A Hoosier Invades the Confederacy: Letters and Diaries of Leroy S. Mayfield

Leroy S. Mayfield; Ura Sanders; John D. Barnhart


Indiana Magazine of History, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 144-191

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Letters and Diaries of Leroy S. Mayfield

Contributed by Ura Sanders

Edited by John D. Barnhart

The life of an Indiana soldier in the Civil War is intimately pictured in the diary and letters of Leroy S. Mayfield. Marching and sleeping in the rain, pulling the wagon trains up Lookout Mountain, witnessing the execution of deserters, foraging for food, encouraging a brother to get an education before enlisting, protesting the high prices charged by army sutlers—"the army pest" as he termed them, lying in the hospitals when wounded, and busying the body of a loved and respected officer are a few of the intimate details which he describes.

The contribution of Indiana to the national armies in the western theatre of the War Between the States is also reflected in these writings. Mayfield was one of many representatives of the loyal citizenry of southern Indiana. No word of complaint against his higher officers, no grumbling about long, hard marches or short rations, and no flinching in his loyal devotion to the Union was recorded, not even when he lay wounded on the field of battle for thirty-six hours. He was in the army for a purpose and he intended to stay until that purpose was accomplished, if his life were spared. His cousin, Copernicus H. Coffey, and his brother Joseph, were killed and he was severely wounded—events which testify to the loyalty of his family.

Conditions described covered such a wide field as to be fairly representative of the western area. Mayfield served in the trans-Mississippi in Missouri and Arkansas, in the campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee against General Braxton Bragg, in the Chattanooga area, and in the invasion of Georgia by the forces of General William T. Sherman. He was wounded in the famous charge up Missionary Ridge and again in the battle of Kenesaw Mountain.

A native of Monroe County, Indiana, where he was born July 16, 1841, Mayfield was a student at Franklin College during the winter of 1860–1861. He joined the Twenty-Second Regiment of Indiana Volunteers when it was organized at Madison, Indiana, July 15, 1861, and accompanied it to Missouri in August.1 He was commissioned a second lieutenant, February 14, 1863, and captain, September 15, 1864. He served until the end of the war and moved with the regiment through Virginia to Washington, D.C., and thence to Indianapolis in June, 1865.

The writings of Mayfield consist of thirty-four letters to his brother Joseph and two diaries, written while in the field or shortly before he enlisted. There is no evidence that he anticipated that any part of them would be published. They were written hurriedly and sometimes under conditions that made writing difficult. The usual defects of such material are present, such as incorrect spelling, very peculiar punctuation, and grammatical errors. It is impossible to be certain about capitalization and often to tell where a new sentence begins. The writings have been reproduced as faithfully as possible and without change. For reasons of space many remarks about the weather and advice to his younger brother about his education and about writing were omitted. The original letters and diaries are in the possession of Miss Ura Sanders, of Gosport, Indiana. Typewritten copies are in the library of Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

I From Camp Noble to Arkansas

The first group of letters was written from Camp Noble, near Madison, Indiana, where the regiment was organized, and from the trans-Mississippi, where the troops got their first experience in warfare. The letters give only a few interesting sidelights on life in camp and on campaigning. Actually, the Twenty-Second Indiana Infantry was engaged in the campaigns in Missouri which culminated in the defeat of the Confederate forces at the battle of Pea Ridge, in northwestern Arkansas, March 7 and 8, 1862.

An account of the activity in Missouri and Arkansas may be found in Ranson V. Marshall, An Historical Sketch of the Twenty-Second Regiment Indiana Volunteers (Madison, Indiana, n. d.),. 3–22. The War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volumes III and VIII, contains the official reports of the

  • 1 Ranson V. Marshall, An Historical Sketch of the Twenty-Second Regiment Indiana Volunteers (Madison, Indiana, n. d.).
various engagements during this time. The report of Major General Samuel R. Curtis on the engagement at Pea Ridge is found in ibid., VIII, 195–204. The report of Colonel Jeff C. Davis, of the Twenty-Second Indiana Infantry, commanding the Third Brigade, is found in ibid., 245–49.

Camp Noble North Madison
(July 17th

I arrived here yesterday after-noon amidst the most deafening cheers that I ever heard on any occasion. the boys came runing, between 500 and 800 in number, to meet their friends, to see who had come. We had a toilsome journey, in consequence of mis-connection, caused by change of time, on the roads. We arrived at Mitchell about 5 o'clock in the afternoon and had to remain until one at night. We then started for North Madison, arriving there at 3 o'clock in the morning, where we lay down on the floor of the Depot, and remained until day. I slept almost none during our passage.

We have as nice, if not the nicest camp, in the state. our sleeping rooms are good, and very good, compared with those of many other camps….

Our camp is in sight of Kentucky, but we can not [see] the Ohio-River, becaus it is behind the hills, and timber

I went down to the River this afternoon, and took a swim. you may rest assured that it is a nice business. After we get fairly organized, we will be kept pretty close. I have not been out on guard as Yet

18th This morning I was placed on guard, and also C. H. Coffey, and we had, by no means, an easy time, having to wait until near 2 o'clock for dinner. Our Company has gone to the river to day. James, Whisenand, and James, Fenley, came down with us on monday. The boys, generaly appear to be well satisfied, though one of our company, "took a fence furlow," that is, he broke guard, crossed the fence, and has gone home….I think that our officers will be good to us. We have music plenty, and to spare.

Oh! yes, while I think of it, I saw a Woman a few moments since. There is no [use] to try to tell you what all is going on in camp continualy. it would take more than a dozen sheets of paper to contain it.

My mess mates are, J. T. Eller, J. W. Eller, Wm. Robertson, Henry Huston, and a young Douglas. I am as well satisfied as you ever saw me.

my rest is out I must go to guard….

Camp Noble North Madison
July 21st 1861

Having heard that you anticipated, taking free passage in this direction, this week, I thought that it would [be] expedient to inform you something about what to bring with you if you do come….

Be sure and bring your shawl, two Coats (,Summer) two Shirts, and as much as two pairs of socks, and also some for me. And as many other little things as sou wish to bring with you. I wish you to bring a hickory shirt for me, if I have a new one at home….

It is an awful hard place….We have plenty to eat, but it is not always of nicest quality….

Give my best respects to all frie[nds] and kiss some of the girls for me….

N. B. Bring my tooth brush….

Kerzingers Cave, St Louis Mo
Aug 24th 1861

We are again lying in camp, or rather in tents, waiting for guns, with which to fight. Our Col. refused to take muskets, while at Indianapolis, he wanted rifles, therefore we have to wait, not knowing which we will get. We have to walk to the "chalk line" now, in drilling, we have to drill several hours every day and sunday to. The Col is so wicked, and hard hearted that he will not allow a Chaplain, to preach for this regiment. he also will not allow the Capt's to pass any of us out. I have not been out since I came here. those of other regiments are allowed to pass back and forth. Regiments have been "pouring" in, since we came. amongst them are the Ind 18th 23d and 24th, Ohio 27th and 39th, Iowa 6th Regiments, and also quite a number of cavalry, and some dragoon companies. the St. Louis papers state that there are 30,000 troops within an hours ride of that place….Our camp is in the edge of the City, about three and a half miles from where we landed. we marched out here last Saturday, and bearly had [time] to "pitch" tents before night, and then prepare supper after night, of what vegetables we had bought during the day. We drew no bread, therefore had none save that which we bought.

Health is reasonably good in camp at present. Quite a number are complaining a little, which is nothing unreasonable, considering the way we have to ly on the ground. I suppose that I will get along all right, if I do not get homesick. I am very well satisfied as yet….

George-town, Missouri,
October, 3d 1861

Yours of the 20th was received day before yesterday, just as we were preparing to go out on "picket" guard. we did not return until last night, consequently, had no chance to write. We, (5 of our mess) were out about 5 miles from camp. we had a very pleasant time except that it rained to hard while we were out. we got plenty of fruit to eat, and to bring into camp with us. I carried two "haversacks" full of provisions, one full of "fresh" pork, and the other full of apples. W[h]en I got into camp, and cooled, I could not use my right arm, so you may know that we have very plenty eat now for a few days if the secessionists do not break in upon us and take what we have. we also met with a chance to exchange coffee (which we had saved of our rations) for corn-meal, (which makes cakes, when fried, equal to sweet cakes at home. They are clearing off a battle ground (today), on a hill, where we will [have the] advantage of the rebels. I think the principle object, is, to have a good position for the "artillery." There are various reports, now afloat, in regard to the position of the rebels, but no one, is known to be true. It is now reported that they are on two sides of us. we do not believe it.

We know not one hour, what we will have to do the next….

Linn Creek Town
February 2nd 1862

….we had got so well fixed to live at Otterville, that I hated very bad to leave, but I am now very well satisfied….we have now been on the march 9 days or rather on the road, for we lay by 3 days of the time….Thursday night we made down on the snow and slept when we could, which was not a great deal, by any means. The country through which we have passed for 4 or 5 days is the most complete wilderness that I ever saw (Brown County Ind. cant show with this.) you scarcely ever saw a house. The few that lived on the road looked very much like starving. If I could see you, I could tell some hard soldier tales that I car, not write….

Sulphur-rock, Independence Co. Ark
May 6th /62

…..We are now stationed between Black, and White rivers, near where they unite. there were a few hundred secessionists in this part of the country, but they fled as has been their custom. This is a beatiful country and the citizens appear very friendly. Some are so through fear, others are truly so at heart. I have been out in the country, and became somewhat acquainted with a few of the citizens, one of whom is a Minister of the Gospel, a Missionary Baptist. I have just returned to camp, from a visit to his house. if we remain here until sabbath I shall go to hear him preach. The weather is very warm, although we have a nice shaded camp, in a thickly timbered grove. the wood, ticks….are so annoying, that we can scarcely rest, at all….There is, or was plenty of provisions in the country before we came here. the boys have plenty of money and are not afraid to use it.

Our pay-roll has been made out. we will not likely receive pay for a month or more. A dispatch has come, announcing the federal possession of New-Orleans, by Gen Butlers forces. we do not know whether true or not. Steam-bcats run up white-river above this point, but they do not risk the enterprise now. When the Mississippi is opened or Memphis evacuated, boats can run up the river to us very handily. Health is very good in the army at present, considering the nice time we have had wading rivers and smaller, streams. On last Saturday we marched 25 miles, through rain and mud, without grub.

….I hope the time is not far distant, when the rebellion will be crushed out….

II Campaigning in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentuchy

After the trans-Mississippi campaign, the Twenty-Second Indiana Infantry was sent to aid in the siege of Corinth, Mississippi, following which it was transferred to the army of General D. C. Buell in Tennessee. This service culminated in the battle of Perryville, in Kentucky, October 8, 1362, when General Braxton Bragg's invaslon of Kentucky was checked. Mayfield's letters were largely confined to little affairs that lightened the more arduous military labors. Unfortunately, he wrote little about the battle of Perryville.

The report of Major General Henry W. Halleck to the secretary of war, November 25, 1862, so far as it relates to General Buell's activities in Kentucky and Tennessee, may be found in Official Records, Series I, Vol. XVI, Part 1, pp. 5–6; and the long report and testimony of the committee ordered to investigate the conduct of General Buell may be found in ibid., 8–726.

Ripley Miss.
June 30th /62

….We have been stiring about, for more than a week and lying out without our tents, which we have practiced so much lately, as to become very familiar with it. The weather is very warm. the sand heats in the roads, so as to make it very disagreeable marching in it.

There were about 200 rebel cavalry, (Cotton burners) here at this town night before last but they have gone far beyond our reach. They are traveling the country over, and burning all the cotton they can find, to prevent its falling into our hands as they pretend to think that we are out stealing cotton, but I hope they will soon find our mission quite a differ[ent] one. The citizens in this part of the country show there contempt to the "old flag" in various ways. yesterday as we marched through town some of the Ladies hid their faces while the "colors" were passing near them….

Craborchard, Ky.
Oct 19th 1862

As official reports will not give the minute details of the performances of the 22nd for the last 2 or 3 weeks, I will write to you. On the 1st of Oct Father and I parted on the streets of Louisville and we marched out in pursuit of the enemy. To me, it was a matter of no little weight, to separate at that time As a matter of course, I was a little "home-sick" for a time hut not dangerously so. I had some very hard labor to perform, for more than a week during the absence of the boys. I bore it all with pleasure, hoping that they were enjoying themselves finely. three of the boys have not yet returned. A. C. Ranard is absent yet. After marching two days from Louisville, skirmishing with the enemies pickets and rear guard, was kept up every day. they gradualy gave back until they arrived near Perryville where they halted to give battle.

We were not called into action until Wednesday afternoon. marched onto the battle ground under a heavy fire, formed, which was, but the work of a moment, and began the deadly work. we were not engaged more than 21/2 hours, the average of shot I think was not far, from 15 rounds. our position on the field was changed three or four times, this of course hindered us from shooting so much as we would, had we been stationed that length of time. The boys, almost without exception, behaved nobly. it appeared that all fear had gone, and every one determined to sell his life dearly as possible. J. H. Pettus fell, as "Soldier," a "brave" boy" he received two shots. While the battle was raging with fury, and the balls singing about over head like a swarm of bees, his gun was struck by a ball, which glanced and "grazed" the side of his head. He raised his gun, and coolly remarked to his comrade, "If I live to get home, I shall take this gun with me," then raised the gun to his shoulder, took deliberate aim, and fired. this is one instance, of the many that I might mention, of coolness, that occured during the battle. Many of the boys received shots through their clothing, some: many as three or four shots. Neither C. H. nor I received a mark of any discription. The dead! how thick they lay. The wounded! how awful their groans. Oh! may I never see such a sight, nor hear such groans again, as those witnessed on that bloody: "little spot." At the same time, the enemies loss was very, very: heavy. many of the rebel dead lay on the field for days before they were buried.

Our regimental "colors" were torne to strings and the bearer shot, another gathered the staff and he to was shot, so in the darkness they were lost. I never before saw darkness come over the land sudden as it did at that time. the thickness of the smoke caused it.

Our health is good. Copernicu's visit home, did him a great deal of good. his health has been better since, than it was for months before. I do not want you to enlist again. two for three years and one for three months is enough for one family to furnish during this war. If I felt that affairs were being conducted right, I should not object to your enlisting again, but as it is I want you to remain out of bondage….

Danville, Ky.
Oct 25th 1862

….We have been on a scout in the direction of Richmond, Ky. but it resulted as most of others. no good resulted from it. There were about 150 prisoners brought in last night. they were taken near Wild-cat. They appear very tired of the service. some say that they would rather be shot than to enter the rebel army again….

Camp near Nashville Tenn.
Dec. 1st 1862.

….Night before last some of our officers were fired at, by some rebels. we Co (I) were ordered out on "picket guard" immediately, we were posted about 21/2 miles from camp, in plain view of the rebels picket's fires. we returned to camp about noon Sabbath, but about 3 o'clock in the afternoon the alarm, was raised and in a few moments the division was ready to move forward, with the expectations of a contest with the rebels, but the alarm proved to be unfounded, and we returned to camp by nine at night. soon after, it began to rain tremendous fast, and continued so until late at night This afternoon the 22d was ordered out to reconnoiter the hights in front, and try the strength of the enemy, if any at, all. after traveling 3 or 4 miles, returned to camp finding no enemy. There has been some cannonaiding, on our left to day, but I as yet know either the cause or the result. It is expected that we will have something to do, soon as the army begins a forward move, which, I think will not be, for a time yet. The rebels are no dout, fortifying, and preparing themselves to meet us, and give battle at Murphreesboro Tenn. 30 miles distant from Nashville. My opinion is that their hopes will be vain. On the 28th we crossed the river and camped three miles south of Nashville. have a very nice, camp.

