Importance of Goal and Feedback Orientation in Determining Feedback Effectiveness

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Deborah Skinner
Kathy Paulson Gjerde
Margaret Y. Padgett


Abstract: In this study, we examine two student characteristics (goal orientation and feedback orientation) that might predispose students to use and benefit from two different types of feedback. Students receiving future-oriented feedback exhibited significantly greater improvement in their quiz scores compared to students receiving past-oriented feedback, although the degree was a function of both student goal and feedback orientation. Specifically, high learning-goal-orientation students had greater performance improvement when they received future-oriented feedback while high performance-prove-orientation students had greater improvement when they received past-oriented feedback. Students with a high active-feedback-seeking orientation improved more than other students, and students with a high passive-feedback-seeking orientation improved less when they received future-oriented feedback. 


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How to Cite
Skinner, D., Gjerde, K. P., & Padgett, M. Y. (2022). Importance of Goal and Feedback Orientation in Determining Feedback Effectiveness. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 22(3).
Author Biographies

Kathy Paulson Gjerde, Butler University

Professor of Economics

Lacy School of Business

Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208

Margaret Y. Padgett, Butler University

Associate Professor of Management

Lacy School of Business

Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208



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