IU South Bend Undergraduate Research Journal https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj The <em>URJ</em> is one of several student-run publications on the IU South Bend campus.  All editors-in-chief and assistant editors are undergraduates who collaborate with student authors and are integral in evaluating, compiling, and designing each year’s edition.  The final published product showcases the exemplary scholarship of IU South Bend’s student body. en-US <div class="tb f5" style="font-size: 12pt; top: 74.7pt; left: 189.3pt;"><strong><span class="tx" style="width: 213.4pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 0px 11pt 11pt;">IUSB Student Journal Copyright Agreement</span></strong></div><div class="tb f5" style="font-size: 12pt; top: 74.7pt; left: 189.3pt;"><strong><span class="tx" style="width: 213.4pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 0px 11pt 11pt;"><br /></span></strong></div><div class="tb f5" style="font-size: 12pt; top: 88.45pt; left: 44pt;"><span class="tx f44" style="top: 23.1pt; width: 7.9pt; height: 15.5pt; border-width: 0px 0px 4pt 29pt;">☐</span><span class="tx" style="top: 23.1pt; left: 35.9pt; width: 426.8pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 5pt 43pt 4pt 0px;"> I declare that this submission is my original work, and that it does not, to the best of my </span><span class="tx" style="top: 41.7pt; width: 223.2pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 236pt 4pt 47pt;">knowledge, infringe upon anyone's copyright. </span></div><div class="tb f5" style="font-size: 12pt; top: 88.45pt; left: 44pt;"><span class="tx f44" style="top: 78.6pt; width: 7.9pt; height: 15.5pt; border-width: 0px 0px 4pt 29pt;">☐</span><span class="tx" style="top: 78.6pt; left: 35.9pt; width: 377.5pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 5pt 92pt 4pt 0px;"> I agree that that [the journal] may, without changing the content, translate the </span><span class="tx" style="top: 97.1pt; width: 336.9pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 123pt 4pt 47pt;">submission to any medium or format for the purpose of preservation. </span></div><div class="tb f5" style="font-size: 12pt; top: 88.45pt; left: 44pt;"><span class="tx f44" style="top: 134.1pt; width: 7.9pt; height: 15.5pt; border-width: 0px 0px 4pt 29pt;">☐</span><span class="tx" style="top: 134.1pt; left: 35.9pt; width: 459.6pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 5pt 10pt 4pt 0px;"> The Undergraduate Research Journal may keep copies of my submission, and to translate it to any medium for future </span><span class="tx" style="top: 152.6pt; width: 397.8pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 62pt 4pt 47pt;">reproduction and distribution.  I understand that I have the right to request that my </span><span class="tx" style="top: 166.5pt; width: 439.3pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 20pt 4pt 47pt;">submission be removed from IUSB online sources at any time by emailing Stephen Finlay, </span><span class="tx" style="top: 180.3pt; width: 183.8pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 0px 11pt 47pt;">IUSB ScholarWorks administrator, at </span><span class="tx" style="top: 180.3pt; left: 229.8pt; width: 89.4pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 0px 11pt;">scfinlay@iusb.edu</span><span class="tx" style="letter-spacing: 0.04pt; word-spacing: -0.04pt; top: 180.3pt; left: 319.2pt; width: 171.9pt; height: 10.8pt; border-width: 0px 14pt 11pt 0px;">. Once I have made the request, the item in question will be taken down immediately.</span></div> chdeutsc@iusb.edu (Christine Deutscher) scfinlay@iusb.edu (Stephen Finlay) Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:08 -0400 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Title Page https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22173 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22173 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:04 -0400 Journal Staff https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22174 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22174 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:04 -0400 Letter from the Editor https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22175 - Christine Deutscher ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22175 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:04 -0400 Table of Contents https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22176 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22176 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Anthropology and Sociology https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22177 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22177 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 The Rituals of Making Magic: Disney Films Through the Lens of Turner https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22178 Disney movies consist of timeless tales in which the main characters go on a personal journey to break away from the everyday constraints of life to eventually discover their true identity or destiny. These stories usually come to a close after the mental or physical transformation of the characters. According to Victor Turner, these characters spend most of their movie in the transitional phase known as liminality, in which their status is ambiguous until they figuratively cross over the threshold from their original station to obtain their true status in society. Utilizing the stages of Turners' theory as a reference point, this paper will apply the phases of liminality to the plots of various Disney movies, compare the commonalities among the main characters, and contrast their final status in society. Within the context of liminality, a more holistic view of these stories can be applied and a deeper understanding of the characters can be analyzed beyond the passive similarities which are apparent in all Disney movies. Cyndal Mateja ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22178 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 "Like an Irish Pub": Community and Bonding at Tailgates https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22179 With the growing popularity of tailgating at sporting events, it is worthwhile to study