with critical intercultural communication (Halualani &amp; Nakayama, 2010), explored the integration of social justice principles into lesson plans developed by pre-service and in-service English as a second language (ESL) teachers who were pursuing a TESOL graduate degree (Initial License) at a university in the Northeast of the United States. The lesson plans were analyzed using a rubric aligned with the Social Justice Standards: The Teaching Tolerance Anti-Biases Framework. The exploration unveiled the need for more connections to students’ backgrounds, structured in-class dialogues, support for linguistic needs and modeling of intercultural practices.</em></p> 2019-09-20T10:30:30-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Making Connections: Student-Teacher Rapport in Higher Education Classrooms 2020-01-19T20:23:41-05:00 Roehl Sybing <p><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 200%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;">Educational research asserts the importance of establishing rapport between teachers and their students for the sake of fostering a classroom environment that is conducive to learning. Especially given the disparities in outcomes of university students, it is imperative for educators and policy makers to look at teaching practices in the college classroom as well as policies relevant to teaching and learning in university contexts. This paper reports on an ethnographic study of a college-level academic writing class, centering on how its writing teacher seeks to establish rapport and facilitate understanding with first- and second-year undergraduate students. The findings presented in this paper highlight examples practitioners can examine to validate student knowledge and participation as well as mitigate the effects of differences in identity between teacher and student. This paper closes by inviting discussion and reflection of college-level teachers' practices in the classroom and whether they elicit engagement from students.</span></p> 2019-09-27T08:20:04-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Small Group Learning is Associated with Reduced Salivary Cortisol and Testosterone in Undergraduate Students 2020-01-19T20:23:36-05:00 Kristin Snopkowski Kathryn Demps Shane Scaggs Ross Griffiths Karen S Fulk Scott May Kimberly Neagle Kayla Downs Michaela Eugster Tessa Amend <p class="Default"><em>Small group learning activities have been shown to improve student academic performance and educational outcomes. Yet, we have an imperfect understanding of the mechanisms by which this occurs. Group learning may mediate student stress by placing learning in a context where students have both social support and greater control over their learning. We hypothesize that one of the methods by which small group activities improve learning is by mitigating student stress. To test this, we collected physiological measures of stress and self-reported perceived stress from 26 students in two undergraduate classes. Salivary cortisol and testosterone were measured within students across five contexts: a) pre-instructional baseline, b) following a traditional lecture, c) after participating in a structured small group learning activity, d) following completion of multiple choice, and e) essay sections of an exam. Results indicate students have lower salivary cortisol after small group learning activities, as compared to traditional lectures. Further, there is no evidence of a relationship between physiological measures of stress and self-reported perceived stress levels. We discuss how structured small group activities may be beneficial for reducing stress and improving student learning outcomes.</em></p> 2019-12-13T10:45:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Funny Thing Is, Instructor Humor Style Affects Likelihood of Student Engagement 2020-01-19T20:23:33-05:00 Kristie Nienaber Gwyneth Abrams Dan Segrist Instructors often use humor in teaching their classes. Research suggests that humor can affect how instructors and their teaching are perceived. The current study examined whether the type of humor used by a hypothetical instructor and instructor gender affected the perceived likelihood of engaging with the instructor. College students read a vignette describing the teaching and humor used by a hypothetical instructor. The likelihood that students would engage with the instructor was highest when the instructor’s humor style was good-natured and lowest when it was hostile and sarcastic. Instructor gender had no effect on students’ likelihood of engaging with the instructor. 2019-12-16T14:15:56-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## First Generation College Students’ Perceptions of an Academic Retention Program 2020-01-19T20:23:31-05:00 Lisa Schelbe Martin Swanbrow Becker Carmella Spinelli Denesha McCray <p>This qualitative study examines the perceptions of students enrolled in a campus-based program designed to promote academic success and retention of first generation college students. Method: Twenty-five undergraduate students in the program participated in focus groups and interviews to share their perceptions and experiences. Research team members conducted a thematic analysis on the focus groups and interviews transcripts. Findings: Students reported program components that contributed to their academic success and retention including support, expectations, resources, and preparation. Students also described concerns about how students’ needs changed over time and how students in the program were perceived on campus.</p> 2019-12-16T14:25:27-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Not All Flipped Classes are the Same 2020-01-19T20:23:46-05:00 Alyssa Lawson Caylor Davis Ji Son <p><em>The flipped classroom has recently become a popular method used in both higher education and K-12 classrooms, yet research has not consistently demonstrated clear benefits of flipping a classroom. Also, any benefits seen might not be from the flipped design itself, but instead from the individual aspects of a flipped classroom (e.g., more active learning in class, more feedback on homework). This suggests that research focused on how to develop the activities and components of the flipped classroom, instead of simply flipping the traditional in-class and out-of-class activities, is critical to flipped pedagogy. These activities (both in and out of the classroom) should be designed based on a theory of learning. We draw upon the Practicing-Connections (PC) hypothesis, supported by contemporary theories and research in the cognitive sciences, to design instructional activities to promote learning by having students practice making connections between concepts and situations. This paper examines the theory-driven-design approach, PC hypothesis, versus a basic flipped classroom. The results of this work offers suggestions as to what dimensions of flipping may be important and how to design and evaluate flipped classrooms based on theories of learning. </em></p> 2019-09-20T10:08:23-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fame and Fortune: Developing a Simulation Game for the Music Industry Classroom 2019-12-20T20:08:57-05:00 Monika Herzig <p><em>This study documents the development of a classroom game simulating the effects of contractual arrangements on the economic relationships between artists, record labels, and consumers. The game was tested with multiple revisions in classroom settings over a period of three years by using surveys, interviews, session videos, and teacher observations. Using the approach of Grounded Theory, observations and insights were extracted from the collected data with the goal of identifying effective strategies for developing and using classroom simulations. Findings include evidence of deeper engagement with the subject through cognitive, psychomotor, and affective learning.</em></p> 2019-12-16T14:14:20-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teaching Developmental Theory with Interrupted Video Case Studies 2020-01-19T20:23:38-05:00 Bill Anderson <p><em>This study sought to determine the usefulness of interrupted case studies, utilizing a progressive disclosure of information over time, to increase critical thinking and student learning in the study of foundational theories in the human development field. Apted’s (2013) Up documentary series, consisting of video interviews over a 49-year period, was used as the interrupted study and successfully provided vicarious, but meaningful, opportunities to consistently and authentically apply course content. Participants (N = 23)</em> <em>were students in three sections of a graduate Human Development course where a pre-/post-test format was utilized. The effect was significant as all participant’s posttest score improved</em> an average of 24.3%<em>, F</em>(3, 19) = 3.55, <em>p</em> = .049. <em>Also, coded student work indicated an increase in complex levels of thinking across the 8-week assignment, further validating post-test scores, t</em>(352) = -3.172, <em>p</em> = .002<em>. Evidence from student work further confirmed that an interrupted video case-study, could address limitations typically associated with case-based instruction and, more importantly, provide the critical case-study qualities needed here. Those included, telling a detailed, ambiguous, and real-life story that provided genuine context to connect theory and practice.</em></p> 2019-11-22T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##