Mentor and protégé goal orientations as predictors of newcomer stress

Main Article Content

Julia M. Fullick
Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch
Charyl Staci Yarbrough
Shannon A. Scielzo


Although many academic organizations offer formal mentoring programs, little is known about how individual characteristics of peer mentors and their protégés interact to reduce new-student stress. First-year college students participated in a peer-mentoring program designed to reduce stress. The results of this study demonstrated that protégés who received greater psychosocial and career support showed greater stress reduction. Additionally, protégés with a higher avoid performance goal orientation showed lesser stress reduction. Mentor avoid performance goal orientation was positively associated with stress reduction for protégés high on avoid performance goal orientation, but negatively associated for those low on avoid performance goal orientation.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fullick, J. M., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Yarbrough, C. S., & Scielzo, S. A. (2012). Mentor and protégé goal orientations as predictors of newcomer stress. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 12(1), 59–73. Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Julia M. Fullick, University of Central Florida

Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816.

Charyl Staci Yarbrough, Rutgers University

The John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce  Development, Rutgers University, 30 Livingston  Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901.

Shannon A. Scielzo, University of Texas at Arlington

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, 501 South Nedderman Drive, Arlington, TX 76019.


Allen, T. D., & Eby, L. T. (2003). Relationship effectiveness for mentors: Factors associated with learning and quality. Journal of Management, 29, 469-486.

Allen, T. D., Eby, L. T., & Lentz, E. (2006). Mentorship behavior and mentorship quality associated with formal mentoring programs: Closing the gap between research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 567-578.

Allen, T. D., Day, R., & Lentz, E. (2005). The role of interpersonal comfort in mentoring relationships. Journal of Career Development, 31(3), 155-169.

Allen, T. D., McManus, S. E., & Russell, J. E. A. (1999). Newcomer socialization and stress: Formal peer relationships as a source of support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 453-470.

Allen, T., & O'Brien, K. (2006). Formal mentoring programs and organizational attraction. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17(1), 43-58.

Berlew, D. E., & Hall, D. T. (1966). The socialization of managers: Effects of expectations on performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 11(2), 207-223.

Brophy, J. C. (2005). Goal theorists should move from performance goals. Educational Psychologist, 40(3), 167-176.

Chaikin, A. L., & Derlega, V. J. (1974). Liking for the norm-breaker in self-disclosure. Journal of Personality, 42(1), 117-129.

Chao, G. T. (1997). Mentoring phases and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(1), 1528.

Cooper-Thomas, H. D., & Anderson, N. (2005). Organizational socialization: A field study into socialization success and rate. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13(2), 116128.

Deshon, R. P., & Gillespie, J. Z. (2005). A motivated action theory account of goal orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1096-1127.

Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040-1048.

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). Asocial-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.

Eby, L. T., Butts, M. M., Lockwood, A., & Simon, S. A. (2004). Protégé’s negative mentoring experiences: Construct development and nomological validation. Personnel Psychology, 57, 411-447.

Eby, T. D., & Lockwood, A. (2005). Protégés and mentors’ reactions to participating in formal mentoring programs: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(3), 441-458.

Eby, L. T., McManus, S. E., Simon, S. A., & Russell, J. E. A. (2000). The protégé’s perspective regarding negative mentoring experiences: The development of a taxonomy. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57, 1-21.

Egan, T. M. (2005). The impact of learning goal orientation similarity on formal mentoring relationship outcomes. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(4), 489-504.

Elliot, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(1), 461-475.

Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Gable, S. (1999). Achievement goals, study strategies, and exam performance: A mediational analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 549-563.

Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), 804-818.

Ensher, E. A., & Murphy, S. E. (1997). Effects of race, gender, perceived similarity, and contact on mentor relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(3), 460-481.

Felsten, G., & Wilcox, K. (1992). Influences of stress and situation-specific mastery beliefs and satisfaction with social support on well-being and academic performance. Psychological Reports, 70(1), 291-303.

Godshalk, V. M., & Sosik, J. J. (2003). Aiming for career success: The role of learning goal orientation in mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 417- 437.

House, E. A. (1981). Gender-role orientation and marital satisfaction in dual- and one-career couples. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 771.

House, R. H., & Rizzo, J. R. (1972). Role conflict and ambiguity as critical variables in a model of organizational behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 7(3), 467-505.

Joiner, T. A., Bartram, T. A., & Garreffa, T. (2004). The effects of mentoring on perceived care success, commitment and turnover intentions. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), 164-171.

Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.

Kim, S. (2007). Learning goal orientation, formal mentoring, and leadership competence in HRD: A conceptual model. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(3), 181-194.

Noe, R. A. (1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships. Personnel Psychology, 41, 457-479.

Payne, S. C., Youngcourt, S. S., & Beaubien, J. M. (2007). A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 128-150.

Raabe, B., & Beehr, T. A. (2003). Formal mentoring, versus supervisor and coworker relationships: Differences in perceptions and impact. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(3), 271-293.

Ragins, B. R. (1997). Diversified mentoring relationships in organizations: A power perspective. Academy of Management Review, 22, 482–521.

Ragins, B. R., & Cotton, J. L. (1999). Mentor functions and outcomes: A comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 529-550.

Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). Organizational socialization: Making sense of the past and present as a prologue for the future. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(2), 234-279.

Sanchez, R. J., Bauer, T. N., & Paronto, M. E. (2006). Peer-mentoring freshmen: Implications for satisfaction, commitment, and retention to graduation. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5(1), 25-37.

Schrodt, P., Cawyer, C. S., & Sanders, R. (2003). An examination of academic mentoring behaviors and new faculty members’ satisfaction with socialization and tenure and promotion processes. Communication Education, 52(1), 17-29.

Sheilds, N. (2001). Stress, active coping, and academic performance among persisting and nonpersisting college students. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 6(2), 65-81.

Sideridis, G. D. (2005). Goal orientation, academic achievement, and depression: Evidence in favor of a revised goal theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 366-375.

Silver, L. (1968). Anxiety and the first semester of law school. Wisconsin Law Review, 4(4), 1201-1218.

Sosik, J. J., & Godshalk, V. M. (2004). Self-other rating agreement in mentoring: Meeting protégé expectations for development and career advancement. Group & Organization Management, 29(4), 442-469.

Tolor, A., Cramer, M., D'Amico, D., & O'Marra, M. M. (1975). The effects of self-concept, trust, and imagined positive or negative self-disclosures on psychological space. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 89(1), 9-24.

Ülkü-Steiner, B., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Kinlaw, C. R. (2000). Doctoral student experiences in gender-balanced and male-dominated graduate programs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 296-307.

VandeWalle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal orientation instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57(6), 995-1015.

Welsh, E., & Wanberg, C. (2009). Launching the post-college career: A study of mentoring antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 257-263.