the various themes and phenomena that surround this activity. This study attempts to do so by examining tailgating and the important themes surrounding it. Based on participant observation and interviews conducted with tailgaters during the 2015 college football season at a major Mid.western university, my data suggests that alcohol is used as a way to mentally prepare for watching the game and to build solidarity with others. I also found that symbols are utilized as good luck charms to attempt to control the outcome of the game and to express individuality. In addition, community is also an important aspect of tailgating because the tailgates themselves are used as a way to bond with others. Therefore, football is not the sole focus at these events; rather, connecting with others in a party atmosphere is an important feature of tailgating. Taylor Wiley ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22179 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Not in This Castle!: An Adventure in Gamer Culture's Female Identity https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22180 Video games are one of the fastest growing forms of entertainment. Because of their ever-increasing popularity, it is worth noting their effect on society and its behaviors. This study evaluates female game characters by examining their roles in the games compared to those in greater society and how these depictions manifest outside of the screen. Due to the potential for sexism within the games to be reflected outside of gameplay, it is necessary for there to be more positive female game characters and representations that more accurately show an- empowered and equal society. Ashley Marie Fink ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22180 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Retention and Graduation; Student's Experiences at IU South Bend https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22181 This paper explores students' thoughts toward the low retention and graduation rates at JU South Bend in hopes of finding ways to increase these statistics. Data for this paper came from five interviews between myself and current or former students in South Bend, Indiana, in the spring of 2015. Participant observations were also conducted on two separate occasions, during which I observed the behavioral habits and study habits of our students while on campus. Three key themes were found in the data; anxiety/ depression, Jack of advising,. and distorted expectations of college work and life. The complications resulting from these themes often became the cause of many students' self-described frustration, pressure, and struggles as they try to complete their education. Jazmine A. Medina ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22181 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Decision Sciences and Information Systems https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22182 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22182 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Challenges of Migrating EHR Systems to Cloud https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22183 The purpose of this study is to investigate the critical success factors impacting the implementation of cloud based EHR systems. Studies on cloud based EHR systems are scarce. In this study, I investigate the success factors of cloud computing and EHR system separately to come up with the critical factors for a cloud based EHR system. I have also provided information about tackling each factor such as, the change management, data security, cost and Interoperability during and after implementation of cloud based EHR system for long term success. Sheel Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22183 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Mobile Banking Adoption in Ivory Coast: A Cultural Perspective Impeding its Expansion https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22184 This research paper aims to analyze cultural factors impacting mobile banking adoption in certain countries. To scrutinize the presumption, we have narrowed our study to a developing country, Ivory Coast, which has been trying to develop mobile banking for the past few years. The high potential of the country in terms of technological innovations to improve people's lives and the slow adoption tendency of mobile banking in general prompted the need to investigate the cultural factors that affect mobile banking adoption. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, e-wallet, cost of use and trust are considered. E-wallet and perceived usefulness are expected to be the most compelling elements revealing the slow track of mobile banking adoption. Monn Paul Avoaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22184 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Economics https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22185 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22185 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 The Family Gap: The Penalty of Motherhood on Women's Wages https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22186 Motherhood results in a wage penalty to women. I use data from the 1997-2012 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate two primary factors accounting for this so-called family gap. In least squares and fixed-effects regression models I find that part-time work and number of children have significant negative impacts ranging from about 2% to 5% on the wages of mothers, which results primarily through reduced human capital accumulation in labor market experience. Women at higher education levels are responding to the penalty by choosing to delay and even forgo motherhood. A review of similar research literature suggests that maternity leave policies could diminish the gender and family gaps to create more equitable labor market outcomes for mothers. Susan E. Long ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22186 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:05 -0400 Why Health Care Should Be Universal: Using the Principles of Public Welfare Economics to Make a Case for Universal Health Care Coverage https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22187 The