Indiana Magazine of History 2018-08-31T13:17:08-04:00 Indiana Magazine of History Open Journal Systems <p>Published continuously since 1905, the&nbsp;<em>Indiana Magazine of History&nbsp;</em>is one of the nation's oldest historical journals. Since 1913, the <em>IMH</em> has been edited and published quarterly at Indiana University, Bloomington. Today, the <em>IMH</em> features peer-reviewed historical articles, research notes, annotated primary documents, reviews, and critical essays that contribute to public understanding of midwestern and Indiana history.&nbsp;Online ISSN: 1942-9711</p> What Is a Hoosier? 2018-08-30T11:53:16-04:00 Dawn Bakken <p>What is a Hoosier? Where did the term come from, what does it mean, and when was it first used to refer to people who lived in Indiana? Libraries and historical societies across the state have been answering this question for decades. The Indiana Historical Society and the Indiana Historical Bureau have weighed in on their websites, as have, among others, the Indiana University library system and the United States Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service. Not surprisingly, the Indiana Magazine of History, too, has examined the term Hoosier from a variety of angles through its 115-year run. In our July 2016 issue, Barbara Roberts offered a story that she and her husband, distinguished folklorist Warren Roberts, had heard at a reception during an academic conference in St. Andrews, Scotland, in the 1990s. Having identified himself as a Hoosier, Prof. Roberts confessed that he was uncertain of the term’s origin, only to be told by one of his Scottish hosts of a tradition that a wild and woolly “Hoosier” tribe had once thrived in northwestern Scotland. To follow Mrs. Roberts’s intriguing story—and to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Hoosier state—we now offer readers a compilation of the IMH’s “Hoosier” articles.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Two Graphic Hoosier Pictures 2018-08-30T12:03:47-04:00 John Finley James Whitcomb Riley <p>The two pictures here poetically presented of the Hoosier pioneer home are so akin that we thus reprint them as a pair. The "Hoosier's Nest," by John Finley, for many years the mayor of Richmond, was, perhaps, the first Indiana poem to win fame, and it is further distinguished by its introduction of the term "Hoosier" into literature. The other, untitled poem, from a far more famous poet, James Whitcomb Riley, is practically unknown and is not to be found in any of the author's books.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Origin of the Word Hoosier 2018-08-31T13:17:07-04:00 Jacob Piatt Dunn <p>The many and vaired accounts of the origin of the term "Hoosier" mostly have in common one thing- improbability. These stories are too well known to give space to here and may be found elsewhere- for instance in Meredith Nicholson's "The Hoosiers." So far as we know Jacob P. Dunn is the only one who has made anything like a thorough study of the question, and because his conclusions seem to us the most reasonable theory in the field, and, in addition, are but little known, we think they will be of interest here.&nbsp;</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Primitive Hoosier 2018-08-31T13:17:08-04:00 George S. Cottman 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Word "Hoosier" 2018-08-30T13:06:32-04:00 Jacob Piatt Dunn <p>I presume that most of the readers of the Quarterly have some interest in the question of the origin of the word "Hoosier"; and I have been having some experiences, in connection with it, that illustrate, in a small way, the difficulty of exhausting the sources of history. After a prolonged study of the question, in 1907, I published the results of my investigations in one of the pamphlets of the Indiana Historical Society. One of the theories of the origin of the word was that it was a family name, and I took the ground that I had eliminated this theory by examination of the directories of a number of Southern cities, and by inquiries of Southern congressman, and others, without finding any trace of such a name.&nbsp;</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concerning the Hoosier: An Appreciation 2018-08-30T13:12:41-04:00 Charles M. Walker <p>The evolution of the twentieth century "Hoosier" furnishes an interesting sociological study. Perhaps, as the question affects the people of an entire commonwealth, it might be termed a racial problem rather than a sociological study. For although the twentieth century Hoosier is a distinct product, sui generis, he is more impressive in mass than he is as a separate entity. Not that he lacks individuality, for that is one of his strong points, but because a certain innate modesty, due perhaps to conscious merit, prevents him from appearing to so decided advantage in his individual capacity as he does in his communal relation. As mere man he is not remarkably differentiated from other men, but as a citizen of Indiana he expands wonderfully. In and of himself he is not an extraordinary person, but with his State for a background he is many times magnified.