Pedagogy on the Fly Faculty Experiences during a Pandemic

Main Article Content

James Willis


The COVID-19 pandemic brought about sudden changes in pedagogical strategies in higher education. How faculty processed these changes, as well as their lived experiences during these shifts, has informed fundamental shifts in higher education that will last long into the future. The aim of this phenomenological investigation was to explore the lived experience of new and experienced faculty at one midwestern university during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a qualitative phenomenological study using a stratified purposive sample, through learning management virtual LMS tours and semi-structured interviews, investigators explored the experiences of 27 new and experienced faculty members across 20 disciplines. Findings included themes of panic and stress, teaching during quarantine (quaranteaching), innovation and technology, acknowledging loss (something lost), giving grace, and carrying new learning forward (something gained). Investigators link findings to the literature, compare and contrast faculty experiences with those of a student, and discuss implications for teaching and research. This study contributes to the literature chronicling the fundamental shifts in higher education occurring as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact of these shifts on faculty and students.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Willis, J., Howard, B., Ridgway, A., & Spencer, A. (2023). Pedagogy on the Fly: Faculty Experiences during a Pandemic. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 23(4).


Ali, W. (2020). Online and Remote Learning in Higher Education Institutes: A Necessity in light of COVID-19 Pandemic. Higher Education Studies, 10(3), 16.

Antee, A. (2021). Student perceptions and mobile technology adoption: Implications for lower-income students shifting to digital. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 191–194.

Bennett, S., Agostinho, S., & Lockyer, L. (2017). The process of designing for learning: Understanding university teachers’ design work. Educational Technology Research & Development, 65(1), 125–145.

Beschorner, B. (2021). Revisiting Kuo and Belland’s exploratory study of undergraduate students’ perceptions of online learning: Minority students in continuing education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 47–50.

Blankstein, M., Frederick, J. K., & Wolff-Eisenberg, C. (2020). Student experiences during the pandemic pivot. Research Report for Ithaka S+R.

Bridges, S. (2021). Witnessing history: Reflections on teaching in turbulent times. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(4), 187-194.

Connolly, C., & Hall, T. (2021). Designing for emergency remote blended and online education: A response to Bennett et al. (2017). Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 281–284.

Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., Magni, P. A., & Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning and Teaching, 3(1), 09–28.

Curtin, R. (2021). Reimagining Higher Education: The Post-Covid Classroom. Educause Review.

de Oliveira Araujo, F. J., de Lima, L. S. A., Cidade, P. I. M., Nobre, C. B., & Neto, M. L. R. (2020). Impact of Sars-Cov-2 and its Reverberation in Global Higher Education and Mental Health. Elsevier.

Dall’Alba, G. (2009). Phenomenology and education: An introduction. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 41(1), 7-9.

Dedoose Version 9.0.17, web application for managing, analyzing, and presenting qualitative and mixed method research data (2021). Los Angeles, CA: SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC

Dickson-Deane, C. (2021). Moving practical learning online. Educational Technology Research & Development, 69(1), 235–237.

Eddles-Hirsch, K. (2015). Phenomenology and educational research. International Journal of Advanced Research, 3(8), 251-260.

Engerman, J. A., & Otto, R. F. (2021). The shift to digital: Designing for learning from a culturally relevant interactive media perspective. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 301–305.

Ewing, L-A. (2021). Rethinking higher education post COVID-19. In J. Lee & S. H. Han (Eds.), The future of service post-COVID-19 pandemic, volume 1 (pp. 37- 54). Springer.

Ferguson, S. N. (2021). Effects of faculty and staff connectedness on student self-efficacy. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(2), 58-78.

Gamor, K. I. (2021). Insights on identifying potential types of guidance for supporting student inquiry when using virtual and remote labs in science. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 239–242.

García-Morales, V. J., Garrido-Moreno, A., & Martín-Rojas, R. (2021). The transformation of higher education after the COVID disruption: Emerging challenges in an online learning scenario. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 616059.

Ghazi-Saidi, L., Criffield, A., Kracl, C. L., McKelvey, M., Obasi, S. N., & Vu, P. (2020). Moving from Face-to-Face to Remote Instruction in a Higher Education Institution during a Pandemic: Multiple Case Studies. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(4), 370–383.

Giroux, H. A. (2021). Education, politics, and the crisis of democracy in an age of pandemics. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(4), 5-10.

Glantz, E., Gamrat, C., Lenze, L., & Bardzell, J. (2021). Improved Student Engagement in Higher Education’s Next Normal. Educause Review.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Aldine DeGruyter.

Google. (n.d.). Jamboard.