debate over health care in America never seems to Jose any steam. Even as we approach the fifth year that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been the law of the land, there are many politicians who still want to overturn the legislation. The biggest problem with this approach is that those who seek to repeal what has been labeled as "Obamacare" never seem to have a worthy alternative to offer. The biggest hurdle one must overcome in making an argument for health care reform that achieves universal coverage is political. If one were to settle the political question as to whether health care is a universal right that all citizens of a civilized society should have, the next greatest challenge is to show the logic for it economically. This paper attempts to settle both issues. By looking at the language of our founding fathers, I will show that access to health care for all is a universal right that should be provided by our federal government, as is the case in nearly every other industrialized nation in the world (Fisher, 2012). I will then use some basic principles of public welfare economics and readily available data to reveal how and why this can be accomplished in our country. Stephen M. Salisbury ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22187 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 English https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22188 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22188 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 Terrorism: A Fight Against Ignorance https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22189 Terrorism is a growing issue. ivith all of the focus on terrorism, there is very little interest in the terrorists themselves. The individuals behind terrorism are widely misunderstood. Terrorists were not born evil. Terrorists are influenced by social and psychological factors. They were desensitized and demoralized by a charming leader who appeared to appreciate and accept them after society deemed them worthless. In reality, this charming leader does not actually appreciate the terrorist or their unwavering commitment to the cause. Terrorists are not oblivious to this reality. They choose to stay Joyal to their unappreciative leaders because they have already given up everything for the cause. It is unlikely that a terrorist will break this vicious cycle; although, it is possible. In order to break the cycle the terrorist must use the tools of ideological criticism. Without ideological criticism, recovery is not possible. Kaelyn Le-Hue ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22189 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 Family Politics and the Great Depression: The Traditional Family Model as a Reproduction of Capitalist Exploitation in Tillie Olsen's Yonnondio: From the Thirties https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22190 In this paper, Tillie Olsen's use of representation of the family in Yonnondio: From the Thirties is explored. Olsen's text suggests that the traditional family model is a middle-class dream, challenging the assertion, often touted by conservative social organizations, that the family is a moral unit, and generator of economic and cultural capital. Instead, Olsen asserts that the traditional family model is restrictive, confining women to the domestic realm and limiting the economic and educational opportunity of working-class people who attempt to adhere to the family model American ideology values so highly. Seth Umbaugh ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22190 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 "Those Fenceless Fields the Sons of Wealth Divide": Enclosures and Idyllic Nostalgia in Goldsmith's The Deserted Village https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22191 This paper explores the effects of parliamentary enclosures on the cultural zeitgeist of 1 SW century Europe, utilizing Oliver Goldsmith's The Deserted Pillage as an explanatory foil. First, the way in which The Deserted Pillage addresses contemporary sentiments on parliamentary enclosures is examined. Afterwards, this sentiment is analyzed in light of Williams' theory of idyllic sentimentality (i.e., "escalator theory"). This research concludes with the proposition that Williams' theory that idyllic remembrances is both true, contemporarily important, and well exemplified in Goldsmith's work. Christopher Crawford ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22191 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 History https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22192 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22192 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 The Boy Scouts of America: The Cold Warriors of Tomorrow https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22193 The Boy Scouts of America played a pivotal role in late American history. Since their formation in 1910, the organization's mission has always been to equip young men with the skills and resources necessary for navigating life's challenges. Because of this, their ideals of morality and character development proved to be a successful paradigm during the Cold War. From the threat of communist brainwashing to the possibility of nuclear fallout, the Boy Scouts of America's ideals became a necessary defense against foreign threats. Political leaders, intellectuals, civilians-the American population at large-all gravitated to the ideals of the Boy Scouts organization, which aided in unifying the nation's identity. This paper will shine light on the strides made by the Boy Scouts of America and how it functioned to produce morally correct citizens as well as its involvement in the nation's plight to fend off foreign threats during the Cold War era. Joe Gearhart ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22193 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 Ich Bin ein Berliner: Beyond Jelly Doughnuts https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22194 Delivered in the midst of the Cold Wa.r; John F. Kennedy's brief speech in front of the Berlin Wall proclaimed solidarity with the German people._Although the final words of the speech, "!ch bin ein Berliner", could theoretically