IU Journal of Undergraduate Research https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iujur <p>The Indiana University Journal of Undergraduate Research (IUJUR) is a student organization supported by the Office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education. It aims to create a student-run, faculty-mentored, annual undergraduate research publication for all of the IU campuses. For more information, including a detailed submission guide, please see&nbsp;<a href="https://iujur.iu.edu" target="_blank" rel="noopener">iujur.iu.edu</a>. ISSN&nbsp;2379-5611.</p> Indiana University Bloomington en-US IU Journal of Undergraduate Research 2379-5611 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Ownership of the copyright shall remain with the Author, subject to <em>IUJUR</em>’s use and the rights granted by the Creative Commons license assigned by the Author. A Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license will be applied to the published work unless otherwise indicated in the Student Author Contract. The CC BY-NC 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) lets others remix, tweak, and build upon the published Work non-commercially, and although the new works must also acknowledge the original <em>IUJUR</em> publication and be noncommercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Irony, Contradiction, and Voltaire's Garden https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iujur/article/view/27244 <p style="background-color: transparent; color: #000000; cursor: text; font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,arial,helvetica,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; outline-color: transparent; outline-style: none; outline-width: 0px; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">Literary scholars have long debated the thematic significance of Voltaire's <em style="cursor: text; outline-color: transparent; outline-style: none; outline-width: 0px;">Candide</em>, a 1759 novella that relentlessly satirizes Gottfried Leibniz’s philosophy of optimism. In <em style="cursor: text; outline-color: transparent; outline-style: none; outline-width: 0px;">Candide</em>, Voltaire assails his readers with displays of violence so absurd they might inspire anything from laughter to hopelessness. The novella's crude humor is hinged upon an unexpectedly-compassionate acknowledgement of human suffering. Voltaire uses <em style="cursor: text; outline-color: transparent; outline-style: none; outline-width: 0px;">Candide'</em>s plotline to attack the human assumption that any force of good will ever offset the evil in a world pervaded by cruelty and selfishness. He provokes questions with no answers in sight. Deriving a theme from the novella only becomes more difficult after reading its conclusion, which leaves readers dissatisfied, desperate for some sort of call to action. We are urged to cultivate our garden but given no advice on what that might entail. We are convinced of Leibnizian optimism's failures but deprived of a more-pragmatic philosophy to replace it with. In this essay, I analyze the ways Voltaire uses humor, irony, and structure in <em style="cursor: text; outline-color: transparent; outline-style: none; outline-width: 0px;">Candide </em>not only to denounce deceitful forms of optimism, but to provoke future thought on the questions he could not answer himself.</p> Sydney Madison Adams ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2019-08-26 2019-08-26 10.14434/iujur.v5i1.27244 Breeding Latitude and Annual Cycle Timing in a Songbird https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iujur/article/view/26407 <p>In spring, songbirds undergo physiological changes such as migratory fattening and gonadal recrudescence in response to increasing day length. Past research suggests that the day length required to initiate physiological changes, known as the photoperiodic threshold, can vary by breeding latitude. In this study, we explored whether migrants breeding at higher latitudes require longer days in spring before physiological changes occur (i.e., whether breeding latitude of origin predicts photoperiodic threshold). We caught and housed male migrant and resident dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in an indoor aviary. Photoperiod was increased incrementally from nine to sixteen hours over fourteen weeks. During each photocycle, morphological measurements of mass, subcutaneous body fat, and cloacal protuberance were measured as indicators of migratory and reproductive condition. Stable isotope signatures of hydrogen were used to estimate breeding latitude as an index of migratory distance. Our results show that migrants and residents differed in physiological changes, as migrants accumulated more subcutaneous fat, increased body mass, and displayed a significant delay in gonadal recrudescence relative to residents. Additionally, individuals breeding at higher latitudes deposited fat at a faster rate than individuals breeding at lower latitudes. These results supported our hypothesis that migratory strategy and breeding latitude may predict differences in photoperiodic threshold for both migratory and reproductive timing. Our findings contribute to the understanding of regulation of timing in annual cycles and improve predictions of how species might respond to changing environments.</p> Susan M. Reed Ellen Ketterson ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2019-08-15 2019-08-15 10.14434/iujur.v5i1.26407 Practices and Perspectives of Mental Health in the Balkan Countries: A Narrative Review https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/iujur/article/view/26876 <p>Mental health and wellness are integral parts to person’s overall health and happiness. Globally, there has been an increased initiative to treat and support people living with mental health issues and disease; the Balkan region of southeastern Europe is no exception. A literary review researching the background of mental health treatment and how it intersects with the unique history and current administrative environment within the nations of the former Yugoslav Republic was conducted. Existing literature about mental health prevalence and practices within the region was analyzed and contextualized with historical perspectives. Significant gaps in research literature were identified, including lack of research into everyday mental disorders in the region that are not to do with the recent civil war, a need for standardized data collection about where mental health infrastructure exists within the region and how effective it is in treating patients, and finally economic research to determine how and by which governing body national healthcare systems should be funded. Filling these gaps in knowledge would greatly reduce barriers to mental healthcare and overall wellness within the Balkans.</p> Maya E. Lee ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 10.14434/iujur.v5i1.26876