Hodges, C. B. (2021). Shift to digital perspectives on Hilton (2016) from the perspective of practice. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 397–400.

Hodges, D. Z. (2022). Higher education cannot return to normal. Dean & Provost, 23(7), 3-7.

Ilgaz, H. (2021). Shifting to digital with 21st century skills. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 199–200.

Istenič, A. (2021). Online learning under COVID-19: Re-examining the prominence of video-based and text-based feedback. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 117–121.

Iwanaga, J., Loukas, M., Dumont, A. S., & Tubbs, R. S. (2021). A review of anatomy education during and after the COVID ‐19 pandemic: Revisiting traditional and modern methods to achieve future innovation. Clinical Anatomy, 34(1), 108–114.

Jaggars, S. S., Motz, B. A., Rivera, M. D., Heckler, A., Quick, J. D., Hence, E. A., & Karwisch, C. (2021). The Digital Divide Among College Students: Lessons Learned From the COVID-19 Emergency Transition. Midwestern Higher Education Compact.

Kahoot!. (2022). Kahoot! Made for schools.

Kang, X., & Zhang, W. (2020). An experimental case study on forum-based online teaching to improve student’s engagement and motivation in higher education. Interactive Learning Environments, 0(0), 1–12.

Kaplan-Rakowski, R. (2021). Addressing students’ emotional needs during the COVID-19 pandemic: A perspective on text versus video feedback in online environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 133–136.

Karakaya, K. (2021). Design considerations in emergency remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: A human-centered approach. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 295–299.

Kose, H. B., Kalanee, I., & Yildirim, Y. (2022). Recovering higher education during and after the pandemic. In S. Ramiall, T. Cross, & M. Love, Handbook of research on future of work and education: Implications for curriculum delivery and work design (pp. 14-26). IGI Global.

Kummitha, H. R., Kolloju, N., Chittoor, P., & Madepalli, V. (2021). Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Its Effect on Teaching and Learning Process in the Higher Educational Institutions. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 90–107.

McMurtrie, B. (2021). Teaching. The Chronicle of Higher Education.…

Meier, E. B. (2021). Designing and using digital platforms for 21st century learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 217–220.

Miller, A. N., Sellnow, D. D., & Strawser, M. G. (2020). Pandemic pedagogy challenges and opportunities: Instruction communication in remote, HyFlex, and BlendFlex courses. Communication Education, 70(2), 202-204.

Miller, M., D. (2021). A Year of Remote Teaching: The Good, the Bad, and the Next Steps. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Mishra, L., Gupta, T., & Abba, T. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of cover-19 pandemic. Elsevier.

Moralista, R. B., & Oducado, R. M. F. (2020). Faculty Perception toward Online Education in a State College in the Philippines during the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Online Submission, 8(10), 4736–4742.

Oshima, N. (2021). Super hybrid-flexible type classroom using H.323 on-premise video conference system and online web meeting service. International Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(4), 101-111.

Powell, A., Jenkins, K., Gulledge, B., & Sun, W. (2021). Teaching social justice and engaging Gen-Z students in digital classrooms during COVID-19. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(4), 56-68.

Pelletier, K., Brown, M., D., Brooks, C., McCormack, M., Reeves, J., Arbino, N., Bozkurt, A., Crawford, S., Czerniewicz, L., Gibson, R., Linder, K., Mason, J., & Mondelli, V. (2021). 2021 Educause Horizon Report: Teaching and Learning Edition. Educause.

Qutoshi, S. B. (2018). Phenomenology: A philosophy and method of inquiry. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1), 215-222.

Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guàrdia, L., & Koole, M. (2020). Online University Teaching During and After the Covid-19 Crisis: Refocusing Teacher Presence and Learning Activity. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3), 923–945.

Senior, C., Howard, C., Stupple, E. J. N., & Senior, R. (2021). Student primacy and the post pandemic university. Frontiers in Education, 6, 712767.

Stefaniak, J. (2021). Policy and contextual considerations for enabling learning support roles in digital environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 221–225.

Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded Theory procedures and techniques. Sage Publications.

Ulin, P. R., Robinson, E. T., & Tolley, E. E. (2005). Qualitative methods in public health: A field guide for applied research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Voelker, C. (2021). Crossing the bridge: From emergency remote teaching to quality online learning. Quality Matters.

Watkins, D. C. (2012). Qualitative research: The importance of conducting research that doesn’t “count.” Health Promotion Practice, 13(2), 153-158.

Wilson, T. J. & Alexander, M. (2021). Hyflex course delivery: Addressing the change in course modality brought on by the pandemic. Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education, 25(3), 41-58.

World Health Organization (2020). WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020.