Journal of the Student Personnel Association at Indiana University <p>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of the Student Personnel Association at Indiana University </em>(formerly <em>The Journal of the Indiana University Student Personnel Association</em>) has been&nbsp;published annually since 1967 by the Student Personnel Association at Indiana University&nbsp;with support from the Higher Education and Student Affairs (HESA) Program. The Journal is produced expressly to provide an opportunity for HESA master’s students to publish articles pertinent to the field of student affairs. ISSN&nbsp;2334-1548.</p> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with the Journal of the Indiana University Student Personnel Association (hereinafter “the Journal”) agree to the following terms:</h4><p> </p><ol><li><p>By submitting to the Journal, the author grants to the Journal the non-exclusive right to reproduce, translate (as defined below), and/or distribute your submission worldwide in print and electronic format and in any medium, including but not limited to audio or video.</p></li><li><p>The author agrees that the Journal may, without changing the content, translate the submission to any medium or format for the purpose of preservation.</p></li><li><p>The author agrees that the Journal may keep more than one copy of this submission for purposes of security, back-up and preservation.</p></li><li><p>The author represents that the submission is his/her original work, and that s/he has the right to grant the rights contained in this agreement. The author also represents that his/her submission does not, to the best of his/her knowledge, infringe upon anyone's copyright.</p></li><li><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p></li></ol> (SPA at IU Journal Editors) (IUScholarWorks) Sun, 03 May 2020 16:23:11 -0400 OJS 60 SPA at IU Journal 2020 Complete Edition <p>The complete 2020 edition of the SPA at IU Journal.</p> Alice Dahlka, Autumn Kearney, Dajanae Palmer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Table of Contents & Letter from the Editors <p>Table of contents &amp; letter from the editors.&nbsp;</p> Alice Dahlka, Autumn Kearney, Dajanae Palmer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:15:18 -0400 Gay and Lesbian College Students' Identity Issues and Student Affairs: 30 Years Later <p>A look at the identity issues in student affairs of gay and lesbian students 30 years later.&nbsp;</p> Sarah Westfall ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 15:58:43 -0400 Campus Security: How has the Focus Changed? <p>As a part of the Indiana University Bicentennial edition of the journal, authors Lisa Landreman and JJ Thorp reflect on their 1988 SPA IU Journal article <em>Campus Security: Changing the Focus. </em>To further knowledge in the area of campus safety, they analyze the current landscape on campus security and outline continued concerns facing campuses today.</p> Lisa Landreman, JJ Thorp ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 15:57:40 -0400 Queer Students Navigating the Academy: LGBTQ+ Mentoring Practices at IUPUI <p class="p2">Queer students (students who are non-heterosexual or non-cisgender) face unique challenges in higher education, including hostile campus climates and lack of specialized resources. While mentoring is considered a high-impact practice for undergraduate students, mentoring of queer students has received little attention in student affairs literature. This study focuses on five students’ reactions to the Advancing Queer Student Education &amp; Social Success (AQSESS) mentorship program at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI). Interview questions sought to address how queer student mentorship programs impact the students’ sense of belonging on campus and how these programs may fit into the greater campus environment for queer students. Three emerging themes provide context for recommendations for how queer mentorship programs can benefit from leveraging student perceptions, while acknowledging mental health implications specific to the queer student population.</p> Lillian Hogan, Gabriel Rodríguez Lemus, Zach Lynn, Brennan Murphy, Rachel Scherzer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:05:47 -0400 Assessing the Social Climate for Veteran and Military Students at IUB <p>This study analyzes the social climate for student veterans at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) through the lens of the socially constructed environments framework (Strange &amp; Banning, 2015). Research questions seek to understand the ways in which student veterans utilize the Center for Veteran and Military Students (CVMS) as well as examine the center’s ability to enhance this population’s personal development and sense of self-enhancement. Through a document review, survey, and individual semi-structured interviews, we identify important themes that summarize the experiences of student veterans at IUB and tie them to recommendations that will improve the experiences of student veterans on campus.</p> Shelby Allen, Autumn Kearney, Katie McClure, Andrew Moffa, Ethan Oldfield, Danielle Pellegrino ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Knowledge Processing in an Innovative Field: Cognitive Development of Biological Sciences Students <p>Students studying the biological sciences make up an increasingly large portion of college students, yet limited research exists on their cognitive development. To create a theory on their cognitive development, this article offers a literature review which covers the professional development of STEM students, Perry’s Scheme of cognitive development, and the development of students who participate in undergraduate research. Additional context about the college environment of the biological sciences has also been included, showing how women and students of color will experience the field differently than their white, male peers. The theory of cognitive development follows the same outline as the “Central Dogma” of genetics where cells complete transcription, translation, and sometimes reverse transcription. Following the same nomenclature, students follow transcription at first—simply regurgitating material. Then they move into translation, where they create their own knowledge, and then reverse transcription, where they apply their newly discovered knowledge to the field at large. This article argues that to help their students fully develop, professors should implement active learning techniques, work to retain women and students of color, and encourage undergraduate research for all.</p> Jessica Hoopengardner ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:02:03 -0400 Student Development During the College Application Process <p>As seniors in high school apply to college every fall, they enter a new phase of development. However, no current literature discusses what this process looks like for the student in terms of their decision-making processes. In order to address this gap in literature, this paper will use existing theories to examine the student development during this time in the students’ lives.