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Origin of the Term ‘Hoosier’ 2018-08-30T13:17:14-04:00 Oscar D. Short <p>There has been a tradition in our family, which I have known since boyhood, that Aaron Short, an older brother of my grandfather, gave to the inhabitants of Indiana the name "Hoosiers". So far as I know, my grandfather and his brother Aaron were the only members of the family present on the occasion in which Aaron used the word which later came to be applied to himself and other companions from the hills of Southern Indiana. They were then employed in construction work on the Canal at the falls of the Ohio River near Louisville, Kentucky.&nbsp;</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Origin of the Term Hoosier 2018-08-30T13:23:16-04:00 Unknown Pittsburgh Statesmen <p>The following item relative to the origin of the term <em>Hoosier</em> clipped from the Pittsburgh <em>Statesman&nbsp;</em>by the Logansport <em>Canal Telegraph</em> of May 18, 1834, was discovered and sent to the <em>Indiana Magazine of History</em> by Esther U. McNitt of Indiana State Library. It is one of the earliest, though not the earliest, of the several explanations that have been offered in regard to the origin of the appelation <em>Hoosier</em>, so universally used to designate a citizen of Indiana.&nbsp;</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Hoosier as an American Folk Type 2018-08-30T13:29:16-04:00 Richard Lyle Power <p>The richness of American imagination was documented by a yound diarist who described the composition of Michigan's early population by enumerating as many as eight popularly conceived types of frontiersmen. They included Yankee, Hoosier, Yorker, Yahoo, Buckskin, Buckeye, Chegoe, and Sucker. Long familiar in the American tradition and long taken for granted, such steretypes are encountered wherever one turns. The mere enumeration of these popular terms does not imply their qualitative parity, since they varied widely in their vividness and in popular acceptance. The Hoosier sumbol, which was used to indicate the distinctive culture imputed to Indiana, not only stood out from other western folk symbols, but was the nearest rival to the Yankee folk creation in vitality and in general acceptance.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Origin of the Word ‘Hoosier’: A New Interpretation 2018-08-30T13:37:15-04:00 William D. Piersen <p>Neither of these first two speculations was particularly compli­mentary of early Indiana life, so some state residents adopted more flattering explanations of Hoosier origin. Several argued that the word "hoosier" derived from a mispronunciation of the European term "hussar" attached to Hoosier boatmen in honor of their fight­ing hearts and manly prowess. Others contended that high-spirited Indiana boatmen were termed "hoosiers" because they liked to jump up and crack their heels together while shouting "Huzza!" But neither the "hussars" theory nor its "huzza" counterpart accounts for the derogatory way the term was actually used in the early Southeast, and neither has ever been taken seriously as a likely etymology by students of American usage.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana’s Namesake 2018-08-30T13:42:20-04:00 Stephen H. Webb <p>Indiana's nickname is as distinctive as its source is mysterious. Early in the nineteenth century, Hoosier was a common synonym in the South for a yokel or bumpkin, but there is no record of how the term came to be used as slang or what it originally meant. The earliest Indiana settlers brought this word with them from the Appalachian region, but they left behind no trace of its etymology. By the middle of the nineteenth century, Indiana citizens had transformed this label of abuse and disparagement into a badge of pride and identity. Indiana folk were proud to be Hoosiers, but what did that mean?</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "Not Southern Scorn but Local Pride": The Origin of the Word Hoosier and Indiana’s River Culture 2018-08-30T13:55:32-04:00 Jonathan Clark Smith <p>Discovering the origins of Indiana’s mysterious nickname “hoosier” requires a knowledge of when the word first came into use. Most standard reference works (including the <em>Oxford English Dictionary</em>) erroneously cite as the first known writing of the word a letter written in Missouri in 1826. The error is significant because such an early reference, from a site so far west, gives credence to the assumption of Jacob P. Dunn (writing roughly a hundred years ago) that the word had been a term of contempt in general use in the South before it became specific to&nbsp;inhabitants of Indiana. Dunn’s work is still regarded as the most authoritative on this topic, and his assumptions form the basis for current conventional wisdom. While my own research is more indebted to Dunn’s than at odds with it, my findings also demonstrate that his fundamental assumptions about the age and generalized use of the word bear questioning. In particular, my discovery of two previously unnoticed print references helps refocus attention on details that suggest that the term originated around 1830 with specific reference to Indiana farmer-river boatmen; the more generalized and contemptuous use came later.