Guided Reading Questions as a Scaffolding Technique in a Flipped Graduate Metabolism Class

Main Article Content

Rachel Vollmer
Teresa Drake


This qualitative study evaluated the use of guided reading questions (GRQ) as a scaffolding technique in a flipped classroom among graduate dietetic interns to assess how their experience with a flipped classroom differed compared to previous cohorts without GRQ. Graduate Dietetic Interns (n=10) enrolled in a flipped graduate-level metabolism course completed 8 learning reflections. GRQ were provided for students to use when reading the textbook for the first 7 weeks of the semester. Content analysis was applied to the learning reflections to discover themes. Member checks were used to confirm themes. These findings were compared to themes of 2 previous cohorts that did not have GRQ. Students viewed the GRQ as instructor support and appreciated the GRQ at the beginning of the semester, but understood why they not receive them for the entirety of the semester. Students reported that the GRQ helped them develop reading comprehension and notetaking skills. Compared to previous cohorts, this cohort of students seemed to accept and trust in the flipped learning process at the beginning of the semester. They also took responsibility for their own learning early on and continue to progress through the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model. Additionally, compared to previous cohorts, this cohort felt that it was okay to ask questions and be wrong and they were not afraid or intimidated by the learning process. Providing students GRQ or other supports for learning from complex textbooks in a flipped class, especially at the beginning of the semester, may help students gain skills in learning on their own and reading comprehension, which will encourage students to advance in the Stages of Self-Directed Learning Model.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Vollmer, R., & Drake, T. (2024). Guided Reading Questions as a Scaffolding Technique in a Flipped Graduate Metabolism Class. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 24(2). Retrieved from


Akçayır, G., & Akçayır, M. (2018). The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and

challenges. Computers & Education, 126, 334–345.

[Blinded]. (2020). Exploration of dietetics graduate students’ experience in a flipped

course using learning reflections. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 52(4), 407–414.

Brewer, R., & Movahedazarhouligh, S. (2018). Successful stories and conflicts: A

literature review on the effectiveness of flipped learning in higher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 34(4), 409–416.

Burkhart, S. J., Taylor, J. A., Kynn, M., Craven, D. L., & Swanepoel, L. C. (2020).

Undergraduate students experience of nutrition education using the flipped classroom approach: A descriptive cohort study. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 52(4), 394–400.

Cevikbas, M., & Kaiser, G. (2020). Flipped classroom as a reform-oriented approach to

teaching mathematics. ZDM, 52(7), 1291–1305.

Clark, K. F., & Graves, M. F. (2004). Scaffolding students' comprehension of text. The

Reading Teacher, 58(6), 570–580.

Culver, T. F., & Morse, L. M. (2008). Helping students use their textbook more

effectively. Faculty Focus. Retrieved June 1, 2021, from

Dubas, J. M., & Toledo, S. A. (2015). Active reading documents (ARDS): A tool to

facilitate meaningful learning through reading. College Teaching, 63(1), 27–33.

Fang, Z., & Coatoam, S. (2013). Disciplinary literacy : What you want to know about it.

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(8), 627–632.

Fink, L. D. (n.d.). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to

designing college courses. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2003.

Gilboy, M. B., Heinerichs, S., & Pazzaglia, G. (2015). Enhancing student engagement

using the flipped classroom. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(1), 109–114.

Graves, M. F., & Graves, B. B. (2003). Scaffolding reading experiences: Designs for

student success. Christopher-Gordon.

Grow, G. O. (1991). Teaching learners to be self-directed. Adult Education Quarterly,

(3), 125–149.

Hattan, C., & Alexander, P. (2018). Scaffolding reading comprehension for competent

readers. Literacy Research: Theory, Method, and Practice, 67(1), 296–309.

Lei S.A., Bartlett K.A., Gorney S.E., & Herschbach T.R. (2010). Resistance to reading

compliance among college students: Instructors’ perspectives. College Student Journal, 44(1), 219–229.

McBride, A. B. (1996). Creating a critical thinking learning environment: Teaching

statistics to social science undergraduates. PS: Political Science & Politics, 29(03), 517–521.

McLean, S., Attardi, S. M., Faden, L., & Goldszmidt, M. (2016). Flipped classrooms and

student learning: Not just surface gains. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(1), 47–55.

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and

implementation (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Michaelsen, L. K., Knight, A. B., & Fink, L. D. (2004). Team-Based Learning: A

transformative use of small groups in college teaching. Stylus Pub.

Mulcare, D. M., & Shwedel, A. (2016). Transforming bloom’s taxonomy into classroom

practice: A practical yet comprehensive approach to promote critical reading and student participation. Journal of Political Science Education, 13(2), 121–137.

Narendran, R., Almeida, S., Coombes, R., Hardie, G., Quintana-Smark, E., Zaher, N.,

Wang, H.L., Chowdhury, A., & Stevenson, B. (2018). The role of self-determination theory in developing curriculum for flipped classroom learning: A case study of first-year business undergraduate course. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 15(5), 75–95.

Paulson, E.J., & Armstrong, S.L. (2010). Postsecondary literacy: Coherence in theory,

terminology, and teacher preparation. Journal of Developmental Education, 33, 2–13.

Persky, A. M., & McLaughlin, J. E. (2017). The flipped classroom – from theory to

practice in Health Professional Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(6), 118.

Porter, H. D. (2018). Constructing an understanding of undergraduate disciplinary

reading: An analysis of contemporary scholarship. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 48(1), 25–46.

Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The flipped classroom: An opportunity

to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 44–49.

Rogoff, B. (1992). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context.

Oxford University Press.

Santos, A. G., Fagundes, A., Barbosa, K. B., & Barreto, N. S. (2020). Students’

perspective on active learning in nutrition education. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 52(4), 415–420.

Tan, Y.L.L. (2018). Meaningful gamification and students’ motivation: A strategy for

scaffolding reading material. Online Learning, 22(2), 141-155. doi:10.24059/olj.v22i2.1167

Van Camp, D., & Van Camp, W. (2012). Using Content Reading Assignments in a

Psychology Course to Teach Critical Reading Skills. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(1), 86–99. Retrieved from

West, J. (2018). Raising the Quality of Discussion by Scaffolding Students’ Reading.

International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 30(1), 146–160.