An order was issued a few days, since, requiring the men to make rails and repair a fence, partialy destroyed, by themselves, but the boys declared that they were "soldiers" and that soldier would not "work", consequently the fence is not repaired.

I am much [pleased] to know that [you] are attending school, instead of fretting to partake of a soldiers hardship's and miseries, winter is much worse than summer. with some exceptions we have had very nice weather for a time. Copernicus and I, are in good health except that he has cold. he and I are alone messing together. Lieut Marshall took us into his tent, as the company has not a very liberal supply. Lieut Ravenseroft was detailed as military conductor, on the Louisville and Nashville rail road, but on his first trip the cars [ran] off the track along sid[e] our camp, four of the cars ran off, one of [them] turned over down the fill, to it's original position. He jumped off and was making his escape, when the trucks caught him, and were lying on him [when] the boys got to his relief. it was very difficult to remove them off of him. his excape is "one", of a thousand: his sword and belt which were on, were broken to pieces. he is geting along well, and proves to be slightly injured. I did not learn how many were hurt, but evidently quite a number were injured.

There is some prospect of geting a little pay here, two months wages, of five that is due. Signed the "pay roll" yesterday Our chaplain, E. P. F. Wells, has resigned. A he started home this morning. A chaplain in the army, is usualy of little force except to attend to the mail. I suppose the reason is, that the most worthless prechers, those who can not make a good living at home, are the ones who strive to secure the position for the money. many chaplains in the army have proved to be very reckless. Our chaplain did very well except that he did not preach very often….

Camp eight miles South of Nashvill Tenn.
Dec. 13st 1862

….the night before [November 261, we had orders to march at 8 a.m. the following day. were up early, and in due time were on the march, traveling southward, expecting to press forward and ingage the enemy before night. the morning was cold, but we camped 3 or 4 miles south of nashville, but no enemy was seen. we had a great deal of picket duty to do—while in that camp. we were out on severel scouts. About midnight of the 10th of this month just after I had got to sleep orders came to be ready march at 4 a.m. with three days rations in haversacks. I arose and did not lay down any more, during the night. as there had been heavy firing on our left all day it was expected that there would be a general engagement, but we did not march far until camped again, in a beautiful country. day before yesterday the 22d Ind. and 21st Ill. with one section of a battery, went out within six miles of Franklin Tenn. with a large train after forage, we found plenty of grain of every discription. no enemy was found. Franklin is situated 19 miles south of Nashville.

We are having a very pleasant time now for a few days, but it will not last long, for we will march at no distant day….

My health has improved a great deal. I have plenty of exercise every day. my weight is 167, pounds, about 15 pounds better than it was a month since….

III Rosecrans' Chattanooga Campaign

After the battle of Perryville, the Twenty-Second moved inco Tennessee and became a part of the army of General William S. Rosecrans. At the turn of the year there occurred the battle of Murfreesboro or Stone's River, December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863. The army remained in this vicinity until Rosecrans began his campaign against Chattanooga. From camp at Winchester, Tennessee, the advance began, the Twenty-Second going via Stevenson and Bridgeport, Alabama. At the latter place the Tennessee River was crossed and nearly three weeks, August 31-September 20, were spent in the mountains to the east, guarding the right of Rosecrans's forces. Crossing Lookout Mountain, the Twenty-Second viewed the defeat of Rosecrans at Chickamauga from the summit. Cut off by the retreat of Rosecrans to Chattanooga, the regiment was in serious danger of being captured; but it managed to rejoin the main army.

Several letters tell about Mayfield's experiences in Tennessee, the one of April 14 giving a brief description of his regiment's part in the battle of Stone's River. His first diary begins August 17, 1863, giving a connected account of his military activities from that date to the end of this period.

Further information on this campaign will be found in the report of Brigadier General Jeff. C. Davis, covering the operations from August 28 to September 20, in Official Records, Series I, Vol. XXX, Part 1, pp. 496–503. See also the report of Colonel P. Sidney Post, commanding the First Brigade, of which the Twenty-Second Indiana Volunteer Infantry was a part, ibid., 505–09: and the report of Colonel Michael Gooding, commanding the Twenty-Second Indiana Volunteer Infantry, ibid., 513–14.

Murfreesboro, Tenn.
Feb 23d 1863

….We were out in front "day before" yesterday, after forage. The morning was beautiful, but early in the day, it clouded up, and began to rain, very fast continueing so the remainder of the day. The water in many places, was knee deep, and in othrers much deeper, if we had searched for the bottom. We marched 8 miles on "quick," and double quick" time without halting. I did not get very much wearied. Were out in front 9 or 10 miles South [of] town. the reb's annoyed us a little, but did not do any special injury. we would have had a brisk skirmish, had it not been for the darkness, caused by the fast falling rain. the rebs brought a battery in to position, threw a few shells, which were heartily replied to.

Yesterday (the 22d) was the birth day of Gen. George Washington. One battery in each Division was ordered to fire, a "National salute," at or about sunset. it almost made the earth quake like unto a battle. I do not like the sound of cannon very well, but I am in no way disposed to run from them, "not boasting in any way at all." Immediately after the rain ceased it turned very cold, and the ground frozed pretty hard on top, but to day it has been tolerably pleasant.

The 82d is camped east of town. I have not been over to see them since we came here. Jessee was over a few weeks since, but I have not seen any of them lately. We have something…new again, in camp. Gen Rosecrans, has ordered one Commissioned officer, two Seg'ts three corporals, and thirty privates, to be chosen by ballot, of the best and bravest men, in the Regiment, to form a company of men to be mounted, and armed with the most efficient arms that can be procured. It is supposed that they will be bold, energetic, and brave men; men of daring deeds. Four of the Pea-ridge heroes, who stood the battle through without flinching, were chosen, and two others who were absent sick at the time, but have proved themselves since, to be worthy of any position of honor. their names are as follows, Corporal, Wm. H. H. Walden, Privates, James M. Whisenand, Wm. B. Cooper, Austin Slochem, R. S. Curry, Wm. Southern. they are boys who will fight. I think that they will do good service in field after they get horses. James Whisenand is a good fellow, full of fun, as any fellow can be, and is "number one" soldier. We have not drilled a great deal, since we camped at this place. There has been so much mud. to day we went out to drill. after drilling in the "manual of arms" for a time, we stacked arms, and entered into a spirited engagement, "after the old style of boys play," throwing wet corn cobs. the company pretty well divided, had quite a "jolly" time, you may think strange that I take so much pleasure, in boy's play's, but you need not, for I am more boyish to day than I was four years ago! I am very fleshy now. my weight is 184 Ibs. all told: Health good, the health of the company is very good. have no sick, out of 101 men, 61 are left to be accounted for in the company, the remaining 40 are dead, discharged, and transferred. My business suits me very well. I have plenty to do, and always acquainted with the company affairs.

The Paymaster is present, paying the second brigade. it will soon come time for the first Brigade. we will likely get four months pay. I do not know that I shall send much home this time, it will depend on circumstances….

We have a Chaplain, a good preacher, I suppose, of the Episcopalian order. he is a refugee from Texas, driven away by the rebels for his union sentiments….

Murfreesboro Tenn.
March 17th, 1863

…we have just returned from another "scouting" expedition in the direction of Franklin Tenn….Soldiers life is not very regular perhapse for a day or week or month, he may be over-run with duty, at other times he may have nothing to do, and will become lazy, but it has been my lot for a few months past, to have plenty of labor to perform, of various kinds. I made a calculation a few days since of the amount of clothing (beside numerous other articles of Camp and Garrison equippage riot valued,) that I have drawn on Special Requisitions and issued to the men, of the company, (booking the same,) within three and a half months, The value of which was $870.00. I was surprised to know that I had handled and kept an account of clothing to that amount, beside drawing and issueing rations, which are usualy drawn, five days at a time….

We pass some days very pleasantly, but usualy have some duty to perform that is not so pleasant as it might be, when exposed to rain and mud, chilled and dirty, all taken together very disagreeable. In all our traveling lately we have not got a shot at any of the rebels. We have drawn new guns again, have the (Enfield Rifle), now. All is quiet in this Department.

Murfreesboro Tenn.
April 14th 1863

….the dust on our drill ground had become almost intolerable. there are about five brigades and so many batteries that use this large open field to drill upon Our Regiment can drill very well, but they are a stubborn set of fellows, and when they get a little mad, they can perform worse than any new regiment that I ever saw try to perform, in any way.

…I had to go on inspection, and immediately after this was over went to the officers school, which is conducted by the Colonel, who asks questions as school teachers do in other branches of study, it is very intereting to me. I need instruction in any business that I undertake, as boys always do.

We yet have a considerable amount of duty to perform,—enough to keep us healthy. exercise proves to be a necessary requisite to health in the army. There is a limated amount of sickness in the regiment now. We have taken so much care in cleansing, grading, and planting bushy cedars in the quarters, that I thing there will not be much cause for sickness. I fear that the dead animals, which abound so plentifully in this region, will give some cause [for] sickness. Last Sabbath I was out near the "Old Battle Ground," on picket duty. It brought to mind scenes to vivid to ever be entirely forgotten.2 there within a mile of [the] "spot" on which we stood picket guard, the night before that awful days fight, (I mean the day that we were driven backe) after the firing had continued at intervals near all night, I awoke at early dawn, almost froze, to hear the whistle of the "minie" balls and see the rebel columns advancing upon us, across an open space. Imagine our feelings for one moment—in the face of a largely superious force,—to know that in five minutes, nay! less time! that the deadly conflict must begin. there we stood firm, not knowing but that five minutes, of time might reveal an endless eternity, but soon the order came to fall back a short distance and form a new line of battle as the Division on our right, (Johnsons) had

  • 2 The remainder of the paragraph refers to the battle of Stone's River, which occurred December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863.
been surprised and routed after some hard fighting. we then were to bear the brunt of the flowing tide. These came to mind anew, but it's being outside the picket line I could not visit the place.

…Copernicus….is Second Sergeant, or first "Duty Segt" he fills his place well. Robert. S. Curry is a sergeant in the company now, since Captain Lunderman left us. Wm. B. Miller, a brother to Robert Strongs wife, is Orderly Segt.

The boys are having quite a pleasant time as usual, runing each other, and "scuffling"—playing like some little boys and I would certainly be with them if I was not writing.

You asked me at one time whether I had received any valentines. I received one it was a good one too, but it happened to have a neame signed. Gov Morton is not ashamed of his name.3

Commission is dated Feb 14th….

Murfreesboro Tenn.
April 23d 1863

…we are just relieved from picket duty, and again in camp, "for all day" if nothing happens….I have such a severe cold that it is a task, even to do nothing….We always carry our ("dog tents" (as they are termed in the army,) Shelter tents which serve to shelter us from a common light rain….the leaves on the trees are becoming large enough to form nice shades, in which the birds of various kinds are sporting with their usual routine of sounds, and merriment.

The boys are appropriating this day in a fishing spree, with a seine of their own geting up, composesed of Coffee sacks.

Stone River is a beautiful stream, pretty well filled with fish, principaly "Suckers" We have been passing a very easy time of it lately, compared with former days….

Murfreesboro Tenn.
June 6th 1863

….with the "boom" of cannon, we were called out, on the fourth inst….We lay out that night in a tremendous storm….I lay under an ash tree, "Elevated on a gun-blanket" "the thickness of your finger nails," spread on the ground, and covered with one after the same pattern. these, together with my "old bedfllow" formed the pleasant bed. The little rivulets, "being no respecter of persons," gave us a happy greeting as they bounded onward toward "Stone, River. I lay stubbornly until morning. by the time we returned to camp yester day after-noon, I was almost dry. this is a common occurrence, and to one who has "played the soldier" for two years, it is a matter of little importance….

There was considerable fighting in the direction of Franklin Tenn. on the fourth, and some in our immediate front. I have not learned the result, but all is quiet again to day. We have a large amount of picket duty to do, enough to give good exercise. in place of that we can have drilling to do in great abundance.

Andrew. C. Ranard, has returned to the company under the "Presidents Proclamation," releasing deserters who would report themselves and return [to] duty, by the first of April. he is making a good soldier

  • 3 This is a reference to Mayfield's commission as second lieutenant.
so far, appears very much please[d] at geting back to the company, without being rigorously punished, as would be expected in such a case.

I have bought a new sword and belt, of a very nice, common pattern. such a one, at this place, would cost at least $40.00, but I got it brought through by hand at a much less cost. Sutlers and army store-kepers put on the "agony" in charging for goods they have for sale. A very common "Dress-coat" for Officers can not be bought for less than thirty (30.00) dollars. Vest 8.00, Hats 6.00, Pants 14.00, and other articles in proportion. Eatables are also high. Butter, 75 cts. per pound, Eggs 75 cts. per Doz, Apples three small ones for a 25 cts. letter paper, a little inferior to "Blotting paper" can be had, 2 sheets for 5 cts. these things are cheap enough at Nashville. it is the sutlers, "the army pest," who make these handsome, prices, and profits….

August 17, 1863, Monday. Yet in camp at Winchester Tenn. since the 23d of July….While reposing in this quiet condition, enjoying the company of a Father who was out visiting, Orders were given to march at 2 P. M. soon all things were ready, and parting with one so dearly loved, I marched away with the regiment, while he started home. Marched about eight miles, moving to the right of Cowan Station, camped during the night at the foot of the Cumberland Mountains, lived very well on corn and peaches….

August 18, Tuesday. Began the ascent of the mountains early in the morning, marched about 1/2 mile up the side. halted stacked arms, the brigade was scattered along the hill side, to roll the wagons up. One detachment mould push the wagons a certain distance, and then another detzchment would do likewise, thus our train and artillery was hauled a distance of two miles, over a road—rough—almost beyond discription. Stony and crooked. Succeeded in geting the train up by three o'clock in the afternoon. Marched about 5 miles…and camped on top of the mountain, which is level, Sandy, poor and uncultivated. water scarce roads sandy and dry….fared pretty well had peaches plenty, procured by the industry of our mess mate, the Rev Charloot. Before lying down to take our rest, got orders to be ready to march at 3 A. M. in the morning.

August 19, Wednesday. Up at 2. a.m. got all things ready marched out at 3, o'clock. All appeared to enjoy the fun,—hallooing, laughing and joking. Marched very fast until about noon. came to the decent of the Mountain which was very abrupt,—steep, stony, circling Here the Brigade was again scattered along the hill side, which was two miles in length, to conduct the wagons safely down, each detachment doing its share and giving over to the…next. In the course of 2 or 3 hours got down into the vally, continued the march about 8 miles down Big Coon Creek, between high towering mountains. the valley was very small yet rich and fertile. Camped near night at Pleasant Spring. The country on top of the mountain was poor sandy unproductive. saw but 3 or 4 farms. Marched during the day, according to Gen Davis account about 28 miles.