have been interpreted to mean "I am a jelly doughnut", the crowds in attendance understood precisely his meaning. This paper will examine the background of the speech, Kennedy's reaction to the Berlin wall, and the authenticity of his sentiments, while discrediting the myth of misinterpretation. The significance of this speech lies in providing credibility with Berliners that would allow Kennedy to argue for coexistence with the Communists, and defusing potentially volatile East-West animosities, rather than debate over German syntax and jelly doughnuts. Debra Parcell ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22194 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 Viva La Causa! Grape Boycott of South Bend https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22195 In 1965, the National Farm Workers Association voted to join the Filipino American grape workers on strike against the Delano-area grape growers that galvanized the Hispanic Rights movement for agricultural workers. Boycotts spread across the nation as local organizations such as the Saint Joseph County Grape Boycott Committee (SJCGBC) organized in support of the movement. Archives from Indiana University of Kokomo, and the University of Notre Dame, as well as interviews with local Latino leaders, reveal that area students raised awareness about the distribution of non-union grapes on local campuses and in local stores. Their work pushed the SJCGBC to lead a boycott of local Kroger stores. Local organizing, such as the Grape Boycott of South Bend, built national support for the farm workers movement. Ivan Castillo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22195 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 Nursing https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22196 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22196 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 An Evidence-Based Practice Review of EMLA Compared with ELA-Max for Pain Reduction in Pediatric IV Insertion https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22197 The Evidence Based Practice (EBP) team created the following PICO: "In pediatric patients getting an IV inserted, how does EMLA-cream compared to ELA-max affect pain reduction?" and selected the best research evidence to review. The team synthesized the evidence finding numerous similarities indicating no statistical significance in the suppression of pain between ELA-Max and EMLA-cream. While the team found no statistical significance, several noteworthy clinical differences were determined such as cost, time, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. These results are utilized to recommend organizational policies that promote the use of ELA-Max over EMLA-cream in intravenous insertion in pediatric populations. Cassandra M. Vansky, Randall W. Hewitt, Eric E. Spohn ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22197 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:06 -0400 The Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in Treating Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22198 Four randomized controlled trials and one correlational/ observational study revealed the effectiveness of complementary therapies in the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A total of 927 subjects were examined in studies addressing effleurage massage, acupressure, electroacupuncture, and acustimulation as adjuncts to traditional pharmaceutical antiemetic measures. Of these therapies, acustimulation alone failed to meet the standard of statistical significance, yet remains a viable clinical option. Patient expectations played a dual role in the effectiveness of these complementary methods in controlling CINV. Two groups of patients, those patients who expected these therapies to provide relief and those patients who expected severe nausea as a reaction to CINV; achieved better control of nausea and vomiting than those with no such expectations. Angela Asoera, Thomas Schriefer, Maritza Gamboa ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22198 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:07 -0400 Four Nursing Metaparadigms https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22199 This paper focuses on the four nursing paradigms which are comprised of person,, hea!t~ en11ironment, and nursing. Each metaparadigm plays a key role in the nursing process and is essential when providing patient care. The paper compares and contrasts three nursing theorists' individual interpretations of the four nursing metaparadigms. Jean Watson is a modern day theorist who developed the Theory of Human Caring. Her focus is on the holistic approach to healing and believes that in order for a person to be fully healed, it is imperative to include the healing of the mind, body, and the soul. Florence Nightingale was a 1911 century nursing theorist who paved the way for the nursing profession today. Armed with her war experiences, Nightingale created some of the most innovative ideas of her time and focused on the importance of environment. Dorothea Orem was a 2(Jh century nursing theorist who created a self. care model. She believed that it was the duty of the patient to take charge of their own health to prevent potential ailments. The information obtained from these theorists was used to create our own personal definitions of the four nursing metaparadigms. These personal definitions were then applied to a patient scenario to exemplify their applicability to the nursing process. Chad Branch, Haley Deak, Cheryl Hiner, Travis Holzwart ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22199 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:07 -0400 Political Sciences https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22200 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22200 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:07 -0400 The Role of Religion in American Elections: Civic Engagement of Christians https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22201 There are many reasons why eligible citizens in a democracy choose to vote or abstain from voting. Social scientists have known for decades that if a citizen is over age 35, has a college degree and is white, the likelihood he or she will