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## New Findings on the Earliest Written Uses of “Hoosier” 2018-08-30T13:57:38-04:00 Jonathan Clark Smith <p>I recently ran across what is (to the best of my knowledge) the earliest known <em>printed</em> instance of the word “hoosier,” and just eight days later than the date of the Murdock-Tipton letter, the earliest known instance in manuscript.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mapping Indiana: Five Centuries of Treasures from the Indiana Historical Society compiled by Erin Kirchhoff, Eric L. Mundell, and Amy Vedra 2018-08-30T16:01:32-04:00 Brian Leigh Dunnigan <p>This year, Hoosiers celebrate the bicentennial of Indiana’s entry into the Union as the nineteenth state. This significant event provides the perfect occasion for publication of a beautifully produced and impressively<br>large and heavy book. Although <em>Mapping Indiana</em> appeared on the eve of the bicentennial, it has been in the works for ten years, and its content suggests progress in gaining historians’ acceptance of the map as<br>a historical document and not just an attractive illustration. Far too many scholars have ignored cartographic collections, including the treasuresof the Indiana Historical Society. But as this sampling of the society’s rich<br>map collection demonstrates, maps depict and document the structure upon which historical events were played out.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IN Writing: Uncovering the Unexpected Hoosier State By Douglas A. Wissing 2018-08-30T16:03:38-04:00 George W. Geib <p>Hoosier history is rich in storytelling, and Douglas Wissing is a fine storyteller. This entertaining collection of thirty-one essays collects items he has published over the last two decades in more than a dozen books, journals, and newspapers ranging from familiar to obscure. The collection mixes history and current affairs in five sections that range across media personalities, community spirit, food, art, and dramatic historic events.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Reverend Pearl May Patrick: Indiana Progressive 1875-1962, One of America’s First Ordained Women By Patrick Brantlinger 2018-08-30T16:05:15-04:00 Laurie Carter Noble <p>Patrick Brantlinger has written a loving tribute to his redoubtable grandmother, the Rev. Pearl May Patrick (1875-1962). In doing so, he has also recreated the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century era of Progressive thought in politics, economics, and religion.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Doc and the Duchess: The Life and Legacy of George H. A. Clowes By Alexander W. Clowes 2018-08-30T16:07:24-04:00 Kathi Badertscher <p>The story of Alec Clowes, Eli Lilly &amp; Company, and the discovery of insulin is part of Indianapolis legend and has been told by others. We know far less, however, about Alec Clowes’s idiosyncratic personality, and even less about his wife Edith Whitehill Clowes, despite the couple’s prominence in the Indianapolis community. The Doc and the Duchess offers a fine study of Alec Clowes the family man, scientist, executive, and philanthropist. Anyone interested in the Clowes family, Eli Lilly &amp; Company, philanthropy, or Indianapolis history will enjoy reading this unique work.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## At Home with Ernie Pyle Edited by Owen V. Johnson 2018-08-30T16:09:12-04:00 Jack Colwell <p>Accounts abound in print and in film about those famed “30 seconds over Tokyo,” the daring World War II raid by US bombers flown from an aircraft carrier to retaliate for the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor. But there is only one account about Hoosier fried chicken over Tokyo. The story of the chicken, eaten for lunch over Tokyo during a bombing raid toward the end of the war, appeared in a column written by Ernie Pyle, the legendary war correspondent who was born on a farm in Indiana near the tiny town of Dana.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evansville in World War II By James Lachlan MacLeod 2018-08-30T16:10:45-04:00 Stan Schmitt <p>In the modern collective memory of Evansville, the World War II years figure as the city’s greatest era. Programs, exhibits, and most of all books continue to appear on the subject. James Lachlan MacLeod’s <em>Evansville in World War II</em> is the most recent addition to the collection of histories on that era. After many recent pictorial and reminiscence-style publications, MacLeod’s book stands out as the first scholarly work on the subject in some time. The author, unlike many predecessors, goes into the background of events, and throughout the book supplies appropriate illustrations to convey his story.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Methodism in the American Forest By Russell E. Richey 2018-08-30T16:12:11-04:00 Thomas Edward Frank <p>Russell E. Richey is now well established as the preeminent contemporary interpreter of the history of American Methodism, and his latest volume, with the intriguing title <em>Methodism in the American Forest</em>, marks yet another original contribution to the understanding of the Methodist past. Richey is unsurpassed in his encyclopedic grasp of the journals, diaries, sermons, minutes, and records of Methodist conferences and preachers in the first century of Methodism in America (1760s through the 1800s). Each time he returns to these materials, he discovers a fresh angle of vision.