August 20, Thursday. Marched at daylight, about 3 miles. camped on Coon Creek about one mile from Stevenson Alabama situated on the Line of the Memphis and Charlston Rail Road. The remainder of the day spent in policing ground: in thicket: for camp….

August 21, Friday. Preparations are being made, which indicate a short sojourn in this region, of the country. I was detailed and spent the day with a fatigue party….

August 22, Saturday. A large detail sent out on Picket also a large detail policing in rear of quarters. nearly all the regiment at work….

August 23, Sabbath. Detailed on picket duty at 8 a.m. passed the day very pleasantly in the swamps, except the mosquetoes were bad—almost beyond endurance. Inspection day in camp….

August 24, Monday. Relieved from duty at 8 A. M. feel somewhat depreciated in value since the incessant nights labor—keeping the mosquetoes off my face….At 6, P. M. the vote was taken in the 22d—whether we should apply for a position as "mounted infantry" in the new organization of mounted forces, now in, progress under Gen Rousseau. The vote of the men gave a majority of one hundred and fifteen in favor of being mounted, while the Officers gave a majority of three against it.

August 25, Tuesday….At 3 P. M. Rev. Charlott, and I visited the country in search of peaches Traveled near five miles on mule back in search of frut but returned near night with nothing, the country having been cleared of all vegetables by soldiers….

August 26, Wednesday….Cannonading heard at about 7 a.m. supposed to be in the vicinity of the Tenn. river. did not continue a ve-y great while, consequently it is supposed to be of little importance….John. Williams, Co "I" 22d Ind Vol. returned from furlough late at night.

August 27, Thursday….weather aguish. I visited the town of Stevenson at 9. a.m. (having a pass for ten days,) found a deserted village of little importance, save as it is made so by the junction formed by the railroads There are very few buildings in the place and they are small and old. has two depots, one on the terminus of the Louisville & Nashville, R. R. the other on the Memphis & Charlston R. R. The country on the North side is very mountainous and rough, while that on the South side neare the Tenn River, is very low 2nd swampy.

August 28, Friday….has a tendency to "Ague," while in the swamps of the Tenn. river bottoms. forage parties, police, and various other details sent out of the Reg. nearly all on duty. At 5 P. M. I, with a detail of men was sent out on picket duty to occupy the space vacated by the marching of the 3d Brig. at 4 P. M….

August 29, Saturday. The 2nd Brig. marched early this morning to the Tenn river. Relieved from duty at 8 A. M. All quiet save the light, flashy rumors of marching orders. A. Branan of Co "I" sent to hospital, sick. Day passed off pleasantly.

August 30, Sabbath. At 4, a.m. Received orders to march at 7 a.m. at which time marched out in the direction of Stevenson, at which place turned to the right in a south-east course, arriving at the Tenn river at 9, a.m. halted on the bank until 4 P. M. The Tennessee is a beautiful stream 450 yards wide at the crossing. A pontoon bridge is constructed across the river at this point, that deserves the admiration of man. Thus 450 yards of water were spaned by a continuous line of pontoon boats, troops and wagons crossing all morning. At 4 P. M. marched across the river, and down the bottom a distance of 2 mile and camped at the foot of the of Sand mountains. A beautiful spring rising from below, in a level spot of country. The river bottom on the south side, is about a mile wide, rather flat and swampy. There was no opposition to our crossing the river, the rebels having been misled by the "wyly Roscrans," who played off a nice joke, by pretending to be throwing a pontoon bridge across at Bridge Port, and in the mean time put them over 15 miles below, thus flanking their position and compelling them to give way. The night passed off very pleasantly, had plenty of corn to eat, which was greatly relished together with other food.

August 31, Monday…..early in the morning received orders to march at 7 a.m. at which time got orders to get ready "muster," which was done this being the regular day to "muster" for pay. all in a hustle not knowing what do, or what to depend upon. troops 2d Brig marching…out. At 2 P. M. we marched out to the ascent of the Mountain, which was but 1/2 mile distant; and 1 1/2 miles high and very rough, steep and winding, very stony with tremendous cliffs of sand stone. The brigade was deployed along the side of "Sandy—Mountain" by which means our train, was conveyed up the rough ascent. Arrived at the top against dark. from this point the surrounding scenery is most beautiful. The Tenn. river, its bottoms, which are five miles wide, Stevenson Ala. and the high towering mountains beyond, indented by deep ravins, through which flows the mountain streams. This grand view, extending far and wide, is within one grasp of the eye. We march forward a distance of two miles, on top of the ridge, here and there crossing a ravine, which caused slight variations in the ground. The country is very sandy and poor, covered with White Pine, timber, together with oak and shrubery of various kinds, it would be a lonely desolate place to live….

September 1, 1863, Tuesday. The forenoon was spent in dividing baggage for the purpose of sending back the extra; transportation having been cut down to three wagons to the regiment. The extra was sent to Stevenson Ala. to be stored. The after-noon was occupied in making out Pay Rolls….

September 2, Wednesday. Marched early in the morning, passing over a very rough country, ravines and hills, now and then an open spcace in cultivation but these were scarce. The country was sandy, the stone being all sand, or a mixture of sand. In the afternoon crossed town Creek, which is a "novel Stream," situated on the top of sand mountain, runing in a basin of stone made appearantly for that purpose the scene was a beautiful one. the solid stone, which is a conglomeration of matter, in the form of sand and little round crystal stones. After traveling near 20 miles, decended to the vally below, which was about half mile distaint, the road rough, circuitous and steep. Camped in the vally. the 22nd was soon ordered out on picket. marched over a mountain hill which was high stony and steep, were posted in the vally on the opposite side from camp….

September 3, Thursday. Day passed off quietly, troops continualy coming in and camping in the vally. in the afternoon Michells Division of Cavalry came in. Relieved from picket at 7 P. M. returned to and camped on the ground we had occupied the evening before.

September 4, Friday. Cavalry moving out early, at 3 o'clock, a.m….Marched at 3 p.m. in a southward direction, up lookout vally, a distance of four miles. Camped near a beautiful spring of water which boils out perrpendicular from the earth, water very cold, and plenty, vally very narrow and stony, yet fertile. has plenty of good corn and other vegetables, which are appropiated to the use of the army, without stint. The mountains on either side are very tall and rough. Lookout Mountains bordering on the east side. Rebels reported to be evacuating Chattanooga, and we are harrassing their flank.

September 5, Saturday. Yet lying in camp at vally Head Post office, which derives its name from its being situated at the head of Lookout and Wills vally which decend the one north and the other South from this point. are camped on the Winston Plantation….Roads very dusty where earth can be found. Cavalry moving out to Rawlingsville, distance about 10 miles South.

September 6, Sabbath…..Several prisoners came in this morning. heard a sermon this A. M. by Parson Charlot. Day passes drearily away, as always does the Sabbath in the army. Divine worship at Div. Head. Qrs. all were invited to attend, by request of Gen. Davis.

September 7, Monday. Yet in camp at Vally Head, which is merely a Post Office….Prisoners still arriving today.

September 8, Tuesday….fatigue parties being sent out to day to prepare rozds. little of importance being done, except by the cavalry which has been traversing the hills in every direction after guerrillas and reb's, capturing a few of them. Cavalry moving in various directions, nothing can be known of their movments. Dress-parade at 6 P. M. in the presence of Gen Davis and wife, who were out to see us perform. all passed off quietly.

September 9, Wednesday. One Division of Cavalry and the 2nd and 3d Brigade of Davis Div marching out eastward, across the mountain this morning. evidently have some thing important to do. Chattanooga having been evacuated by the rebels, the cavalry expedition was ordered to halt. and we received orders to march to the top of the Mountain at 2 P. M. Ascended to the top of Lookout Mountain about 2 miles distant, the hill being about one mile long, pretty steep, hut the roads were very good to be situated on such a mountain. the road ascended at an angle to the eastward. Co "I" detailed for Picket guard….All on the alert at night watching for the enemy, hut none appeared

September 10, Thursday. The 2nd and 3d Divisions, (Johnson's and Sheridan's) of McCooks Corps. came up the hill and marched off in a southeasterly direction, toward Rome Ga. Relieved from "Picket" at 4, P. M. Went at the seting of the Sun to view the Valley's and mountain ranges, from this the father of Mountains. The scene was one of beauty and splendor almost insurpassable. From a clift of stone 80 or 90 feet high, could be seen 6 or 7 mountain ranges,—far as the eye could reach. The beautiful valleys through which flows the mountain streams, and which are so fertile, are visible north and south to the extent of the eye's. Wagon trains ascending the hill all night, a detail sent from the regiment to assist them up.4

September 11, Friday. Still the wagon trains continue to ascend the hill slowly. Co "I" detailed at noon to assist the wagons up, relieved at night by others. wagons moving all night. Still Camped on the summit of the mountain near the Georgia Line.

September 12, Saturday….wagons still arriving, until near noon, when the rear of the train passed by. Got a bountiful supply of the fat of the land—fruit, Potatoes chickens, Pork and beef. lived well for a time. About 6 P. M. received orders to march to the foot of the mountain and camp, which was done in admirable style—every man carrying his load of Potatoes with him. Got into camp a little after dark, near the beautiful spring at Valley Head. Had quite a pleasant bed, formed of Alabama "pin-feathers," in the shape of "pebbles," of stone.

September 13, Sabbath…..at noon I was detailed, together with 42 men to escort a forage train to the country. traveled about seven miles down Lookout Valley on the line of the Northeastern Alabama R. R. The valley was very narrow yet fertile. Got one "bushwhacker" who gave himself up, being surrounded. was sent to head quarters of Brig. Returned at night well loaded with corn.

September 14, Monday…..dust almost intolerable in the roads, over which there has been so much travel. McCooks Corps returned to Lookout valley, for the purpose of reinforcing Thomas in the centre: who was having a forminidable [force] to contend with, farther north, in Cove Valley. Rumors of all discriptions afloat. Received a heavy mail at night, with the welcome, "Supply" train."

September 15, Tuesday. Detailed for Picket guard at 9 a.m. Cavalry coming down the mountains from the front all day, and moving southward down Will's Valley. it is reported that they engaged the enemies cavalry five or six miles out. Late in the afternoon McCooks Corps returned, (Thomas having driven the rebels from their position) a portion of which ascended the mountain the remainde", camping in the valley….

September 16, Wednesday. Troops moving forward up the mountain early in the morning rebels reported to be runing again. First Brig. to which 22nd Ind belongs Ordered to remain in the valley, the first such favor ever confered upon this Brigade. I was relived from Picket at 9 A. M….Trains moving all day to the front. Received a large mail at night.

September 17, Thursday…..day passed by quietly….

September 18, Friday…..Received orders, about 6 o'clock,

a.m. to be ready to march soon as rations could be issued. It is said that we are to be relieved by cavalry. Marched at 11 o'clock, a.m. ascended Lookout Mountain traveled about 11 miles, and halted one hour for dinner. resumed the march at 3 1/2 P. M. traveling 9 miles, halting 10 o'clock at night, on a rough stony hill-side. Water scarce

  • 4 This entry and those for several days following refer to the preparations being made by Rosecrans in anticipation of the battle which occurred at Chickamauga on the 19th of September.
men wearied and worn down by ma[r]ching over such a stony country after night….my bed of sand-stone not very entertaining.

September 19, Saturday. Arose early in the morning feeling considerably worse of' the wear. Marched two miles, halting on the eastern sumit of Lookout Montains, at a place eight miles north-west of Lafeyett Georgia, and 23 miles North-east of Valley Head Ala. The country over which this road passes is very rough, stony, poor, and seldom any signs of cultivation, also poorly watered with nothing of an inviting character. In the Valley east of us, which is deep and broad, and overlooked by the mountain hights, is massed Rose-cram army, and a short distance beyond lies the army of Gen Bragg. The firing of artillery some 12 or 15 miles distant can be distinctly heard. The clouds of dust and the smoke from the small arms: which were distinctly visible, told that a terrible battle was in progress: the result of which we eagerly wished to know, but being so far behind the army, could not get the result. The night was spent on the summit of this the roughest: of rough mountains….(letter, Chattanooga, Tenn., October 3, 1863)….We were not engaged in the great Battle of "Chickamauga," having been detailed as train guard: came near being captured: rather exciting times. after the army began to retreat as we (1st Brig) were 20 miles South of Chattanooga, and following in their trail. it is almost a miracle that we escaped without a fight, after thus being cut off from the main army. often formed in line to meet the enemy, but he never came….

September 20, Sabbath. Marched early in the morning, decending the mountain, which was about two miles length, very steep rough and crooked. marched northward in the trail of the main army. crossing Missionary ridge and passing various qualities of country, none very superior in quality. the whole country was laid waste by the contending armies: About 12. M. our advance was fired into by some rebel scouts. we soon formed to give battle expecting to fight out way through the rebel army far as we could: knowing at the same time that they had the 1st Brigade cut off from the army: and that we were at their mercy. But they: misconstruing: our approach: for the arrival of reinforcements: with-held their assault, after failing in one attempt: to dislodge Mitchells Command of Cavalry, at Crawfish Springs, at which place we arrived, at 2, P. M. having marched 20 miles. Joy was engraved in every countenance,—us at our delivery from the clutches of the enemy,—the Cavalry at the appearance of assistance, which was very much needed at that moment. The Brigade being cut off from the Division, reported to the Cavalry commander, with which we remained. At Crawfish Springs, there was a very large hospital and a number of wounded, which were being re-moved fast as possible, while we were lying in line of battle to meet the enemy. At 4, P. M. again resumed the march northward, (leaving some of our wounded behind, but Surgeons, medicines, nurses, and Provisions, were left with them,) passed through a gap in Mission Ridge, entering the valley at root of Lookout Mountain, through which we coursed our way northward. Rebels followed close on our rear. Halted at night drew rations, and lay by fires, (night being very cold,) until about 11, P. M. marched slowly on a distance of 5 or 6 miles, halting 1 o'clock at night, to repose on the cold ground, with no beding save what…we carried. Frosted heavy during the night. We were in hearing of the artillery all day, and had reason to believe that our condition was a critical one.

September 21, Monday. Arose in the morning. all appeared quiet, no cannonading to be heard. we advanced a short distance southward to a good position, and there formed to await the approach of the rebbels, who did not appear. here the night was spent….

September 22, Tuesday. Awoke at 3, a.m. and marched north 2 miles. halted got breakfast by day-light, and again formed across the valley, and hastily prepared of rails and stone; some works for defense and protection. Marched from this position shortly after noon, when within two miles of Chattanooga our flank was so hard pressed that escape appeared almost impossible. again was the Brigade formed for the purpose of self defense, while our Battery amused itself with shelling them for a time, whereupon they gave us a passway. Marched forward along the road, the rebels shelling us, to the best of their ability, which proved not to be very good as no one was hurt. Crossed Chickamauga Creek: (about one mile from Chattanooga, at 3 o'clock, P. M., along which we formed, and immediately began to dig—to fortify: Co "I" was detailed on picket. The rebels kept a continuous Shelling the remainder of the day to prevent our working. Our artillery did not reply often.

September 23, Wednesday. Work progressed speedily on the works to day. All are interested in the ditches, as "life preservers" Relieved from picket at 3, P. M. About 100 shots fired from our artillery during the day without a reply. After dark a heavy fight of musketry and artillery, ensued on the left of us, in front of Branans Div. which resulted in the death of many rebels and few of our men. all under arms during the excitement, which subcided about 10, P. M.

