Illuminare <p>The<em> Illuminare: A Student Journal in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Studies</em> was an online, open access, peer-reviewed journal that aims to publish original student work in the field of leisure studies. Established in 1992 by students in the Indiana University RPTS Department, the journal was emblematic as the premier student-generated leisure journal. New material may be submitted to <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recreation, Parks, and Tourism in Public Health</a>. ISSN&nbsp;2158-9070.</p> en-US <p>All articles published in Illuminare are open-access articles, published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits reproduction, distribution, derives and commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited and authors and publisher is properly identified.</p> <p>All authors who send their manuscripts to Illuminare and whose articles are published in Illuminare retain full copyright of their articles. Notwithstanding this, the author(s) grant Illuminare, its editors, publishers, owners and other persons associated with Illuminare and other users/readers, a license to use the article as described in the License Agreement section below. In future Illuminare may produce printed copies of articles in any form. Without prejudice to the terms of the license given below, we reserve the right to reproduce author's articles in this way.</p> <p><strong>BREIF SUMMARY OF THE LICENSE AGREEMENT</strong></p> <p>By submitting your research article(s) to Illuminare, you agree that:</p> <ul> <li>Anyone is free: 
to copy, distribute, and display the work; 
to make derivative works; 
to make commercial use of the work;</li> <li>Under the following conditions: Attribution 
the original author and publisher are clearly and fully given credit (but not in any way that suggests that author and publisher endorse the user or user's use of the work); 
for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are; 
any of these conditions can be waived if the copyright holder gives explicit permission.</li> </ul> (Illuminare Editorial Board) (IUScholarWorks) Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 Introduction to Illuminare This PDF contains the cover page, table of contents, letter from the Editors, and information about Illuminare Allison Lee Fletcher, Noah Hoback ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Jun 2017 14:29:50 -0400 Social Learning Theory as a Framework for Recreational Therapy Intervention in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders <p>People with neurodevelopmental disorders demonstrate a higher incidence of obesity, emotional and mental health issues, and behavioral problems than the typically developing (TD) population. Based on the importance of early intervention for children with disabilities, research has been done regarding learning and development in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, limited research has been done tying a theory-based learning approach to recreational therapy (RT) intervention in the population. RT is a field that is inherently social and experiential, depending on interaction and activity to achieve desired outcomes. The Social Learning Theory (SLT) is a framework that focuses on learning from a social and experiential perspective, and is therefore uniquely compatible with RT methods. This paper will provide a starting point for a theory-based learning approach to RT by discussing the potential utility of SLT in RT for children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Suggestions for future research are discussed.</p> Jenn Johnson ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Jun 2017 14:29:51 -0400 Outward Bound Veterans Programs: Opportunities for Heart Rate Variability Training. <p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related disorder associated with trauma that may cause intense distress and physiological reactions for military veterans. One of the treatment options available, the Outward Bound Veterans (OBV), offers several outdoor courses designed for returning military. In addition to the course design heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic regulation, may be a useful tool for individuals to regain control of their stress responses. The purpose of this article is to outline a potential treatment approach utilizing HRV in the context of OBVP and other outdoor expeditionary programs.</p> Sharon Tessneer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Jun 2017 14:29:51 -0400 The Transportation Recreation Opportunity Spectrum as a spatial and quantitative metric: results of a preliminary investigation at Yellowstone National Park <p>Transportation is both a means to access recreation and a form of recreation in itself. Because diverse audiences have differential transportation access and experiences, a spectrum of opportunities should be considered when planning for the provision of adequate, quality transportation options in park settings. In well visited parks with defined facilities, services, and roadways for motor vehicle traffic, use of the Transportation Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (T-ROS) should take into account a variety of indicators to set standards for the visitor experience, managerial contributions, and resource impacts. To explore the utility of the T-ROS framework, and specifically examine the use of three potential indicators (i.e., number of modes, view of scenery, and slope of rode) within a composite index, we used a geospatial analysis in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Results center on areas of differential T-ROS value and what this may mean for park management and extension of the framework. Strengths, limitations, and opportunities for further investigation are also detailed.