Indiana University South Bend Graduate Research Journal <p>The Graduate Research Journal is a multidisciplinary journal specifically for graduate students. The goal of the Journal is to publish the best research and/or critical graduate work produced at IU South Bend every year.</p><p>We provide opportunities for academic and professional experience through the peer review and editing process done by graduate students, as well as marketing and advertising experience through the promotion of submissions and our end-of-the-year release party.</p> en-US <br /> Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (John Chapman) (Stephen Finlay) Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:10 -0400 OJS 60 Title Page - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:04 -0400 Table of Contents - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:04 -0400 Volume Three Staff - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:04 -0400 Mission Statement - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:04 -0400 Preface to Volume Three - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:04 -0400 Unraveling Native Son: Propagating Communism, Racial Hatred, Societal Change or None of the Above?? <p>This paper explores the many different ways in which Communism is<br />portrayed within Richard Wright's novel Native Son. It also seeks to<br />illustrate that regardless of the reasoning behind the conflicted portrayal<br />of Communism, within the text, it does serve a vital purpose, and that<br />is to illustrate to the reader that there is no easy answer or solution for<br />the problems facing society. Bigger and his actions cannot be simply<br />dismissed as a product of a damaged society, nor can Communism be<br />seen as an all-encompassing saving grace that will fix all of societies<br />woes. Instead, this novel, seeks to illustrate the type of people that can<br />be produced in a society divided by racial class lines. It shows what can<br />happen when one oppressed group feels as though they have no power<br />over their own lives. I have attempted to illustrate that what Wright<br />ultimately achieved, through his novel Native Son, is to illuminate to<br />readers of the time that a serious problem existed within their society,<br />specifically in Chicago within the "Black Belt" and that the solution<br />lies not with one social group or political party, not through senseless<br />violence, but rather through changes in policy.</p> Jacqueline Becker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:04 -0400 Barriers to Dental Care: How the Current Dental Practice Laws and Workforce Model are Hindering Equal Access to Dental Care for the Citizens of Indiana <p>Indiana has a problem with the lack of adequate access to dental care.<br />There are not enough dentists to care for its citizens' dental needs and<br />the cost of care is unaffordable for many Hoosiers. In this paper we<br />will examine three possible solutions. One option is to do nothing and<br />hope that dental insurance carriers will increase benefits and lower<br />out of pocket costs. Additionally, we can also hope that the number of<br />employers offering dental benefits will increase. The second solution<br />is to increase the number of dentists educated and trained in Indiana.<br />IUPUI has the only school in Indiana offering a Doctor of Dental Surgery<br />(DDS) degree. However, increasing this number is harder than it sounds<br />as the cost to run a dental school is high and students must complete a<br />minimum of eight years of college to receive the degree. The third option<br />is to expand the dental workforce model. The Indiana legislators could<br />change the laws to allow independent practice of dental hygiene and the<br />practice of dental therapy. This would expand access to dental care by<br />allowing hygienists to open dental hygiene offices. Current hygienists<br />could take a two year course to learn basic restorative techniques and<br />become dental therapists. A dental therapist office is less expensive as<br />patients visiting such an office need not pay the higher dentist fees. The<br />saving could be passed along to Hoosiers through more affordable care.<br />The states can then more readily open dental clinics since the cost to<br />run these clinics is lower thus increasing the number of dental offices all<br />around the state.</p> Audra Bogucki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:05 -0400 How the Print Media Turned Max into a Communist: A Zizekean Reading of Native Son In his article "The Conclusion of Richard Wright's Native Son," Paul Siegel poses a unique reading of Wright's novel: that critics have grievously misunderstood Max's courtroom speech because they have erroneously labeled Max a Communist. Siegel, however, fails to capitalize on the significance of his discovery. If it is true that Max is not a Communist, then how is it possible that for over seventy years so many critics and readers have misinterpreted such a significant character? In order to answer this question, I looked at Native Son through mass media theory. Throughout the novel, Wright incorporates newspaper headlines, articles, and excerpts of articles covering Bigger's crime, which create stereotypes of the Communist Party that Max is either associated with or accused of possessing, forming an unconscious assumption on the reader's part that Max must be a Communist. When read this way, Max's speech becomes, not a Communistic rant, but rather about the way in which White society uses the media to perpetuate stereotypes and thereby help them maintain their hegemony. Perhaps the most disturbing quality of Max's speech is not his unveiling of the pervasive, overwhelming struggle for hegemony inherent in our culture, but rather the fact that Wright has constructed a world within Native Son that so closely reflects the real world that we, as readers, have been consumed by the very cycle Max is trying to illuminate. In this way, Wright reminds us that there are no objective subjects, not even Max who has situated him far enough outside of ideology as to claim he can see the inner workings of society. My paper employs a Zizekean reading of Native Son to prove that Wright uses the character of Max to demonstrate to his readers that no one can know society or how to fight against ideology. Instead, Native Son teaches us that only through awareness of ideology can we begin to fight against its destructive components. John Chapman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:06 -0400 The (Un)Silencing of The Subaltern in Kincaid's Lucy A name represents a person. Their name provides them a voice, an identity to call their own. In Jamaica Kincaid's Lucy, the "voice" of the novel has no name until sixteen pages prior to the end of the book. Before the voice provides the reader her name, the reader assumes the female voice is named Lucy, because of the title of the book. But none of the characters call her by name. This nameless narrator is an immigrant and a subaltern. A subaltern is a marginalized person who has agency over nothing, not even their name. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak's article "Can the Subaltern Speak?" claims that "The subaltern cannot speak," but Kincaid has found a loophole (104). I argue that Kincaid, an immigrant from Antigua and former subaltern, joins the debate, of whether or not the subaltern can speak, by not bestowing a name to her protagonist until the end of Lucy; hence letting the subaltern speak for herself. Wendy Davis ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:07 -0400 Moby-Dick: From a Multi-genre, Multi-Cultural Perspective <p>Scholars throughout the ages have used Moby-Dick to represent many<br />different aspects of the cultural battles that were occurring during the<br />nineteenth century. Often Moby-Dick has been seen as an allegory for<br />American white culture dealing with the anti-slavery issues that would<br />inevitably lead to the Civil War. Some scholars argued the white whale<br />symbolized the inevitability of the monoculture of whiteness to devastate<br />the nation. However, this article focuses on Melville's use of variant<br />romance genres to intervene in these previous interpretations and shows<br />that the novel can be interpreted from a mixed form aspect generating<br />a text that favors it being viewed from a multi-cultural perspective.<br />Melville, by combining visionary passages, along with factual passages,<br />creates a text that seemingly depicts one mono cultural approach, while<br />actually arguing many cultural perspectives. The article uses scholarly<br />texts, New Historicism, Queer Theory, and close readings to show that<br />the type of romance genre it was written in, in of itself, allows one to view<br />the text via a multi-cultural approach and not a land locked narrative<br />interpretation to justify a white monoculture view.</p> Michael Kouroubetes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:07 -0400 The Effects of School Funding on Student Academic Performance: A Study of Indiana School Districts 2007-2008 <p>Educational researchers have long tried to identify the relationship between public school funding and student academic outcomes. It has become a common belief throughout the years that increasing school funding will lead to increased student academic performance. This paper is an exploratory study of this relationship by scrutinizing it in Indiana's K-12 public educational system. The result of the study is consistent with the existing literature in that it has once again confirmed that though small in its effect, school funding does have an important impact on student academic achievement. However, this paper also suggests that this relationship is a complicated one that needs to be studied more thoroughly to arrive at a more solid conclusion. Since money matters in improving education quality and not all money given to schools yields the same result, policymakers should consider which programs the money will go to and how that money will be used. This may create a difference in student performance and, thus, educational quality.</p> Ai Vi Nguyen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:08 -0400 Sex Ed All Grown Up: The Benefits of Teaching Human Sexuality Courses at the Collegiate Level In the United States sex education is a hot button issue. While the debates are largely centered around grade school and high school level sex education, there has been very little discussion around sexuality education at the collegiate level and beyond. This indicates a failing to recognize how beneficial this type of education can be at every level. With the many resources available in various disciplines for sexuality and gender there is no reason this particular area should be skirted around, or ignored by institutions of higher learning, most especially because the common reason for denying sexuality education, the age of students, plays no part at the collegiate level. The aim of this paper is to explore the benefits of teaching sexuality and gender courses for both students and educators while also discussing methods by which these types of courses could be implemented. This paper will define sexuality education by both the more traditional sexual education courses along with any course focused on human sexuality, gender, and martial relations in any discipline. The broad range of courses further explores the thesis that sexuality education could be easily presented in various formats and within various programs. This paper will also discuss some of the various reasons that sexuality education is sometimes not included in collegiate programs and how these blocks could be overcome. Improving and implementing sexuality education in higher education is possible and should be prioritized for those institutions hoping to produce well rounded, empowered students regardless of their discipline or area of study. Justine Werley ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:08 -0400 Fortitude: A Collection of Poems - Jacqueline Becker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:09 -0400 Knock - Michael Kouroubetes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:09 -0400 Beauty out of Darkness - Jacqueline Becker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:09 -0400 Orange: Emancipation from a Hatred of a Color of the Sun - Lori Caskey-Sigety ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:09 -0400 The Turning Point - Lori Hicks ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:10 -0400 Black Woman/White Man - Brette Jackson ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:10 -0400 The Irish Goodbye - Kathleen Moran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:10 -0400 One Day Off - Annette Schimizzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:10 -0400 It's Always Sunny in Indiana - Jennifer Swisher-Carroll ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:10 -0400 Colophon - - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Jun 2016 14:58:10 -0400