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Wreck of the America in Southern Illinois: A Flatboat on the Ohio River By Mark J. Wagner 2018-08-30T16:14:01-04:00 Rick Rhodes <p>You don’t come across the remains of an Ohio or Mississippi River turn-of-the- nineteenth-century flatboat every day or even every year. In 2000, one was discovered not far from where the Ohio meets the Mississippi. At normal river levels, boaters might have sailed right atop this sunken treasure. It’s located on the Indiana-Illinois side (the right-descending bank), about ten miles upriver from the Ohio’s confluence with the Mississippi, and a few miles upstream from Mound City, Illinois. What a discovery! This flatboat may have sunk when Indiana and Illinois were still territories, or shortly after they became states.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Photographer and the President: Abraham Lincoln, Alexander Gardner, and the Images that Made a Presidency By Richard Lowry 2018-08-30T16:15:31-04:00 Harold Holzer <p>After a big boom in “Lincoln and” books—full disclosure: my own <em>Lincoln and the Power of the Press</em> is among them—it comes as a breath of fresh air to see preeminence in yet another such title granted to a “secondary” character: in this case, Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner. Few artists associated with the development of the Lincoln image deserve such acknowledgment more, and Richard Lowry has risen to the challenge admirably.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Beyond Redemption: Race, Violence, and the American South after the Civil War By Carole Emberton 2018-08-30T16:41:00-04:00 Michael W. Fitzgerald <p><em>Beyond Redemption</em> provides a broad meditation on masculinity and racial violence during the Civil War era. One of Carole Emberton’s central arguments is that Radicals promoting civil rights were in a double bind: They depicted resistance and military service as establishing the manhood of enslaved people, but had to avoid raising the specter of racial barbarism. Their rhetoric initially worked, but Emberton argues that it empowered reactionaries whose resort to terror was sanctified by effective use. Thus the era’s “militarized notions of freedom and citizenship, and a hypermasculine, aggressive political style” eventually eased the retreat from Reconstruction (p. 8).</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## White Robes, Silver Screens: Movies and the Making of the Ku Klux Klan By Tom Rice 2018-08-30T16:45:05-04:00 Cara Caddoo <p>Tom Rice’s book begins with a description of the 1915 opening of <em>The Birth of a Nation</em> in Atlanta. In celebration of the film, Klansmen marched down Peachtree Street and staged a rifle salute outside the theater. On the surface, the Klan’s appearance before the film resembled the performance of hooded nightriders at the movie’s Los Angeles premiere. But, as Rice explains, the Klansmen in Los Angeles were actors; in Atlanta, they were actual members of the newly formed white supremacist organization. Was this a case of art imitating life? Rice’s study of the complex, mutual development of the modern Ku Klux Klan and the American film industry, visual culture, and politics is a benchmark example of the contribution film studies can make to our understanding of American history.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Socialist Party of America: A Complete History By Jack Ross 2018-08-30T16:46:37-04:00 Paul C. Mishler <p>There has been a dearth of books covering the Socialist Party of America after the “Debs Era.” This volume carries the history up through what the author sees as the final resting place of the party in the emergence of ex-Socialist neo-conservatism during the years leading up to Ronald Reagan’s 1980 presidential election. As such, it is a crucial and necessary book.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Franklin D. Roosevelt: Road to the New Deal, 1882-1939 By Roger Daniels 2018-08-30T16:48:11-04:00 Cynthia M. Koch <p>At the outset of <em>Franklin D. Roosevelt: Road to the New Deal, 1882–1939</em>, Roger Daniels tells us that he had initially planned to write a small, singlevolume work. But there is something about writing about Franklin (and Eleanor) Roosevelt that inevitably results in multi-volume efforts of five hundred pages or more, of which this book is yet another example.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Man of Destiny: FDR and the Making of the American Century By Alonzo Hamby 2018-08-30T16:49:26-04:00 Mario R. DiNunzio <p>With this portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Alonzo Hamby adds to his large body of distinguished work on the Roosevelt and Truman presidencies. The book covers familiar ground in Roosevelt biographies, but adds interesting and sometimes challenging interpretations of Roosevelt’s performance. There is much to be admired here; there are also some puzzles and disappointments.