</p><p> </p> Elizabeth Perry, Xiao Xiao ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Jun 2017 14:29:52 -0400 Globalisation Gangnam-style: The domination of Gangnam-style in touristic online representations <p>This article presents cultural globalisation as a highly uneven and selective process, seeing that the exact nature of this “selectivity” of which cultural elements become globalised has not been intensively studied yet. In the case of online representations of places for the purpose of attracting tourists, certain place-schemata are selected to represent the destination and become globalised, while others are left behind. This study set out to analyze what global processes have allowed the Gangnam-style representation of the Gangnam district in Seoul to dominate its touristic online representation, while traditional heritage of the district which includes a UNESCO heritage site has become subsumed in terms of importance for representing the district online. The article draws on scholars of cultural globalisation such as Appadurai (1990), Harvey (1990) and Ritzer (2002) as well as empirical findings around Gangnam-style and the Gangnam district to analyze these processes of selective globalisation. We found that Gangnam-style becomes easily globalised through its fluid nature, being able to freely move through space and time, as well as being largely devoid of distinct content, which renders it more feasible for purposes of globalisation in this period of the globalisation of nothing. Gangnam-style also represents a certain a lifestyle that fits well into global consumer culture, as it promotes consumption and can easily become commoditized. Because traditional heritage on the other hand still travels “slowly” through time and space and is full of distinct local meanings and less easily commoditized, it is a less feasible place-scheme for representing Gangnam online to tourists. We discuss the implication of this drawing on the theory of the Tourist Gaze 3.0, as well as how the findings relate to authenticity and intra-Asian travel.  </p> Friedericke Kuhn, Meia van der Zee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Jun 2017 14:29:52 -0400 Review of Literature: Potential Benefits of Urban Nature Exposure and Stream Corridor Recreation <p style="margin: 0px; font-family: Helvetica;"> </p><p>This paper examines research and theories which support the argument that within the context of the urban ecosystem, natural areas such as parks, greenways, and stream corridors as places for recreation and leisure have potential to provide a multitude of benefits to the health and quality of life of people living in and visiting urban environments.  These benefits contribute to those which are already being realized in more natural areas, such as restoration from mental fatigue and improved sense of wellbeing. This is important because most people in the United States and many other parts of the word live in urban areas, and the number is growing (Grimm, Feath, Golubewski, Redman, Wu, Bai &amp; Briggs, 2008).  To ensure that this growing population has access to opportunities that could contribute to a healthy and satisfying quality of life, all potential resources for recreation and leisure, such as those mentioned above, should be explored for possible utilization.</p><p style="margin: 0px; font-family: Helvetica;"><span style="font-size: 10px;"><br /></span></p><p style="margin: 0px; font-family: Helvetica;"> </p> Ryan K. Hines ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Jun 2017 14:29:53 -0400 Intersectionality between Happiness and Well-being: A Pilot Study Project in a Midwestern University <p>This pilot study measures the possible intersectionality of happiness and well-being. Items were used from the Oxford Happiness and Well-Being Questionnaire, designed to independently measure the constructs of happiness and well-being. 42 items were combined from which 10 items were randomly selected and converted to a six-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” and administered to 28 college students at a Midwestern University taking a leisure studies course. The instrument yielded a significant alpha value of α (27) = 0.835. Factor analysis was conducted to find which variable loaded on each factor (happiness and well-being). Items having a value greater than 0.30 on both happiness and well-being factors were considered to represent the intersectionality of the latent variables.  The results indicated that three of the ten items loaded on both factors with a value greater than 0.30, indicating some degree of intersectionality between happiness and well-being.</p> Junu Shrestha, Belinda A Creighton-Smith, Thomas M Flack, Theodora Merle Jn Baptiste ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Jun 2017 14:29:54 -0400