Graduate counseling students’ learning, development, and retention of knowledge

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Glenn W. Lambie
Kara P Ieva
Patrick R Mullen


The present study investigated 52 graduate counseling students’ levels of ethical and legal knowledge (Lambie, Hagedorn, & Ieva, 2010) and social-cognitive development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996) at three points: (a) prior to a counseling ethics course, (b) at the completion of the course, and (c) four months later. Students’ ethical and legal knowledge scores increased and they retained their learning; however, their social-cognitive development did not change. Implications for the scholarship of teaching and learning are discussed.


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Lambie, G. W., Ieva, K. P., & Mullen, P. R. (2013). Graduate counseling students’ learning, development, and retention of knowledge. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(4), 54–67. Retrieved from
Author Biography

Glenn W. Lambie, University of Central Florida

Department of Educational and Human SciencesAssociate Professor


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