September 24, Thursday. Under arms very early. continuous skirmishing during the day also heavy cannonading on both sides. At 4, P. M. got orders, (the 22nd Ind. together with 74th Ill.) to reconnoiter in our front, to ascertain the strenght and position of the enemy. Co "I" deployed as skirmishers. had not proceeded far until the rebels began to stir—soon heavy skirmishing began. the 22nd lost one killed and severel wound. Co "I" had one Jas Kemper slightly wounded in shoulder after driving in, their skirmishers and learning their force, the expedition returned at night. At 11 1/2 o'clock at night, the rebels attacked the centre,—to our left. in a moment every man was to his post in the works. The firing was heavy for one hour, ceasing at 12 1/2. The firing of artillery was heavy, and beautiful to behold. All became quiet and we retired to rest for the remainder of the night.

September 25, Friday. Up at 3 A. M. and moved back to the second line of works, leaving the outer line to be occupied by the "out post" pickets, we being the reserve in the 2 line. Heavy cannonading at intervals during the day. At night the rebels attacked Johnsons pickets,—to our right—a sharp engagement of about one hours duration ensued—resulting unfavorably to the rebels, they leaving severel dead and wounded near by our works. All fly to arms the moment firing begins on the lines…Bed in the ditch—humble situation!

September 26, Saturday. Up at 4, a. m. Every thing quiet to day, save a few cannon shots: at each meal time during the day: from rebel Batteries, to make us get into the ditches. no harm done to any one at all….

September 27, Sabbath. The beautiful Sabbath morning dawned, and the calm peaceful air rests undisturbed, save by the sound of an occasional musket shot on the picket line: thus the day passed quietly by: A flag of "truce" was sent out to inquire after our wounded. At night, as usual, the rebels advanced in front of Johnsons Div. which was soon followed by a sharp skirmish, resulting favorably.

September 28, Monday…..A large Ambulance train passed out after wounded, between the picket lines. our Ambulance drivers were displaced: by the rebels who took them and returned to the same place the following day. Rebel Drums and Brass bands could be heard very distinctly this morning. no firing today.

September 29, Tuesday. All quiet on the lines. Brigade inspection at 8 o'clock A. M. Ambulance train returned with wounded….

September 30, Wednesday. At 2 o'clock, a.m. the 22nd was ordered to the front: to relieve the 74 Ill which was doing outpost picket duty. Had been assigned to our various positions, Co "I", as pickets, and all quiet. At the dawn of morning, our sentinels found that they were in very close proximity to those of the rebels, some of them even so near as 60 or 80 yards, all using water from the same stream, (Chickamauga) Could often see 20 or 30 rebels at one sight, and we took no care to keep ourselves concealed….(letter) They converse some and exchange papers occasionaly. can offten see 40 or 50 of them at one time….(October 3, 1863)

October 1, 1863, Thursday. On picket south side of Chickamauga creek, which is a deep dirty stream, with rugged steep banks. surrounding country level and beautiful, but laid waste by the ravages of war. Relieved from picket at 6 A. M. and returned a few rods to the works. rain continued all day, falling very fast at times, almost overflowing our resting place. At 11 o'clock at night rain ceased to fall, and it became very cola. Our blankets and clothing being wet, caused considerable suffering.

October 2, Friday….No disturbance on the line: the rebels moving—changing position: some apprehensions of an attack: but no demonstrations made….

October 3, Saturday. At 8 A. M. 1st Brigade was relieved by the 2nd (we having been on duty since the 22 of Sept.) returned to 3d line of works near the edge of town, about 3/4 of a mile from the Tennessee river. little of note transpired during the day.

October 4, Sabbath. I got a pass and crossed the river after my Velise have been separated form my clothing for more than two weeks….Many men suffer severely having lost their blankets in the battle. All quiet during the day save two cannon shots fired at noon.

October 5, Monday. The day passed off quietly, until about noon, when the rebels opened on our works, with their artillery from the side of Lookout Mountain The firing was continued pretty brisk, during the afternoon, and at intervals during the night: The Shot and Shell droped very plentifuly about us. did but little injury, so far as heard from. Our batteries did not reply often.

October 6, Tuesday. Awoke early in the morning expecting the rebels to open on as with all their available artillery force, from the high commanding position they occupied on the side of Lookout Mountain: ranging from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 miles distant, but there was so much fog and smoke as to almost obscure the Sun-light, until 10, A. M. and so much so as to render cannonading impracticable, and useless, for either party. And yesterdays experiments, revealed to then the fact that their artillery was or, a position so much elevated, as to render it harmless to us: and almost useless, to them: save the annoyance their Shells gave us. One Shot fired from Ft Negley at 3, P. M. no reply from the rebels….one shot fired after night, after which all was again quiet as usual, during the night.

October 7, Wednesday…..but few Shots fired from our Batteries, without a reply.

October 8, Thursday. Morning very smoky until 10, A. M. Our artillery practiced a little in the after-noon throwing shells at the rebels, but few shuts, in reply. Day passed by pleasantly, quite different from the 8 of Oct. one year since, at which time we were engaged in the Battle of Perryville, Ky. [October 8, 1862.]

October 9, Friday. Morning cool and frosty, so much fog in the air as to render it almost dark until 10 o'clock A. M. A detail of 100 at work on the Forts as usual. Living on half rations since 22nd Sept. in order to get a supply on hand to prevent suffering should communication, with our "base" of supplies be interrupted.5 A few Shots fired on the extreme right and centre: by our batteries, but were not replied to by the rebels. The rebel "Signal corps" on the summit of Lookout Mountain was seriously disturbed by the bursting of "Yankee Bomb's" in their immediate vicinity. All quiet along the Lines. I visited some of the wounded in hospitals it was realy gratifying to see them so cheerful and lively: yet distressing to see their condition—with legs, feet, arms and hand amputated, and wounds of every conceivable shape and form. They are being sent north fast as they are able, to go. their treatment is very good.

October 10, Saturday…..All quiet until noon, at which time a few shots were fired at "Lookout," and again at night a few more were filed, without receiving a reply from the rebel Batteries. At noon a detail, consisting of almost the entire regiment were sent out, to work on the forts….

October 11, Sabbath. At 8 A.M. the first Brigade went out on picket. the 22d Ind halted in the 2d line of works as a "reserve." A few Shots fired during the day from our batteries, situated on the north bank of the Tennessee river, that being on a very high point, in a bend of the river, near the rebel lines, and very near to, and opposite the point of Lookout Mountain….

  • 5 After the battle of Chickamauga, Rosecran's supply problem at Chattanooga was very serious; and not until after he was relieved of the command were adequate means established for the supply of this army.

October 12, Monday. But few shots fired from our batteries during the day, none from the rebels….

October 13, Tuesday…..All quiet during the day.

October 14, Wednesday. Continued to rain during the day and night, in heavy torrents, together with severe wind, which blew "shelter-tents" in every direction. Men and all they posses wet—drowned out. The ditches full of water.

October 15, Thursday. At 6 o'clock, A. M. a detail of 112 men were sent to guard a train to Stevenson, Alabama after "Rations"….Relieved from pick. at 2, P. M. and returned to the 3d line of works, to camp as best we could, being wet and mudy. Blankets and baggage as wet as the water which fell upon them. Wind blew heavy and cold, had no wood with which to make fires, suffered severely at night. Received orders for the Regt to be ready to go after forage at 7 A. M. on the morrow.

October 16, Friday. Marched out at 7, A. M. crossed the Tennessee river, (which was so much swollen by the late rains as to break the "pontoon bridge,") on…the Steamer "Paint Rock" Arrived at the train on the north bank of the river, and about 10 A. M. were found wending our way northward, over ridges and through valleys, having been assigned to our post,—4 men to a wagon. The valleys were very narrow, the country stony and not very fertile or beautiful. Passed some beautiful Mountain Streams. Camped for the night at Cole's Tavern, at the foot of the Mountain,—"Waldrons Ridge", 18 miles from Chattanooga. the roads over which we passed were almost impassable….

October 17, Saturday…..At 12, M. ascended the hill, which was about a mile long, and very rough and steep. traveled about five miles on the mountain and camped, for the night.

October 18, Sabbath. Began the march early in the morning. it soon became cloudy and began to rain—rain with a vengeance. Thus we tuged our way across the mountain a distance of 12 miles, and down a distance of 3 miles, mud beyond discription. Having to wait often for other trains to pass, got along slow. The decent of the mountain was not very steep, but very rough, with stone and mud. Camped about 2 miles from the foot of the mountain, in Sequachie Valley….

October 19, Monday. The train moved early in the morning, up the Sequachie River which is a nice stream, not very large The valley is a beautiful one, very rich and well watered. the inhabitants are loyal. Arrived within three miles of Pikeville, Bledsoe Co. loaded our wagon [s], 75 in number, and camped for the night….

October 20, Tuesday. At 7 A. M. moved off slowly south-ward—retracing our steps. Roads pretty good, but rough….Camped at the foot of the mountain for the night.

October 21, Wednesday. Began to ascend the mountain at 6. reached the summit a distance of three miles, at 9 1/2, A. M….

October 22, Thursday…..Halted and camped for the night, at 2, P. M. the eastern pass of Waldrons Ridge being so full of wagons as to be impassable. were delayed in many places by meeting so many large wagon trains.

October 23, Friday. Was aroused at 4, A. M. by a sudden and terrible hail Storm, which did not last long, but was followed by rain—rain without ceasing decended the mountain and traveled southward down the valley. camped within ten miles of Chattanooga. Roads very mudy….

IV Camp Life at Chattanooga: Missionary Ridge

Rosecrans was relieved of his command after Chickamauga and the retreat to Chattanooga. Ulysses S. Grant was placed in charge of all forces between the Alleghenies and the Mississippi, and General George H. Thomas was given command of the Army of the Cumberland. The forces were strengthened, the supply problem greatly improved, and the offensive resumed. The battle of Lookout Mountain and the charge up Missionary Ridge brought success to these efforts.

The effect of these changes appears in the diary for October 24, 1863. The diary and five letters give a highly interesting and intimate account of this significant part of the war, including the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. The Twenty-Second took part in the latter and Lieutenant Mayfield was among the soldiers wounded at this time. His descriptions of life in camp, of the execution of deserters, and of the battle and battlefield are among the best passages found in his letters and diaries.

The report of Major General Ulysses S. Grant for the period covered by this portion of the diary may be found in Official Recods, Series I, Vol. XXXI, Part 2, pp. 27–37. Colonel Michael Gooding, commanding the Twenty-Second Indiana Infantry, cited Mayfield in his report of November 27, 1863, ibid., 204–06.

October 24, Saturday. Arrived at Chattanooga about 3, P. M. having traveled 100 miles through rain and mud. were gone 9 days, on three days rations; and returned to find our brigade disbanded, and shifted to other commands, the 20th & 21st Army Corps having been consolidated, forming the 4th Corps, Comded by Gordon Granger. The 22nd Ind was placed in the 1st Brig. comded by Brig Gen Stead-man, and 2nd Division comded by Major Gen Sheridan, on the whole the change was very agreeable. I am quite well pleased….Began to make preparations to camp in good order, for the first time since entering Chattanooga….

October 25, Sabbath. I enjoyed the company of a wool blanket, not having slept with a blanket for more than a week. I was on duty all day with a large detail, diching and policing regimental parade ground, day passed off quietly.

October 26, Monday….the day was occupied in hauling lumber, and brick, and building sheds with chimneys attached. the late frosts give the men a will to work for comfort. At night an expedition, 2 Brigades under Gen Baird started down the Tenn river to get possession of some hights on the south side of the river. They succeeded well.

October 27, Tuesday….time still occupied in ereting sheds or houses for comfort. Have a very nice little residence, for the accommodation of four, with good bunks and an "old-fashioned" "fire place" all very comfortably situated, at present Heavy cannonading heard during the day down the river, fighting is going on in that direction….

October 28, Wednesday…..Rebels very quiet in front. Heavy cannonading during the entire day in the direction of Lookout Mountain and Racoon Ridge. From 1 to 3 o'clock at night, there was heavy fighting with artillery and musketry on the extreme right. Rumors afloat that our forces were successful in the night fighting, dislodging the rebels from their position.

October 29, Thursday. Cannonading continued all day from Lookcut Mountain and west of that place. fighting evidently in progress on the extreme right….The Steamer "Paint Rock" ran the blockade, passed down the river to Bridgeport, after night, for the purpose of transporting supplies to the army. Rebel sharp shooters fired into them as they passed down doing little injury. Have bright hopes now of be [ing] supplied bountifuly at this place Communication now being open by river and by rail, soon as the road can be repaired, to within a few miles of Chattanooga.

October 30, Friday…..Cannonading all day at intervals….

October 31, Saturday….very busy all day, preparing to muster; preparing monthly and Ration Returns. Firing at intervals, from Lookout Mountain, doing little or no injury.

November 1, 1863, Sabbath…..Very little Cannonading to day Rations short, but prospects good for something better, as the Tenn. river has been opened to within a few miles of Chattanooga, and a couple of Steamers are plying between Bridgeport and that point, by which we expect plenty of all that pertains to soldier life. Rev. Charlott addressed a small audience to day: this is the first sermon I have heard for severel weeks.


Chattanooga, Tenn.
Nov 1st 1863.

….Lieut Marshall has been detailed as "Quarter Master" of the Regiment for what length of time I know not, consequently I have taken command of the Company to day: and will necessarily have a great deal to do now: more than every before. I will now have to do a great deal of writing,—Making out "Monthly Returns," "Ration Returns," "Ordnance Reports" Muster and Pay Rolls, and doing many other kinds of company business….We are having very pleasant time here considering, what might be expected under the circumstances. Rations have been short since we came here, but the Tennessee river having been opened to within 5 or 6 miles of Chattanooga, and having two Steamers to ply between Brideport and that point, makes the prospect very fair for better times, in the "grub" and clothing line.

The Rail Road is also open to within two or three miles of this place but not repaired yet. The prospect for better times are very flattering. Have plenty of duty to do—on "picket" once every third day and "fatigue duty" the remainder of the time. But where this is realy necessary, as it has been here, it is considered no hardship. The rebel pickets stand within two hundred yards of ours, neither one firing, without some demonstrations on the part of the other are made. There has been, during the last week, some very warm fighting, down the river, caused by the advance of Hookers command, they succeeded well, but lost a number of men about 200. The cannons are roaring again to day as usual:—create no uneasyness whatever with us, we being so used to them. There has been no fighting in our immediate front for near three weeks. I can see the rebel camps very plain while siting in my "Hut" which by the way is a very "fine" little establishment composed principaly of Board with a Shingle roof, and a Brick chimney attached, which adds to comfort a great deal, especialy of cold rainy days….