</p> Elizabeth Doyle ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:11:26 -0400 The Development of Gay College Men in Traditional Fraternities <p class="p2">Given the heteronormative environment that exists across the United States, there are few visible appropriate socializing forces for gay college men; therefore, they make their own decisions and actions that lead to their individual development (D’Augelli, 1994). Because fraternities are seen as a heteronormative and homogenous environment, there has been little research conducted on the experiences of gay college men in fraternities. This paper addresses the relationship between gender and sexual orientation that gay college men develop and navigate in fraternity environments. In a combination of several student development theories – <em>Cass’s Model of Gay/Lesbian Identity Development</em>, <em>D’Augelli Model of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Identity Development</em>, and <em>Connell’s Theory of Masculinity </em>– and common themes in the literature – hegemonic masculinity, homophobia and femininity, and overachievement – a theory emerges on the development of gay college men in traditional fraternities. This theory serves as a model for students who have this intersecting identity and as a framework for student affairs professionals to better serve this student population.</p> Alexis Fuentes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:09:31 -0400 Latina Activist Development Through Service Learning <p>The Latina student body population is increasing every year in colleges and universities, specifically at predominately White institutions. Student development through service learning, as well as Latina self-authorship have been studied, but never in an intersecting manner. By taking Baxter-Magolda’s self-authorship theory, critical race theory, Kolb’s experiential learning model, and Break Away’s active citizen continuum and combining them, the Latina Activist Development Continuum is developed. This continuum illustrates how Latina students develop as activists through community engagement, beginning with structured service-learning opportunities through volunteering, to independent and autonomous activists while finding a sense of belonging at their institution.</p> Valeria Hernandez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:15:21 -0400 Creating Equitable STEM Environments for Black Students in Higher Education <p class="p2">Black student participation in STEM majors is a widely discussed issue in higher education that institutional stakeholders have worked to improve. However, current examinations of their participation must dive deeper to understanding how institutional inequities are preventing their increased participation. Four inequities (interest-convergence, dissonance between STEM and diversity concepts, faculty of color burden, and lack of racial/ethnic minoritized representation) are analyzed to understand why the Black STEM student participation and persistence remains low. This analysis leads to recommendations for how STEM departments can work to start addressing inequities to improve Black STEM student experiences.</p> Christen Priddie ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:13:14 -0400 International Student Enrollment and Budgetary Challenges <p class="Coverpagemaintext" style="text-indent: 0in;">International students bring both cultural and financial benefits to American higher education institutions, but in recent years there has been a marked decrease in their enrollment. Historically these students have been used to fill gaps left from in-state tuition, but with fewer international students there is pressure on universities to increase enrollment. This discussion frames the enrollment issue in terms of internal factors related to the changing immigration policies, higher tuition prices, and an unwelcome environment. The external factors that contribute to other countries attractiveness such as more lenient immigration policies, easier pathways to citizenship, and changing factors at home and abroad. Recommendations for universities to utilize to attract international students are discussed.</p> Katie McClure ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:04:25 -0400 Comprehensive Internationalization and International Branch Campuses: The Case for More <p class="Coverpagemaintext">Institutions across the United States have made a push towards globalization and international education. More recently there has been a push towards comprehensive internationalization, which makes the commitment of ensuring internationalization occurs through all areas of an institution. As the global competition of higher education has risen, U.S. institutions should incorporate comprehensive internationalization and establish international branch campuses in order to remain competitive, increase international student enrollment, diversify the student population, and enhance global and multicultural learning.</p> Jayson J Deese ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 With "All Deliberate Speed": The Creation of the Groups Scholars Program at Indiana University <p class="Coverpagemaintext">As a result of the national, social and political climates that culminated in the 1960s, University administrators across the United States began to engage in conversations about increasing educational access for low-income and minority students. In 1968, Indiana University (IU) established the Groups Scholars Program (Groups) as a means to create educational access for Indiana’s “disadvantaged youth.” Although University Administration dragged their feet, Black students at IU advocated for changes to be implemented and pushed the development of Groups forward. Through historical analysis, this article addresses the national debates and policy reforms of the 1960s, describes the Black student experience at IU in the 1960s, highlights the key events where Black students pushed educational access forward at IU, discusses the proposals of the Groups program, and synthesizes the national debates alongside the Groups story.</p> Jessica Esch ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:00:33 -0400 Amateurism: The Issue of Paying College Level Athletes <p class="Coverpagemaintext">This paper will discuss the current issue of paying college level athletes, who will be referred to as “student-athlete(s)” through the rest of this paper. With the current challenge from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) against the state of California involving the removal of the amateurism rule, it is more relevant now than ever to look at what is involved in paying student-athletes and how it could impact the current landscape of college athletics. This paper will examine both the positive and negative impact of removing amateurism within college athletics and come to a final recommendation for all stakeholders. Higher education institutions need to work as a combined force to work with the NCAA on changing the amateurism rule and allowing student-athletes to profit off the talents they provide to their programs and the greater community</p> Jacob Henry ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:06:46 -0400 Developing Grant Writing Skills in the Humanities and Social Sciences: A Case for Increasing Program-Level Supports <p class="p2">Grant writing is a crucial part of graduate students’ careers. In this opinion piece, the authors discuss graduate students in the humanities and social sciences grant-writing related problems. By understanding students’ unique challenges and motivations and including a systematic grant writing course into their curricula, humanities and social sciences departments can improve student success.</p> Esen Gopkinar-Shelton, Akua A Asomani-Adem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 May 2020 16:17:04 -0400