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The purpose of this article is to offer insights into current understanding of digital learning environments (DLEs) from a neuroscientific perspective. Cognitive neuroscience methods are increasingly applied in educational research to examine the neural underpinnings of learning. As such, neuroscientific evidence can play an important role in advancing current knowledge base from the existing self-reported data and behavioural measures in the field of educational technology. In this paper, we focus our review of neuroscience research on DLEs that can potentially transform the way we view learning and instruction. We discuss recent empirical studies done on DLEs using common cognitive neuroscience methods which included eye tracking, electroencephalography (EEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We offer recommendations for future applications of neuroscience methods in behavioural research within DLEs.