November 2, Monday. During last night and this morning the rebels approached near to our lines and attempted to throw up earthworks, our batteries opened upon them near twelve o'clock. a battery within a few yards of our camp fired quite number of rounds during the day disturbing the rebels to a great degree. No reply from them. They fired a number of shots from the summit of Lookout Mountain in various directions, some at our picket detail as they went out this morning, doing no injury so far as I can learn….Mail arrives pretty regular again. About 8 o'clock at night the Brigade was called out in line, and formed in the breastworks, (the diches of which were partialy filled with mud and water) as though an attack was expected, the rebels having been unusualy bold in their demonstrations during last night and to day. After standing in line until about half past 9 o'clock were dismissed, and returned to quarters, about 100 yards distant. Quite a large detail was sent out to the front, near the picket line, to fortify (under cover of the night,) a position in which to use artillery, should the rebels persist in their attempt to fortify so near our lines.

November 3, Tuesday…..Detailed and reported for "pickt guard", at 6 1/2 A. M. Passed the regular routine of "Guard Mount"—Inspection and Review" in the meantime the "Brass Band" was discoursing music for us. The picket detail from the Brigade numbered about 300 men. About 11 A. M. the battery in Ft Negley opened on the rebels who were attempting to work The shells bursted so near to them as to cause them to break and run in wild confusion across the field like so many wild turkeys, with their heads tucked down. Some of them were known to be hurt. Shelling continued all day at intervals from Lookout Mountain, also our Batteries kept up a pretty brisk fire from Mockison Point, which is a hight point on an Island about one mile below Chattanooga, and almost opposite to Lookout Mountain. But few shots fired at night, all quiet on the lines, rebels very close by.

November 4, Wednesday….Relieved from picket at 8 A. M. A few artillery shots fired near noon continuing during the day at intervals….In the after noon the detail of 11 men from Co "I", 112 from regiment, returned from Stevenson Ala. having been gone since the 15 of October, guarding a supply train. was happy to see them return home, after being absent so long a time. they were greeted by us, as the[y] would by their friends, should they be permitted to return home. Soldiers of a company, or regiment become attached to each other to such a degree as to cause them to act, (when meeting a companion of long absence,) as though he were a brother

November 5, Thursday…..Unusualy quiet to day. comparatively few cannon shots fired during the day.

November 6, Friday. Cannonading begins pretty early, principaly west of Lookout Mountain, all quiet in front….

November 7, Saturday. Quite an unusual amount of artillery firing to day, from the point of Lookout, and from Mockison point….Rations are a little more plenty, with better prospect ahead.

November 8, Sabbath. Slightly clouded today with a piercing wind astir, dashing the smoke to and fro, and entering every slight opening, in my Cottage, which by the way arc not so scarce. "Shelling" is the order of the day. none interfere with us. No indications of a collision between the contending armies. Two deserters came in this morning. know nothing, only the[y] do not want to fight


Chattanooga Tenn.
Nov 8th 1863

….News has come, almost to a stand point: and nothing is being done, save the regular routine of daily duties, which, by the way: includes cannonading. The rebels have a battery on the point of Lookout Mountain near 2400 feet above us and about 2 miles distant, from which they exert themselves to the utmost to injure us. The shells from that point burst high in the air doing no injury whatever

Our Batteries on Fort Negley near by us have been annoying the rebels a great deal this past week, while they were attempting to approach our lines with new fortifications they were in plain view of the picket line, and we could see the result of every Shot. One shell burst in a stack of guns, scattering them high in the air. I could see the men runing to the timber with all possible speed. Two deserters came in to that Station last night, and report that, at the bursting of that one shell, there was one Lieut killed and five men wounded. they then suspended operations until a more convenient season, and that season does not come often.

Supplies are coming in very fast by way of the Tennessee rive to whithin eight miles of Chattanooga and from that point are easily hauled. The Catholic Church Bell is now ringing in town. it sounds very much like the Church Bell at Franklin and reminds of the many pleasant hours I have passed, inside of that Institution. How different my situation now, but I enjoy myself very well. have good health, have not been on the "Sick list" or off duty since October 1862. have no reason for complaint. I enlisted to fight rebels, and expect to do so long as…they hold out, if I am spared so long as that….

Artillery practice has been a little more brisk to day than usual. it signifies nothing….

Jessee Mayfield is here in my "house." he was sick about two weeks ago, but has recovered, so as to have good health again. My health is is very good….

November 9, Monday….Artillery practice continues very lively to day. "Dress parade" at 4, P. M. wind blowing so severely as to make it difficult to stand in line.

November 10, Tuesday. Morning cold and frosty ground frozen, ice on standing water. I was detailed to work on one of the Forts, wind blew cool all day, labor was necessary to prevent suffering with cold yet on half rations. Very few shots fired to day—unusualy quiet—the rebels are geting tired of waisting amunition from the crest of Lookout Mountain.

November 11, Wednesday…..Very little cannonading until near night, when it was pretty brisk for hall an hour….

November 12, Thursday….there was some artillery practice in the direction of Lookout….

November 13, Friday….the brigade was called out to witness the execution of two "Deserters", one Benjamin of the 44 Ill. and one Daly of the 88th Ill. The brigade was formed in a hollow square in two lines, between which the procession marched: the convicts marching after their Coffins, the Brass Band playing a plaintive tune—all performed in solemn style. A file of men were drawn up in line, twelve in number, half of the peices charged with Blank cartridges. After the Parsons had waited upon them, they were seated upon their Coffins eyes blinded: the troops kneeled at which instant the guns fired, the men falling back, dying without a groan. It looked hard that men should thus be treated, but it cannot be doubted that they got their dues. The heavy fog and smoke prevented the rebels from shelling us, as they attemped, with marked effect. It was extremely warm about noon, at the time of the execution. But few shots fired during the day. Dress Parade every afternoon at 4, P. M.

November 14. Saturday…..Lieut Marshall received detail to go to Indiana on "Recruiting Service" also Adjutant Adams Lieut West-over, and Seven Segts from the regiment. Cannonading in the vicinity of Lookout Mountain continued during the day.

November 15, Sabbath…..The day was occupied in receiving pay, for four months, ending 31st of October. At 7 o'clock A. M. Lieut Marshall began his journey northward. Some very brisk artillery firing in the afternoon, as usual doing no injury so far as heard from. Thus a Sabbath day was spent, receiving money and setling account; how long must this continue! not even the wisest of the nation can tell!

November 16, Monday….little of note occured, save the usual routine of camp duties, and cannonading.


Chattanooga Tenn.
Nov 16th 1863.

….Deserters from the rebel army succeed in reaching our lines amost every night, and a goodly number of them are Commissioned Officers. they run narrow risks in the attempt, are always fired upon by their own men and often by ours, mistaking the object of their approach. They report that there are many regiments, from which every man would willingly desert if there was an opportunity, but that they have three lines of sentinels in order to prevent this. The deserters report the rebels suffering for many articles which are necessary for the comfort of men. amongst other things they are very scarce of Pork, and Sugar and Coffee they have not. If our soldiers happen to get without these articles for even a few days, there is a general lamentation. We received four months pay yesterday my allowance was $410.00. I have sent $300. home, have some left to assist you if you are needing assistance….

17th This morning early the artillery broke out in good style up the river. the firing was terrific in the extreme for half an hour, then ceased and all is quiet in that direction I do not know either the cause of the firing or the result. But suppose that it was our forces attempting to lay a "Pontoon Bridge" across the river

Lieut R. V. Marshall started home on the 15th inst…on "Recruiting Service" you may possibly get to see him while he is at home. You will find him a very common and pleasant man in his manners, if you should become acquainted with him. In his absence I am left alone with the company. have no doubt that I can get along well….

November 17, Tuesday. At the dawn of day, artillery "opened" on the left, in the vicinity of the river, continuing for about half an hour, in good order—terrific. it is reported that but one man on our side was hurt. It is said to have been brought about by an attempt on our part to span the river, with a pontoon bridge, with which they have been successful. If such be the case stiring news may be expected soon from this quarter of the Globe. May the good work continue to prosper and meet with success….Slight firing from Lookout Mountain. Also a number of shots fired from Mockison Point.

November 18, Wednesday. I was detailed at 6% A. M. for fatigue duty, with 150 men, to work on Forts….About noon there were a few heavy volleys of musketry fired in the direction of Lookout mountain near the base, result unknown. Rev N. P. Charlott, (Chaplain of the regiment) started early this morning to Ind on business for the regiment.

November 19, Thursday….but one or two shots fired from Lookout Mountain to day, rather singular for it has been their practice to keep up a continuous firing all day….Dress parade at 4 P. M.

November 20, Friday. The 22nd Ind. detailed for picket at 7 1/2 a. m….About noon our artillery began shelling the rebels about t,he base of Lookout Mont The shots were well directed, as we could see the shells explode over the rebel works. The rebels did not reply. At noon received orders to have 80 rounds of cartridges, to the man, and two days cooked rations in haversacks by the following morning shortly after night were relieved from picket to make ready for the contemplated move, which was done, but at 9 o'clock the order was countermanded. we then retired quietly to rest.

November 21, Saturday…..Severel shots fired from Moccasin point to day but none from Lookout Mountain.

November 22, Sabbath. I with a detail of one hundred men, was sent out on picket….Early in the morning it was discovered that the rebels were moving heavy trains and troops eastward, over Mission Ridge, the summit of which is about three miles distant from our camp. There are five roads in view over which they passed. In the fore noon our heavy batteries, in "Ft Wood" opened upon them, which first produced a defiant "yell," and finaly changing into fear and confusion. Our shelis were well directed, continuing during the entire day. The rebels were doubtless very much annoyed. There were a few shots fired from a small gun on Lookout Mountain, doing no injury whatever. no others were fired on the rebels side. Shortly after night we were relieved from picket, having received marching orders with two days rations and eighty rounds of cartridges The "11th Army Corps" came in to night. Shermans Corps has passed up the north bank of the river….

November 23, Monday…..At 1 o'clock P. M. were called into line, and immediately formed a line of battle about 600 yards outside of the works, in an open field. the lines being formed, the left (Woods Division), pressed forward fighting their way, and advanced about 1 1/2 miles, securing a very strong position without much loss: in the mean time we advanced with little resistance. by night the new line was established and was hastily being fortified There was some nice artillery practice from our Forts in the afternoon. 10 o'clock at night a few shots were fired in our front, immediately all were to arms….

November 24, Tuesday. Morning frosty. Were aroused at 2 A. M. and moved farther to the left. At 10, A. M. the battle opened furiously near the western base of Lookout Mountain Our heavy guns on Moccasin point were speedily worked, and about 2, P. M. had the pleasure of seeing our forces coming around the point on the bench of "Lookout." The rebels were immediately charged out of their works on the east side of the mountain. Fighting continued heavy until about 10 o'clock P. M. when all again became quiet. While this was being done, Sherman was crossing his forces near the mouth of Chickamauga which was done without resistance, on the part of the rebels. The loss has been light so far.

November 25, Wednesday. Heavy fighting on the extreme left early this morning, about noon our position was changed to the right. it was evident to my mind that there was something contemplated, from the disposition of the troops—as they were being massed about 2 miles from the summit of Missionary Ridge, in the timber. At 2, P. M. the signal shots were fired and the column, which was 5 or 6 miles in length; advanced together. The ascent of the ridge was very steep and about 1/2 mile high, with one line of rifle pits at the base, another, one third of the distance up, while the crest was lined with troops and heavy artillery, from which the advancing column, (three deep) were subjected to a raking fire, of shot Shell and canister. When within a mile of the first line of rebel works, the different columns started on the "double quick" which soon increased to the "run" immediately the rebel batteries opened, with telling effect, and would have done much injury had not been for our swift movements. The three lines rushed together into the rebel works, after having crossed the open field in very good order. The colum immediately pressed forward up the hill to the 2d Line of works, which were soon occupied, and again we pressed forward, for the crest, losing no time. Near this place seven of Co "I" were wounded being subjected to a heavy cross fire, from enemies artillery. I received a wound in the right arm when within on[e] hundred yards of the crest of the hill The wounded were 1st Segt William B Miller, severely in right shoulder, Segt Moses St. Clair, severly in right side, Corpl Benj T Gardner, severely, shot through left leg, Privates Joseph H. Cooper, flesh wound in right thigh, John T. Eller, severly Shot through the face, John Mc Pike, wounded in shoulder, thigh and hand—concussion of shell, William Southern. severly in left eye. Company "I" numbered forty all told, Eight of whom were wounded. The 22nd lost but three killed and 32 wounded in the engagement, thus showing that my company lost near one fourth. The crest of the hill was gained at 4 1/2, P. M. Regiments were soon formed to repel an assault if one should be made by the rebels but their retreat was hasty and confused, with a loss of many—prisoners, and much artillery. Here we halted to replenish our stock of ammunition, which was greatly depleted, and also the "grub." before this was done orders were received to march in pursuit of the retreating enemy, followed to Chickamauga creek about 5 miles distant, and halted to await the arrival of "day light"….

November 26, Thursday. Marched up near the old Bridge, which had been partialy destroyed by the rebels, and where a temperary crossing was being constructed, and which was well nigh completed when Sheridans Division received orders to return to Chattanooga, (being relieved by Gen Bairds Div. of the 14 Army Corps,) arriving at our camp near night after having traveled about 8 miles, very steady march, and being very sore, since yesterdays, "Charge." Found the camp to be a pleasant resort. Good warm fire, and comfortable bed. At 9 o'clock P. M. received orders to be ready to march at 7 A. M. the following morning, which order was soon countermanded, until further orders. It was then a settled fact that there was no rest for us yet, we must march soon.

November 27, Friday. Morning dawned beautiful and quiet. The entire day passed off without even a rumor to mar the peace of wearied soldiers. My arm swelled very large from shoulder to hand settled Slack with bruised blood. Can not use it, have not been off duty yet. At night received orders to be ready to march at 7 A. M. tomorrow.

November 28, Saturday. Morning cloudy and raining. Troops did not march until near noon, when it ceased to rain. The weather being very disagreeable, and my arm yet being very sore and painful, the Surgeon advised me to remain in camp, which was reluctantly done, it being the first time that…I have been off duty for more than a year. The company started in charg of Segt Coffey.6 Very lonely times in camp….

November 29, Sabbath. Very stormy and cold. The day was occupied in searching for the wounded in hospitals. These were so scattered as to render it very difficult to find them.

November 30, Monday. I visited my old friends in the 59th Ind belonging to Shermans command on the north side of the river. Enjoyed

  • 6 The Twenty-Second Indiana was among the troops sent to aid General A. E. Burnside at Knoxville, where he was being attacked by Confederate troops under General James Longstreet.
the trip very much….suffered severely with my wound after returning

December 1, 1863, Tuesday…..Capt Moss and I took a pleasure excursion over the rebel camps and fortifications, and also over Misaionary Ridge. Found their camps to have been on low, wet, ground and very filthy; their works were very small, and a direct line, without an angle: with which to give an infilading fire. Showing a great lack of skill in engineering, or a degree of carelessness, which causes a failure in everything attempted. Missionary Ridge we found to be very steep, and rough, and the timber well marked with the deadly missiles, especialy the rebel works on the crest of the hill were well battered. Benj. T. Gardner, Co "I" died at General Hospital no. "4", of wound—gun shot through left leg—received 25 of Nov 1863, in the assault of Missionary Ridge.

December 2, Wednesday…..Very little of importance afloat.

A very nice hull of a new steamer, which was captured from the rebels, came down the river to day, it will soon be put in running order.

