Sophomore Leadership and Identity Development in Men’s Fraternities

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Elliott Beach


Largely based on Baxter-Magolda’s (2001) self-authorship theory and model as well as Komives et al. (2005) Leadership Identity Development (LID) theory and Komives et al. (2006) LID model, this theory focuses on the time frame of initiation into the chapter through an individual’s time in a formal leadership position during their sophomore year. The theory follows the cycle of holding a position for an academic year and is a sub-layer in the larger holistic development model of external formulas and may or may not promote a broader movement to crossroads. This theory argues that there are three distinct phases: pre-leadership, in-leadership, and post-leadership. The term phase is used consciously to indicate the cyclical nature of leadership, especially for students, and the fact that students are likely to return to these phases again as they take additional leadership roles. Furthermore, as indicated in the model above, the theory proposes that there are two tasks to each phase of development that an individual must complete before moving into the next phase. Failing to complete these steps will further inhibit development or create a regression in one or both areas. 


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Beach, E. (2021). Sophomore Leadership and Identity Development in Men’s Fraternities. Journal of the Student Personnel Association at Indiana University, 49, 68–77. Retrieved from