vote in an upcoming election increases compared with those who are younger, without a college degree and non-white (Pew 2008). In addition to race, age, education, and other commonly examined demographics, religion is an important factor in shaping political decisions. Religious voters are called on to vote in accordance with their religious teachings each election cycle. However, is a religious citizen more likely to head to the polls than a non-religious citizen? This paper addresses this question using data from the 2014 General Social Survey (GSS). By looking at whether or not the respondent voted in the 2012 election, and whether or not the respondent identified as a Christian, the results determined that a Christian is more likely to cast a vote than a non-Christian. Corinne Straight-Reed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22201 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:07 -0400 Going Public: President Obama and Major Sporting Events https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22202 This paper examines the tool of 'going public' and how modern presidents are wielding it more than presidents of the past. Modern presidents have begun to directly appeal to the American public in order to gather support for one's policy positions. If sufficient support can be gathered, public opinion on these issues can put pressure on other politicians to take notice and, support these policies as well. President Obama has pioneered the going public movement in different ways than presidents of the past. Unlike modern presidents before him, President Obama has used soft news sources, especially major sporting events, as a means of going public. During almost every major sporting event that occurred in the United States during President Obama 's two terms, he could be seen giving a televised speech to the millions that were tuning into watch the game. When analyzing speeches that President Obama has given during sporting events, he spoke about both sports and politics, yet during sporting events with higher viewership ratings, President Obama would speak more about politics than sports. On the contrary, during sporting events with smaller viewership ratings, President Obama would speak more about sports than politics. President Obama used his Jove for sports as a platform for going public to reach out to millions of citizens that he might not have reached otherwise. Brandon German ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22202 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:07 -0400 Psychology https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22203 The present study assesses the effect money has on happiness and stress amongst 19 Indiana University South Bend students. The experiment was conducted through a classroom exercise called the Poverty Game, which consisted of marble currency, a slideshow of life events, and roles assigned to each person to tell them their careers and incomes. The sample was split into three groups: upper class (wealthy group; N=4), middle class (middle group; N=7), and lower class (poverty group; N=8). Five surveys were distributed prior to, throughout, and at the end of the game to measure self-reported happiness and stress levels. When measuring at the effect money had on happiness, statistically significant results were not found. However, the effect money had on stress was significant F(~.16) = .J. 035; p=. OJ. Further research, such as research on a larger more diverse group or research held in a different country that places less value on wealth, should be conducted. Jessica Fennen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22203 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:07 -0400 The Effects of Same-Sex Parenting on Child Development https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22204 This research paper will address the present concern of the effects of same-sex parenting on child development. As homosexual relationships have become widely common, along with the subsequent building of families, concern over the differences between homosexual and heterosexual parenting have become of great interest and importance. Studies have taken on the subjects of gender identity, behavioral development, and the negative impact of social stigma on children whose parents identify as homosexual. It is concluded that there exist no significant developmental issues due to parental sexual orientation. Positive development is a result of warmth and positive parenting, regardless of familial structure. The prominence of studies on lesbian couples and lack of studies on gay male couples will be explored. Jacob Parker ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22204 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:07 -0400 Women's and Gender Studies https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22205 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22205 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:08 -0400 Letting Go of the Veil: Sites for Islamic Feminist Intervention in Saudi Arabia https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22206 This paper attempts to highlight some of the most successful Islamic Feminist movements and organizations currently making progress in the META region (Middle East Northern African), in the hope of finding methodologies that could be effective in improving the lives of Muslim women in Saudi Arabia. By using Islamic feminism as a lens through which to view the oppression of women in Saudi Arabia, and other MENA countries, the reader's tendency toward an ethnocentric interpretation begins to diminish and a clearer picture of the trials and potential entrance points for empowerment begins to take shape. The goal of this research is to remove barriers of Western feminist ideologies in the effort to better understand the lives of Muslim women in Saudi Arabia. Jennifer Faulkner-Jones ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22206 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:08 -0400 About the Editors https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22207 - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iusburj/article/view/22207 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:56:08 -0400