December 3, Thursday…..At 11 A. M. crossed Chattanooga creek, which is a very deep stream with high banks, emptying into the Tenn. river at the base of Lookout Mountain, at which place the R. R. leading; from Chattanooga to Bridgport crosses. At this point we, (Capt Moss and I) began to ascend the mountain which was very steep and rough, viewed the rifle pits and breast works, which the rebels had constructed during their occupation of the Mountain. Their defenses were good, beside the natural position of the country, which was decidedly in their favor. There are several roads runing around the point of the mountain none of which are very good. About 2/3 of the way up is a spot of cleared land, 40 or 50 acres,—one vast orchard of Fruit trees, and on which is situated, (the ground having been leveled down for that purpose,) a very nice residence, which bears the emblem of war, havir,g had five or six cannon shots to pass through it, thrown from our batteries on Moccasin Piont, situated on the north side, and in a bend of the river opposite to Lookout. This point is so named from its peculiar shape,—being that of a Moccasin complete. We ploded our way up the steep ascent and when within 100 feet of the crest, were compelled to climb ladders a portion of that distance. Reaching the top at 1 o'clock P. M. having been two hours on the way. The stone cliffs on the point are about 100 feet high, and the tops appear to project far out over the base. they are well marked with shots from our artillery. From this point Chattanooga with all its surroundings are distinctly visible. Our large forts situated on high commanding positions appear to be on a common level with other objects, and even Missionary Ridge loses its lofty appearance, when viewed from this point. The rebels had prepared themselves very well, having fortified every pass to the mountain, but so hasty was their retreat, that they left their tents, cooking utensils, and even the Officers many of their trunks. About one mile back, on the crest which is tolerably level and nice, is Summerville, a small village, noted as a pleasant summer retreat, and containing for the most part houses of entertainment, and preparation. for all kinds of amusement, has one very large nice Hotel. After being satisfied with viewing the beauties, we decended on steps prepared for the purpose viewing the rebel earthworks as we returned, arriving at camp near night, wearied and suffering severely with my wound, the fatigue being to great.

December 4, Friday…..I, again searched diligently for Segt Miller, finding him in Johnson's Hospital. His wound is dangerous, he is suffering severely….

December 6, Sabbath…..At noon, accepted an invitation to dine with Capt. Moss,—given as a "Birth day" repast. Had a bountiful supply of the fat of the land—Fowls, Potatoes, and many other eatables, rare to the soldier….

December 7, Monday…..Rev. Charlott returned Little of importance occured….

December 9, Wednesday…..My time occupied in a great degree, visiting 1st Segt William B. Miller, who was dangerously wounded, Nov 25, 1863, and whose recovery: can not be. Suffers severly, must die soon. Is, no doubt, prepared to meet his God!

December 10, Thursday…..Visited Segt Miller often during the day, saw that he must die, suffered much, breathed very hard. At 3 o'clock, P. M. his spirit took its flight, leaving the lifeless form of him, who was so highly respected—so dearly loved.

December 11, Friday. Segt Millers remains intered, by his friends, and Rev Charlott, who were in attendance, in a solemn and respectful manner, due the life he lived. Was buried in the "Chattanooga, U. S. Cemetery." After-noon cool and blustery. Large amount of winter clothing arriving.

December 12, Saturday…..Near noon a salute of (34 guns (20 pdr Parrots) were fired at Ft Wood, cause unknown, to me. I suppose it to be in honor of the permanent occupation of East Tennessee, since Longstreet is retreating, but "rumor" says that it was joy over the capture of Longstreet and a part of his command….

December 13, Sabbath. Raining all day, dreary and lonesome, beyond discription while alone.


Chattanooga, Tenn.
Dec 11th 1863.

…when I last wrote, my arm was paining me to much for me to realize what was written. It is now almost well, but not very stout yet. My health is very good, never was better. I have not heard from the regiment, since they left on the 28th of Nov. more than that they were at Knoxville Tenn. and were expected to return soon. The relief sent from here,—under Sherman—to Burnside caused Longstreet to raise the seige of Knoxville on quick time, if not quicker. I would like to be with the company since I am able to travel. I love to travel in a mountainous country where I can get items, to fill in my journal. beside it would be pleasant to travel through a loyal country as East Tenn claims to be, and no doubt it is in a great degree loyal.

….I have just returned from the burial of 1st Segt William. B. Miller who died yesterday, of wounds received Nov 25 in the assault on Missionary Ridge. two of the best soldiers in the company have died, since that terrible conflict.

All others of the company who were wounded are doing well. J. T. Eller has gone north….


Chattanooga, Tenn.
Dec. 1863

….I had not been absent from my company a single day for more than two years, until the 28 of Nov. when the regiment started to Knoxville Tenn. I was somewhat vexed to think that a slight wound which would be well in a few weeks,—and which would not keep me from doing duty if they were to remain in camp,—should separate me from the company—my companions in arms. To be submissive and cheerful was all that could consistently be done.

The company numbers, 49 enlisted men, 35 of whom are present (with the regiment) for duty. Five of the remainder are on Detached duty, and Nine are in Hospitals. Six of whom are wounded. There were but three in Hospitals before the battle. The Captain, (A. R. Ravenscroft) is on detached service—in Ordnance Department, has been absent for more than a year. Lieut Marshall, is now at home on Recruiting service. I have not heard yet how he is succeeding, but he wrote to me that he was having to recruit in Brown, Co. which I am confident is a hopeless case. I suppose that recruiting will not he wry fast at best.

I wish to know if you have an idea of enlisting. soon as you answer this I will write some particulars in the case. I have great fears of your ability to stand the service, as you failed in the first attempt. And where a family furnishes two soldiers, to the army, the third one should have the privilege of attaining an education. Rut after all the maintainance of the Nation is above all such pursuits. I continue to think as before that the rebellion will not last long. It is my desire that you remain at College and whenever your means are runing short, so as to interfere with your studies, let me know it, 2nd if it is possible (it is not often impossible) I will assist you cheerfuly—with all my heart.

You have perhapse e're this, received $20.00 I sent by express, if so you will use it, taking no thought of my need, for I always retain plenty for my own use. neither do I wish you to uneasy your mind about how you are to pay this in future. It is a gift, a free one too; and I ask no pay; more than that you apply it to secure an education for yourself, and when it is thus applied I will be paid,—bountifuly paid.

My health continues good. wound is almost well, but is not improving much now. I have pretty good use of my arm, can write without any serious pain. Rut I can not do much, (not even brush my clothes) without enterfering with a tender part.

In the late battle C. H. Coffey, as usual, got a message from rebeldom which relieved him of his canteen, penetrated his haversack and clothing and continued on its journey, harmless. He thought that it struck in a very tender place, cuting off his suply of water and interfering with the "grub sack." His health was good when they left here more than two weeks since….

V "Marching Through Georgia"

General William T. Sherman was given command of the three armies concentrated at Chattanooga, and early in May, 1864, he began the campaign against Atlanta. The second diary of Lieutenant Mayfield begins in March, when the Twenty-Second Infantry was returning from a visit to Indiana. The troops were moved by train to Nashville, but from there they marched to their old camp at Chattanoogo. When Sherman's advance began on May 6, the regiment left camp; and from this point the diary gives an eloquent account of the campaign that must have seemed almost a continuous battle. Something of Sherman's method of out. flanking his opponent is evident in Mayfield's descriptions. Unfortunately for this record, the departure from this procedure in the attack at Kenesaw Mountain, with its heavy casualties, resulted in the wounding of Lieutenant Mayfield and the end of his diary. His brother, Joseph M. Mayfield to whom the letters were written, had enlisted in Company I of the Twenty-Second and was killed in action in 1864; so there are no more letters to give us a record of the remainder of the campaign. The Twenty-Second, however, went on with Sherman to Savannah, Georgia, and, when the war ended, to Washington, D. C., and thence to Indianapolis, where it was disbanded.

The portion of the campaign covered by Mayfield's diary may be checked with the official report of Major General William T. Sherman, in Official Records, Series I. Vol. XXXVIII, Part 1, pp. 61–85, and with the report of Major General George H. Thomas, ibid., 139–45.

March 23, 1864 Wednesday…..prepared early in the day to march but did not get away from camp Carrington until two o'clock, marched through the city in good style, with music beating and colors flying, to the Madison Depot. here awaited passage until near ten o'clock, passage very disagreeable—box cars, without fire, night cold frozen, consequently could not sleep.

March 24, Thursday. Arrived at Jeffersonville 9 o'clock A. M. Marched directly to the Ohio river through a heavy cloud of dust. Crossed the river on a Ferry Boatt. marched through Louisville to the L & N. depot quartering on the Soldiers Home, which is a very filthy place, sleeping on the floor, and being fed in the same room.

March 25, Friday…..prepared to march early but did not get away until 3 o'clock P. M. at which time we boarded box cars bound for Nasvill Rained at night traveled very slow, ran off the track had very little rest.

March 26, Saturday. Morning dawned while we were yet forty miles from…Nasville Arrived at Nashvil at 11 a.m. being 7 hours behind time. marched immediately to Barracks No 1 near the Nashville and Stevenson R. R….At 4 P. M. Co's A, B, C and K received orders to go aboard the train which was countermanded at the time of starting. at night 6 companies including E, I, received [an order] for 10 P. M. which was also countermanded. I was on Guard duty, had no rest for four days and nights, am almost exhausted for want of rest

March 27, Sabbath…..Relieved from duty at 10 A. M. The disgusting scene of Fidling and Dancing is now being enacted in the regiment; at this moment two ministers members of the Christian Commission make their appearance and dispearse the crowd, whereupon one delivered a very good sermon. good order prevailed.

March 28, Monday. At Early morning received orders to be ready to march at 12 o'clock M….Marching orders countermanded….Were visited again by members of the Christian Commission who favored us with a sermon. Yet continue in barracks No 2 Nashville Tenn.

March 29, Tuesday…..Rumors of marching continue afloat, yet it is not realized. At 3 o'clock P. M. were again visited by members of the Christian Commission one of whom delivered a fine discours on the similarity of water and the Gifts of Christ—Salvation. Were again visited at night by Ministers of the Gospel, who addressed the Regiment in the usual interesting manner.

March 30, Wednesday. Received orders early in the morning to march to Chattanooga. At 7 A. M. marched out in the direction of Murfreesboro, biding adieu to the Soldiers Rest.—(Barracks No 2) Wandered about in the outer portion of the city in search of the prop-per road until Eight a.m. at which time marched slowly southward Found the country deserted and desolate in a great degree. Went into camp 3 o'clock P. M. at Lavergn Tenn. a small station on the R. R. 15 miles from Nashville….

March 31, Thursday…..marched at 6 1/2 a.m. At noon had arrived at the old battle ground of Stone River which brought to mind many incidents which occured fifteen months ago. here we halted to view the Monument erected in memory of the dead of Gen Hazens Brigade. It is a fine large Structure Marched through Murfreesboro in good style, camping one half mile South, at 3 P. M. I was immediately detailed as officer of the guard….

April 1, 1864, Friday. Marched at 7 A. M. on the ShelbyvillePike, in company with the 20th Ind Battery here were visited by our former Colonel (Gooding.) who now resides near Murfreesboro….Camped at 3 o'clock P. M. 12 1/2 miles from Murfreesboro

April 2, Saturday. Marched at 6 1/2 A. M….Arrived at Shelbyville at 2 P. M. Camped near town on the South side of Duck River. Had the pleasure of attending the Union Convention, which assembled in the afternoon, and was addressed by Gen Rousseau, Gov Johnson, and a number of others. Shelbyville has been a nice little town, situated on the north bank of Duck River, at the Terminus of the Shelbyvil Branch K. R. Citizens are very loyal.

April 3, Sabbath. Marched at 6 1/2 A. M. crossing Duck river twice. Roads very mudy Traveled 18 miles. camped at Tullahoma, 4, P. M….

April 4, Monday. Lying at Tullahoma….a miserable little place

April 5, Tuesday. Marched at 6 1/2 a.m….Country flat and swampy with a white clay, and very poor. Roads very mudy. Crossed Elk river 11 A. M. arrived at Deckard 1 o'clock P. M. took dinner. Continued the march to Cowan, where we camp at 5 P. M. At Deckard Station, the Fayettville Branch R R starts west-ward.

April 6, Wednesday…..marched to the foot of "Cumberland Mountains" about one mile distant. began the ascent (which was very rugged and winding and about two miles in length), at 7 A. M. reaching the summit at 12, M. were detained on the mountain being in the rear of a Battery and train of wagons. ascended the mountain near the celebrated Cumberland Tunnel. On the Summit is a Rail Road constructed for mining purposes. Cool Water flows in great abundance on the mountain. Country poor and desolate as might be expected, camped in timber.

April 7, Thursday…..Marched at 6 A. M. to the Eastern slope of the mountain G miles distan descended over a rough stony rugged steep winding road, continuing down a ravine through which ran a small stream of water. this valley is very fertile and productive. Camped at night on Battle Creek. Co "I" detailed for picket….Battle Creek is a very large deep stream impassable

April 8, Friday. Marched at 6 1/2 a.m. from the picket post. Roads mudy….followed Battle creek to its source, a distance of four miles, from thence down the Tennessee river to Bridgeport a distan of five miles. Crossed the Tenn river to the South side on Pontoons. the river at this point is divided by an Island 1/4 of a mile in width….

April 9, Saturday. Lying idle at Bridgeport Ala….

April 10, Sabbath. Marched at 7, A. M. in the direction of Chattanooga, on the south side of the Tennessee river….Passed through Shell-mound, at 9 a.m., which is merly a R. R. Station deriving its name from a mound composed principaly of Muscle Shells. the surrounding country very rough and mountainous. halted for dinner at 12 M. At 3 P. M. arrived at falling Water a small stream over whic is a R. R. Bridge near 100 feet high. near this is a station called White Side. Camped at 3, P. M. in Raccoon Valley between two mountain ridges. Marched 16 miles

April 11, Monday. Marched at 7 A. M. weather beautiful Roads in good condition. Arrived at the foot of Lookout Mountain 40 minutes pas[t] 10 A. M. and began the ascent and circuit around the northern point of the mountain. This is a good road constructed by Federal soldiers. Arrived at Chattanooga 1, P. M. and Camped on the memorable old camping ground occupied by the Regiment during the Seige of Chattanooga by the Rebels. Great improvements have been going on in a Military way since we left. Depots of supplies are abundant, trains arriving and depar[t]ing in large numbers daily, both east and west. Marched 14 miles

April 12, Tuesday…..the day was occupied principaly in clearing off camp. I confined to bed all day with Ague. Shook from 9, a.m. to 12 M. then suffered with a severe fever to late at night

April 13, Wednesday. Yet in Camp at Chattanooga. I unable to be out of my bed, which is composed of earth with a few rags [to] prevent dampness and a light covering. Taking Ague medicine very freely.

April 14, Thursday…..Chilled again today but not so severely as before quite sick during the day….

April 15, Friday…..At 1 P. M. the Commissioned officers of the Regt. assembled for purpose of electing a Major. After nine Ballots the Adjt Will A Adams, was unanimously elected.

April 16, Saturday…..Confined my bed all day. Mouth to sore to eat, have to ly hungry. Little of importance being done.

April 17, Sabbath…..I confined to my bed almost all day. Sermon by Rev. Charlott chaplain 22nd Ind vet vols….