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Music of the Stanley Brothers By Gary B. Reid 2018-08-30T16:50:50-04:00 Kevin Kehrberg <p>In the historiography of American music, bluegrass has grown in stature as a distinct and significant art form, reflected in the increasing amount of scholarship on its history and development. Most early literature focused on Bill Monroe, the music’s proclaimed creator, but now studies of other pioneering bluegrass performers are gaining ground.</p> 2018-08-30T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Nation of Neighborhoods: Imagining Cities, Communities, and Democracy in Postwar America By Benjamin Looker 2018-08-31T13:03:34-04:00 Robert Beauregard <p>Nations are moral geographies, their identities criss-crossed by spatial divisions. In the United States, a civil war was fought over “Southern” slavery. During the early twentieth century, the burgeoning industrial cities corrupted rural youth, and, through the 1960s, declining cities dragged the now-suburban nation into chaos. The national debates of the time pivoted on place and its meaning. Today, gay residential enclaves, immigrant communities, and the racially-inflected ‘hood undermine a sense that we are “one people,” while muddling what it means to live decently in affluent America.</p> 2018-08-31T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Challenge & Change: Right-Wing Women, Grassroots Activism & the Baby Boom Generation By June Melby Benowitz 2018-08-31T13:05:07-04:00 Kristen Shedd <p>June Melby Benowitz’s insightful book explores the issues that contributed to the rise of the New Right. During the early postwar years, the right-wing women who are the subject of this study tried to halt and reverse transformations in racial, sexual, and moral politics. Benowitz shows the creation of a vast network of women, often loosely connected, who felt threatened by what they saw as moral decay, communism, secularism, an expanding government, and an increasingly influential intellectual and scientific elite. What motivated these women and identified them as a political subset was their shared belief in the underlying cause of post-war change—conspiracy. But, as Benowitz demonstrates, these women found ways to expand their campaigns to those who did not share their conspiratorial view, and in doing so they helped form a bridge between the Old Right and New Right, even helping to explain the Tea Party of today.</p> 2018-08-31T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## One Nation, Under Gods: A New American History By Peter Manseau 2018-08-31T13:07:17-04:00 Raymond Haberski Jr. <p>If controversial and beloved historian Howard Zinn had plied his historical method on American religious history, the product might read something like Peter Manseau’s book, One Nation, Under Gods. My association of Manseau with Zinn is both a compliment and a criticism. Zinn famously provided an alternative narrative of the United States, relating hundreds of stories of injustice and resistance to dismantle the triumphalist view of America. Manseau, working in a similar vein, uses a series of well-crafted vignettes to demonstrate “attempts by the powerless to exert control over their lives” (p. 116). That particular quote comes in reference to his chapter on Tituba, the slightly mysterious Salem slave of witch trial fame who, Manseau argues, should be seen as a trailblazing religious transgressor. “The practices we might call witchcraft today, carried out by the English and by the native peoples of the Americas before them,” he explains, “can be thought of as a kind of spiritual equalizer, providing religious authority outside social structures that were inevitably defined at the time by class and gender” (p. 114). While there are many valid historical reasons to look into the American origins of Wicca or conjuring, Manseau’s reinterpretation of the Salem witch trials as a site of resistance for transgressive religious practices performs a kind of historical nearsightedness. In an attempt to see Tituba anew, Manseau has lost sight of the rich history (and lost lives) that surrounded her.</p> 2018-08-31T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clean and White: A History of Environmental Racism in the United States By Carl A. Zimring 2018-08-31T13:09:40-04:00 Andrew Hurley <p>Over the past thirty years, historians have made significant contributions to the body of academic literature on environmental racism. Most of this work employs a case-study method either to dissect the array of historical forces responsible for racially skewed geographies of waste or to document eco-justice activism. Carl Zimring’s most recent monograph addresses both of these subjects but also charts new territory by ascribing the development of environmental inequalities to a cultural association between whiteness and cleanliness that intensified over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries throughout the United States.</p> 2018-08-31T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##