April 18, Monday…..In the afternoon orders were received Transfering the 22nd Ind vet vols from 1st Brig 2nd Divis. 4, A. C. to 3d Brig 2nd Divis. 14th, A. C. into the Division Commanded by Gen Jef. C. Davis our first Colonel. It was through his influence that this change was made

April 19, Tuesday. Marched at 8 a. m. from Chattanooga to our camp near Lee and Gordons Mills on the Chickamauga, at which we arrive at 3 P. M. The camp is situated on a portion of the old Battle Ground of Chickamauga. My health being very poor I was hauled out in Ambulance….Marched 12 miles.

April 20, Wednesday…..The day was occupied in laying off and erecting a new camp. I am not able to [do] anything

April 21, Thursday…..the day as usual occupied in policing and erecting a camp, which now begins to look pretty well.

April 22, Friday…..My health has so much improved that I am now able for duty, yet not very stout. erected a tent or shelter and prepared a comfortable bed of poles and fine branches.

April 23, Saturday…..The Detachment from the 88th Ill. members of the 22nd who did not re-enlist—came to the Regt today. Their presence adds greatly to the appearance of the regt—500 for duty.

April 24, Sabbath. Day passes off quietly….

April 25, Monday. Lieut R. V. Marshall returned to company from Ind. having been absent on Recruiting service for near six Months I was on Regt. Guard.

April 26, Tuesday. Have two companies from the regt each day for picket. Drill regular four hours each day….

April 29, Friday. Drew new arms and new accouterments for the recruits and most others of the compay. have a good company of 45 men, well armed and Equiped. Dress Parade at 6 P. M.—the first attempted since our return. did reasonably well. The day occupied mostly in making out Muster Rolls.

April 30, Saturday. Early in the morning received orders to send back all baggage, together with company books and everything pertaining to the company Mustered for pay at 3, P. M. Dress Parade at 6, P. M….

May 1, 1864, Sabbath. At 8 o'clock A. M. Company "I" went on Picket Guard….

May 2, Monday. Relieved from picket at 9 A. M. and returned to company quarters, to find all preparing for a march. In the afternoon Butterfields Division of the 22nd A. C. arrived and camped at Lee and Gordons Mills on the Chickamauga. At night received orders to march at 6 A. M. tomorrow

May 3, Tuesday…..Marched eastward at 6 a.m. crossing the Chickamauga at Lee and Gordons Mills. Continued the march over a very broken rough country, to Ringold, a distance of 10 miles. Camped in the timber on a hillside one mile and a half north of town. here we found Johnsons and Bairds Divisions of the 14th Corps encamped. Ringold is situated on the K. K. at the foot of Mountain in which is a…[gap] through which runs the noted Chickamauga, and also the R. R. and wagon road. I was on duty in the afternoon establishing and policing the camp….

May 4, Wednesday…..on duty at 6, A. M. relieved at 9 A. M. The day occupied in policing quarters and building a nice camp. I sent the day with old friends At night received orders to report, (22) to Genl. Baird tomorrow morning for picket, but later at night the order was changed, so much as to read "march at 4 1/2 a.m.

May 5, Thursday. Revellie sounded at 3, a.m. marched at an early hour through Ringgold and the gape in the mountain to the east, formed at 8, a.m. fronting the Rebel line two miles from Ringold at the "Stone Church," which is a beautiful structure of dark stone of various sizes and shapes. Cemented together with a white cement. The situation is a beautiful one. south-west is the beautiful little valley between two ranges of mountains, between which flows the Chickamauga….marched 3 miles

May 6, Friday…..at 8 A. M. received orders (22nd Ind) to go on picket, which order was immediately complied with. Marched southward 1 1/2 miles, Co "I" being lucky enough to remain on the "reserve." All quiet on the line. rebel videttes in sight. At night received orders to march on the following morning, were up at 11 1/2 o'clock at night, to remain until morning, when the Column advanced, Col McCooks Brig. of Gen Davis 14th A. C. in front.

May 7, Saturday. Marched at 4 1/2 a.m. 52nd Ohio in front. a few shots were fired by the skirmishers when the rebels gave way without much resistance McCooks Brigade leading, at 8, A. M. formed in line of battle 1/2 mile from the Town of Tunnel Hill, which is in the Valley at the foot of the Ridge through which is the tunnel. At 9, A. M. became exposed to the rebel artillery,—a light battery posted at Tunnel Hill,—which greeted us with a number of shell many of [which] bursted very near in our midst and one of which came near lifting Gen Palmer from his horse at 12, M. the fourth Corp had taken possession of the Ridge. At 1 P. M. the 14th Corps was massed at the little village of Tunnel Hill,—which has been a beautiful little place,—but very soon received orders march; went into camp at 3 o'clock P. M. one mile from town….There were very few hurt during the continuous skirmishing all day. marched 5 miles

May 8, Sabbath. At 8. A. M. moved from camp and formed on the ridge or point, now called Signal hill, which was but one half mile distant, here we remained during the day in "line of battle." From the crest of this high point the mountains range after range looming up in the far distance in which are posted the rebels with a position strong; beyond discription—The gape which is narrow and well fortified and through which runs the R. R. and a large stream of water, is situated between two insurmountable ridges, Rocky-face and on which a strong line of rebel skirmishers are in position doing the work given them to do….

May 9, Monday. Arose at 3 a.m. marched at daylight eastward over the ridge; to the valley one and a half mile distant; formed in front of the gape, in range of "Sharpshooters" who amused themselves in annoying us with their "minies" from a high ridge one mile distant….Heavy skirmishing kept up all day along the hill side and in front of the gape. at times the skirmishing increased almost to a full grown battle. very little gained during the day, but perhapse all that was desired. Artillery used pretty freely fighting till after dark. Cars ran into "Tunnel Hill" early in the forenoon. Great cheering among the troops,—at the arrival of our "grub line"—the cars: Had the pleasure of seeing many old friends, in 31st Ind. and other regts….

May 10, Tuesday. Arose at 3, A. M and were—according to orders—ready to march at daylight. Skirmishing began very early in the morning, soon our Batteries,—posted on the hights and Knolls in the valley—opened and were followd by occasional shots from rebel batteries Both skirmishing and artillery firing was kept up steady during the day and until late At 8, a.m. changed position a short distance to the right, taking shelter behind a hill, the rebel "Sharpshooters" having become so annoying as to render our old position very unpleasant….At 1 P.M. received orders to march to the front for skirmishers. immediately the brigade was ready, when the execution of the order was postponed until 3 P. M. when all were prepared the execution of the order was postponed to 4 1/2 o'clock, at which time—the third charming—we marched to the front, wending our way over mountains and logs, throug ravines and timber. Reached the destined point near night, being well nigh exhausted with the march of one mile over the mountain ridges. were greeted continualy with the whistle of rebel shells, and also the buzzing of many rebel "Minies"….marched 2 miles

May 11, Wednesday. Awakened at 3 A. M. by heavy skirmishing on the line. immediately arose from beds of mud and water—made so by the storm—and hastened to the top of the ridge, behind which we were posted—one hundred yards distant—and formed a line of battle to await the issue of events. at day-light returned, the alarm having proved false….At 5 o'clock a reconnoitering party of 2 regiments—38th Ill and 101st Ohio,—were sent out to test the strength of the rebels. A heavy skirmish ensued lasting until 8 P. M. and in the mean time artillery was used abundantly, on either side. Shells bursting near by and wounding but one of the Rt At 8, P. M. the skirmishing having subsided, we were relieved and returned to the rear 2 mil to camp for the night. reached camp in the timber on hills, at 10 P. M….But few of our men hurt in to days fighting.

May 12, Thursday. Arose at 4, A. M. and prepared to march at an early hour. At 6 1/2 A. M. marched to the right. The 22nd Ind detailed as train guerd for the Division. Traveled in a south-west course—through and over a small range of ridges runing parallel with the Rocky-face Mountains which separated the two contending armies. Traveled slow—about 10 miles—when we halted shortly after dark to prepare supper. The 23d army Corps. marching in the rear. The country very mountainous, before dark penetrated…passway through the ridge which was very narrow. is bordered on either side by high and rugged mountains. The soil is quite fertile and productive. At 8 P. M. marched again in rear of the Hospital train. Roads quite low and mudy. halted at 3 1/2 A. M. to rest until day having marched but five miles

May 13, Friday. Arose at 6 A.M.—having had one and a half hours rest—and prepared to march immediately. Co "I" detailed to assist the wagons out of mud-holes. At noon arrived with the regiment five miles distant and in the valley, where was situated the entire army train and many thousand troops, 14th and 23d corps who soon began to move out to the lines….we were halted in an open field. At 6 P. M. marched out. had gone but a short distance when the Brig. was ordered to halt and prepare supper which [was] immediately seized upon, but before the supper was half completed, rec'd orders to march. Marched in many directions back and fourth, through fields and thickets. halted at 10, P. M. after having marched 5 miles

May 14, Saturday. Up before day and formed a "reserve line of battle. Soon the army advanced and fighting was the result—we followed, a distance of 2 miles and formed again, closed en masse. Thus remained until 2 P. M. moved farther to the left and formed in line of battle. Heavy skirmishing all day and on some portions of the line the fighting was severe. Near 2 P. M. the fight opened very heavy on the extreme left, A portion of the 23d and 14th corp having assaulted the rebel works. Charge after charge was unsuccessfuly made, fighting continuing severe in the extreme without intermission, until dark. loss heavy—not known. in the mean time 2 Divis of the 20th A. C. were moved to the left. Artillery very heavy. At mid-night—after drawing three day rations—were moved one mile to the right and formed on the front line, in a densely thick wooded country—very hilly—hastily formed a breast work of logs, and lay down for the night.7

May 15, Sabbath….skirmishing on some portions of the lines all day, while on other portions the battle raged furiously—volley after volley of musketry together with the thundering peals of the many pieces of artillery made the earth to shake, and told of a deadly conflict. In our immediate front skirmishing was heavy until late in the afternoon when the rebels began to hail, "what regiment is that. On learning it to be the 22nd 1nd.—they being 2nd Arkansas, who we have met on so many bloody fields of strife—they proposed to cease firing. the proposition was readily accepted and faithfuly lived up to, after which a mutual conversation took the place of firing. Toward night the rebels became very cheerful as if something good had happened. Near midnight the rebels came out of…

  • 7 The entries for May 14 and 15 constitute Mayfield's description of the battle of Resaca, which was one of the more important engagements occurring in the Atlanta campaign.
their works and formed in line as though an advance was intended, immediately heavy firing began we hastily sprung from our beds to our position in the works. A number of batteries opened on them with "grape and canister" which must have lain many of them low. It was supposed to be a mere "feint" to cover their retreat from Reseca by one o'clock the firing had subsided and we again retired to rest. I was sick with Flux

May 16, Monday. At an early hour it was learned that the rebels had retreated. preparations must now be made for the pursuit. Davis Divis was marched to the rear five miles to get Knapsacks which had been piled a few days previous—before the battle—At noon marched southward from this place in the direction of Rome Ga. Marched very fast—about 15 miles—through a beautiful valley on the east side and near the base of large range of mountains. I was hauled in the ambulance the greater portion of the way suffered severely with flux, very sick at night.

May 17, Tuesday. Troops marched early I remained in ambulance being yet very sick with flux, disease working heavily upon me….The country over which we passed was very fine and beautiful. marked with many flowing streams of water, and some very fine residences. In the after-noon when the troops had marched 14 miles—then within one mile of Rome Ga.—they came upon the enemy. a fight ensued—both with artillery and musketry. The 22nd Ind. loosing 9 killed and over 30 wounded,—many mortaly—Of Co "I" there were two killed Corpl Nelson G Fulton and Elijah Lyons, Wounded James. F. Martin, severely bruised. I spent the night at the hospital on the floor of a dwelling house three miles north of Rome, yet very sick.

May 18, Wednesday. I am lying in the hospital at a private residence 3 miles north of Rome, among the wounded, a number of whom have died….Davis Division took possesion of Rome, after Laying a pontoon bridge over the Coosawattie river, the rebels having burned the bridge.

May 19, Thursday…..my illness continues very severe. have eaten nothing for several days. Heavy firing heard to the front and left this morning.

May 20, Friday…..At noon were moved in to town,—into a very nice building formerly a merchant house—and lately a rebel hospital well supplied with "bunks", all of which is very pleasant compared with the hard floor and poor accommodations of the former place. Rome is a beautiful town situated between, and at the junction of the Coosawattie and Etawa rivers, which together form the Coosa.—This is the terminus of the "Roine" branch, R. R. which leads from Kingston near 20 miles distant. The town looks very much injured having been torne to peices and sacked the night before the rebels left—by themselves. Many citizens fled with the flying host. A double street passes through the centre of the city—east and west—in the centre of which is planted a row of green trees for shade. Contains many business houses of importance.

May 21, Saturday…..I begin to improve slowly can eat very little. Day passes quietly Cars came in from Kingston

May 22, Sabbath…..troops preparing to cross the Etawa river to the south side. pontoons laid and one Brigade over by night.

May 23, Monday…..Having larned that the regiment would march soon and no; desiring to be left behind, I immediately procured a discharge from the hospital and returned to the regiment 1/2 of a mile distant in the eastern part of town, a long walk it was too;—for one feeble as I am. In bed a great portion of the day. Orders to march at 6 A. M. with four days rations in haversacks.

May 24, Tuesday Marched promptly at 6, a.m. through Rome crossing the Etawa river near its confluence. continued the march in a south and southeasterly direction through a beautiful valley of productive land, some of which is well improved. halted at noon 1 1/2 hours for dinner. went into camp at night in a thicket, I can not say where….I was very weak,—scarcely able to walk. reac[h]ed camp with the company. Marched 20 miles

May 25, Wednesday…..Prepared, to march at an early hour,—tent and blankets wet and very heavy to carry. I, with 20 men of Co "I" was detailed as a "rear guard" of Brigade,—to keep up stragglers,—the task was somewhat wearisome in consequence of poor health. Traveled through a rough mountainous country,—almost uninhabited—following ridges and ravines. Camped at night in the wilderness five miles from Dallas….Heavy fighting on the left of us late in the afternoon. Marched 16 miles

May 26, Thursday. Marched at 7, A. M. in an easterly direction,—2% miles—very slow,—arrived at the road on which the 4th Corps had traveled. halted for 2 hours—then retraced our steps, to last nights camping ground, from which place marched in a southeasterly direction, reaching Dallas,—which is a small village, situated on a high ridge,—at 4, P. M. 22nd Ind detailed for Picket. were posted before night Cavalry skirmishing in front Marched 10 miles

May 27, Friday…..at 7 a.m. marched a short distance to the rear, and formed in second line of battle, from which place the regiment was soon moved to the front and deployed as skirmishers, moving forward for one mile, when at 10, a.m. came in contact with the rebels posted on a high hill or range of the Altoona mountains.8 Brisk skirmishing immediately began continuing until 6, P. M. when the firing increased in briskness and ferocity which afterward lulled; almost to silence. my men out of amunition: having shot 60 Rounds, and the movements of the rebels indicating preparations for an attack, I sent for re-enforcements. A company, (E) of the 22nd soon arrived,—skirmishing very heavy,—until near 9 P. M. while the 125 Ill was in the act of being deployed to relieve us: The order to "Charge and give them the Cold Steel" was sounded in a loud tone of voice where upon the rebels raised the "yell" and dashed headlong onto the weak line of skirmishers, driving us for a short distance where they were checked by our fire. There were many incident of interest occured in those few moments. Federals and Confederates mingled together, in the darkness. it was quite difficult to distinguish, but when the fact became known, we immediately captured one captain

  • 8 From May 25 to June 5 skirmishing with the enemy was almost continuous in the vicinity of Dallas, Georgia. The Twenty-Second Indiana became involved along the Altoona Mountains on the 27th.
(Hester) and 8 privates from our midst. Some of the men taken claimed to belong to the 17th Alabama, (which was there,) and thereby made their escape. Co "I" lost one man (D L Gray) prisoner Quite a number of the regt were killed and wounded. Captured—all told one Capt 1 Lieut, 27 Privates, of Rebels The lines were again formed and the 22nd retired to the rear for a nights rest. Advanced 1 mile.

May 28, Saturday. Up early in the morning….skirmishing all day but not so heavy. rested until 3, P. M. when we moved to the front line and fortified our position, preparatory to an anticipated rebel advance. rebel shells being thrown into our line—doing no injury. Heavy fighting late in the afternoon on the right result unknow. Aroused at midnight by fighting which soon subsided. at night lay on the ground and slept without either bed or shelter.

May 29, Sabbath. Arose at 3, a.m. skirmishing soon began continuing all day….Lying on the front line; in breast works—a position very much in advance of other portions of the line of battle both on the right, and left, and in front of a gape in the Lone Mountains,—at the left extremity of Eldridge's Ridge, a high ridge of rugged mountains runing North-east and South-west. At 10, P. M the rebels assaulted the line on cur left, but were repulsed after an hours fighting, some artillery used. Immediately an assault was made to our right—in front of the 16th corps,—fighting terrific,—cannonading heavy. several assaults were made on our lines; all of which were repulsed without serious loss to us. We were up almost all night, have had very little rest for four nights—being on the front line all the time.

May 30, Monday…..the regular routine of skirmishing soon began….Little of importance occured until near night the rebels could be seen moving to our left, along the high ridge which they occupied in front of us Our line of works were changed and strengthened some what—to suit the case pending. Soon after dark the Brigade was withdrawn from its advanced position near one mile—and form[ed] on a line with the skirmish line with a small support being left behing. Marched very slow, at 10, P. M had formed on the 2nd line of battle. Considerable firing on the right. Tuesday May 31st, Lying idle—

June 1, 1864, Wednesday. At 6, A. M. prepared to march, leaving our position and securing ourselves behind a hill until 10, A. M. The whole right, (consisting of the 15th, 16th, and a portion of the 14 corps,) are being withdrawn, and moved to our left, the rebels having moved their main force from our front. At 10 A. M. marched off very slow, and in a direction parallel with our lines. halted at noon, having marched 2 miles Marched again at 4 P. M. a distance of four miles, taking position at 9 o'clock, P. M. on the skirmish line. Considerable firing on our right. were aroused at midnight with the firing on the right.

June 2, Thursday…..Our men kept up a brisk fire from the works,—composed of logs and dirt—behind which we were posted. Rebels fired many shots doing little injury—over shot….No heavy fighting within our hearing today,—time occupied in manouvering troops. Were relieved from picket at night, and returned to second line of works, 500 yards in rear of front The rebel defenses are well constructed, and very near to our front line.

June 3, Friday. Were aroused after midnight by a heavy skirmish on the right….Cannonading both on the right and left.

June 4, Saturday…..At 7, A. M. received orders to prepare to march immediately, which we did, moving off in the direction of our left, roads very mudy, and slippery. marched near 2 miles and the brigade immediately moved to the front line, where heavy skirmishing was in progress, also artillery was being used, (7th Ind Batt—) At 4 P. M. Co "I" with 60 others of the 22nd were detailed for the Skirmish line, were posted on the line amid a heavy fire of the rebel skirmishers. secured our selves behind trees and stumps. The firing at night was very heavy and continuous lasting all night, with terrible fury. Rained very hard at night, slept almost none. At midnight the rebels had very large camp fires—soon after their bugles were sounded, and we suspicioned that something was being done. Marched 2 miles

June 5, Sabbath…..Skirmishing continued very brisk until 8 A. M. when we advanced a little and by 10, A. M. it was discovered that the rebels were gone. Our skirmishers advanced severel miles in pursuit. At 4 P. M. fighting was heard in the direction of Marietta, the way the rebels retreated….Relieved from picket at 7, P. M. and returned to camp to get one nights rest. The Brigade having been on the front line for 12 days in sucession, very little rest to be had during that time, are very much fatigued and worne down….

June 6, Monday. Orders to march at day light….Marched at 6, A. M. in an easterly direction, a distance of about 8 miles….Camped in the after-noon in an open field of corn a[nd] rye. Day passed off pleasantly. are within 12 miles of Acworth Station.

June 7, Tuesday…..Idle today, save bathing, changing clothes, writing letters and so fourth. Are resting after the long and arduous campaign or possibly but a small portion of it has passed. had the pleasure of meeting with many old friends from various regiments.

June 8, Wednesday. Yet in camp nothing to do. weather almost to hot to live. Rained at night received a large mail.

June 9, Thursday…..At night received orders to march at 4, A. M. tomorrow.

June 10, Friday. Marched at 7 A. M. in a southwesterly direction,—cuting a road through a densely thick wooded country, the roads being occupied by troops of other corps…we marched slowly but steadily on, taking a position in front of and near to the rebel lines—where they could be seen at work appearantly fortifying a hill in our front. skirmishing, together with some artillery firing was the order of the evening. remained here at night….marched 4 miles

June 11, Saturday. Orders at an early hour to be ready to march at a moments warning….at 10 a. m. marched in an easterly direction, 2 miles through a rough country swampy and covered with undre-brush. Davis Division now filling a gap on the right of the 15th Corps….At 4 P. M. again received orders to march at a moments At 6 moved in an easterly direction, one mile, halting at the railroad immediately in front of the foe skirmishing is the order of the day. soon pitched our tents for a small barrier against the heavy rain storm which followed. marched 3 miles

June 12th, Sabbath…..skirmishing on our front all day. Occasioqal artillery firing on different portions of the line….Our lines are now formed—runing east and west—we on the right of, and at the Rail Road, facing southward. In front one mile are the rebels backed by a high ridge, through a gap of which the rail-road passes. The country at this point is more open and level. Yesterday our ears were greeted with the whistle of Engines (glad tidings) approaching very near to our rear. Today the whistle both north and south of us can be heard very distinctly.

June 13, Monday…..The regular routine of skirmishing as usual in progress, with occasional cannon shots on left. At 10, A. M. received orders to be ready to march at a moments warning….At 5 P. M. Davis Division advanced its lines 1/2 mile. McCooks Brig. moving to the right, of 2nd, our advance was not opposed by the rebels. Our lines were form in a very thick wooded broken scope of country, immediately fortified with logs, rails and dirt. then rested quietly at night. Extreme right of our lines advanced to day, result unknown.

June 14, Tuesday. Little of importance occured during the day beyond the usual routine of picket and artillery firing.

June 15, Wednesday…..At noon our troops more than a mile to the left advance across an open field and drive the rebels from their work and occupy. Later in the day the 16th Corps advances, drives the rebel skirmishers and takes possession of their outer works, fighting heavy and continuous. Artillery used extensively both here and on the extreme right. Were aroused at midnight by heavy skirmishing, indicating an attack—on the left of our front.

June 16, Thursday…..yet Lying in breastworks. At noon a detail for skirmishers, of 6 Co's including Co "I" from the 22nd Ind. was made. The skirmish line was half mile in front, the land being so thickly covered with wood and underbrush as to render it almost impassable. Deployed and took position on the line under a rapid fire from the reb guns. Skirmishing quite brisk along the entire line, more especialy on the left in front of the 16th corps. Heavy fighting on the right. Late in the afternoon got in to a conversation with the rebels in cur front,—44th Miss Sharpshooters,—in which there was a propposition to cease firing concented to-very quiet afterward. It was expected that this portion of the line was to be "charged" in the afternoon or night, and preparations were made accordingly. From 9 to 10 P. M. scarcely a shot was to be heard on the line. It was so uncommon as to attract the attention of the entire army, and was considered indicative of a storm. in the mean time we could hear the rebel artillery moving—shifting position—while at another place they were at worship—singing and could be heard very distinctly. at 11 o'clock a weak charge was made on the left which brought us to our posts very hastily. the usual skirmishing continued. Two of 22nd, one of Co. "I" and one of Co. B. were wounded.

June 17, Friday…..The usual amount of firing on the left and some severe fighting on the right.. quiet in our front, men, by mutual agreement, meet midway between the lines, and converse. Heavy fighting on right in vicinity of 4th and 20th corps. they are supposed to be closing upon the rebels. Relieved at 1 P. M. and returned to breast-works. At 4 P. M. An assault, was made on the rebel works on left, the outer line of which was taken and occupied. skirmishers in our front advance 1/4 mile with little opposition. Capture some prisoners. Artillery firing on the right continues brisk. Not a great deal of firing at night.

June 18, Saturday…..Connaiding continues very heavy on the extreme right. At noon have orders to be ready to march at a moments warning….Skirmishing begins again with renewed vigor at 2, P. M. At 5 P. M. moved out 1/2 mile and fortified anew our position….

June 19, Sabbath…..in early morning it was discovered the rebels were giving back from their position in our front. our skirmishers pursued them close. At 8 a.m. marched out of the works a short distance and halted unto 4 P. M.—awaiting a clear road—when we marched on through rain, mud and water, to within one mile of Kinesaw Ridge. formed in reserve. by this the batteries were making fine music, together with the musketry. One of our Trains ran down near the foot of the mountain. The rebels threw a few shots from the ridge, at it, did no injury….marched one mile

June 20, Monday…..Our cannon shots well directed at the mountain ridge skirmishing very brisk. At 5 P. M. received orders to march. moved by the right flank near a mile, and formed on the front line. The army shifting to the right. From 6 to 7 1/2 P. M. the Artillery for near 3 miles along the line, poured forth volley after volley of shot and shell, whole batteries firing at the same instant. It was the most terrific that I ever witnessed Prom one side alone. The smoke soon became very thick. In the mean time heavy musketry was heard on the right. a charge was made but by whom, and the result is unknown. From camp rumors it would appear that desertions from the rebel army continue numerous. Fortified our position which took to midnight….Times very exciting. Marched one mile

June 21, Tuesday…..Artillery and musketry very brisk from 10, A. M. to near noon, when musketry subcided in a great degree Shot and Shell continued to fly at Kenesaw Ridge all day. In afternoon there was appearantly heavy fighting on the extreme right,—result unknown.

June 22, Wednesday…..At 8 a.m. the rebels, on Kenesaw Ridge in our immediate front, opened on our works with several batteries. The firing was very rapid and exciting. Shells flew thick over heads bursting in the woods behind. Some droped among our tents, others bursted high in air. This state of affairs continued near all day Our batteries, except those far to the right, did not reply, the time being occupied in preparing works. We were annoyed considerably by stray minie balls, str[ag]gling through our home. At night cannon ceased firing, skirmishing more brisk. At 9 P. M. marched to the right, and at 1 A. M. returned to our own works. Immediately after halting rebel shells were droped thick and fast in an open field through which we had passed, soon ceased. There was heavy firing in the afternoon, on the extreme right.

June 23, Thursday. Were aroused at 3, a.m. by firing of muskets and a "yell" along the line which indicated "a charge" soon quiet. At 9 A. M. a shot was fired which the rebels soon replied to from the ridge. our batteries opened with such vigor and precision that the rebels could fire but 3 shots. They are very still. At 5 P. M. the opened again from the ridge the contest was spirited, lasting more than 1/2 hour. At night fired on our camp. our battery replied with 33 shots, they firing 32.

June 21, Friday…..Almost no firing today, save by the "Pickets". At night the Chaplain (Charlot) assembled a small congregation for prayer, the first public worship that I have witnessed for weeks.

June 25, Saturday…..At 10 A. M. the rebels opened on our camp and works with their Artil on the ridge, lodging some of the shells in the works, while others bursted in front, rear, above and in the midst of our tents, scattering the whizing fragments in every direction Ceased at 11 1/2. our batteries continued firing, slowly. At 2 P. M. after we had become very careless, they suddenly fired from a full battery. in a very few moments all the men were in the works. Our guns soon silenced theirs At 6 P. M. a like feat was enacted with like results. At dark rec'd orders, to be ready to march at a moments warning. moved out at midnight just as the moon made its appearance over the ridge expect to receive the compliments of the rebels as we marched back, but was happily disappointed,—were relieved by a division of 15th Corps. marched to rear one mile then to the right 4 miles, winding on many roads. halted at day light,—after having Seen up all night—in rear of fourth Corps.

June 26, Sabbath. Rested quietly at ease, except that the weather was to warm to sleep as we needed to do. Not great deal of firing on the lines to day. brisk Skirmishing at different Points.

June 27, Monday. At early morning preparations were made for an assault on the rebel work The 2nd and 3d Brigades of Davis Division, 14 A C commanded by Cols Michill and McCook were ordered to charge At 8 A. M. all things being ready the Column moved forward driving in the skirmish line. Capturing many. moved steadily forward under a withering fire, to the rebel works, we occupying one side and they the other not more than 6 feet apart. while here shots were exchanged freely stones were handed either way with terrible velocity, and with telling effect. Col McCook was severely wounded, fifteen minutes later Col Harman 125 Ill, who took command of brigade was killed at this instant the left gave back by order, and we were compelled to do likewise leaving many of our dead on the field. had given back 100 yards and reformed. I was wounded with a gun shot in center of left thigh. being very warm, bled so freely as to make me very weak. was wounded at half past 10, A. M. At 1 P. M. was at Dv Hospt. Co "I" 22 Ind vet vols. Lost Killed: 1st Sergt C. H. Coffey, James F. Martin, and A C Ranard wounded; Lt L. S. May-field left thigh, Moses St. Clair: in hand; Peter Walker in hand, Jo G Baugh, Bruised in right hip The whol line secured an advanced position, the extreme right Schofield advancing near two miles. Near 700 of Davis Divis were Killed and wounded night passed restlessly by, to see so many wounded lying out without shelter or attention. from this time, I am not acquainted with the movements of Regt9

June 28, Tuesday….many of the wounded had lain all night without shelter, or attention. Early preparations were made to remove the wounded to the R. R. station, (Big Shanty)…near night I succeeded in geting into an ambulance. The road over which we had to pass was newly cut out, fill [ed] with Stumps and stone and terribly cut to peices with artillery and wagon trains. Traveled near all night, suffering indiscribable

June 29, Wednesday. At early morn the ambulance was driven to hospital near by and we were empted out. Received pretty good attention—good as could be expected. At night heard heavy fighting in front.

June 30, Thursday…..A soldier by my side dies of wound another near by follows in a few moments. A great many wounded in Hospt. Rig [the last several pages have been torn out of the diary.]

  • 9 This is Mayfield's account of the battle of Kenesaw Mountain. It was at this point that Sherman abandoned his flanking tactics and made a direct charge upon the heavily entrenched Confederates which was responsible for the heavy losses in killed and wounded in this engagement.

Published by the Indiana University Department of History.