Overcoming the Walmart Syndrome: Adapting Problem-based Management Education in East Asia

Main Article Content

Philip Hallinger
Jiafang Lu

Abstract

This paper explores design issues to be considered in adapting the problem-based learning(PBL) for use in the context of East Asian higher education and tests its instructionaleffectiveness in a Master of Management degree program at a graduate school of business(GSB) in Thailand. The research analyzes course evaluation data obtained from 20,988student reports over a seven-year period to assess the impact of a locally developed PBLcurriculum on student perceptions of course effectiveness and engagement in learning.Results of growth modeling found that courses offered in the PBL curricular track achievedratings that were significantly higher than ratings achieved in non-PBL Core Courses. Weconclude that PBL was employed successfully in an East Asian context noted for its relianceon traditional educational approaches, but we note the importance of adaptationsboth for curriculum design and instructional delivery.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Aleamoni, L. M. (1999). Student rating myths versus research facts from 1924 to 1998. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 13(2), 153-166. doi:10.1023/A:1008168421283

Albanese, M., & Mitchell, S. (1993). Problem-based learning: A review of literature on its out- comes and implementation issues. Academic medicine, 68, 52-81.

Altbach, P. G. (2004). Higher education crosses borders: Can the United States remain the top destination for foreign students? Change, 36(2), 18-25. doi:10.1080/00091380409604964

Argüelles, A., & Gonczi, A. (Eds). (2000). Competency based education and training: A world perspective. Mexico City: Grupo Noriega Editores.

Astin, A. (1996). Involvement in learning revisited: Lessons we have learned. Journal of College Student Development, 37(2), 123-34.

Astin, A. (1999). Student involvement: A developmental theory for education. Journal of College Student Development, 40(5), 518-529.

Bao, W. (2007). Quality of higher education from the view of students: an analysis of education assessment by undergraduates (in Chinese). Modern University Education (Xian Dai Da Xue Jiao Yu), 4, 16-22.

Barrows, H. (1986). A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Medical Education, 20(6), 481-486. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.1986.tb01386.x

Barrows, H., & Tamblyn, R. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer.

Biggs, J. (1994). Asian learners through Western eyes: An astigmatic paradox. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Vocational Education Research, 2(2), 40-63.

Biggs, J. (1996). Western misperceptions of the Confucian-heritage learning culture. In D. Watkins. and J. Biggs, (Eds.), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences (pp. 45-67). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre /Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university (3rd Ed). Buckingham: Open University Press/Society for Research in Higher Education.

Biggs, J. & Watkins, D. (1996). The Chinese learner in retrospect. In D. Watkins. and J. Biggs, (Eds.), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences (pp. 269-285). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre /Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.

Bransford, J. D. (1993). Who ya gonna call? In P. Hallinger, K. Leithwood, & J. Murphy (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on educational leadership. New York: Teachers College Press.

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds., 2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Bransford, J. D., Sherwood, R., Hasselbring, T., Kinzer, C., & Williams, S. (1990). Anchored instruction: Why we need it and how technology can help. In D. Nix & R. Spiro (Eds.), Cognition education and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp 115-141). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bridges, E. & Hallinger, P. (1995). Implementing problem-based learning in leadership develop- ment. Eugene, OR: ERIC Clearinghouse.

Bridges, E., & Hallinger, P. (1999). The use of cases in problem based learning. The Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 2(2), 4-13. doi:10.1177/155545899900200201

Carroll, J. M. (2000). Five reasons for scenario-based design. Interacting with Computers, 13(1), 43-60. doi:10.1016/S0953-5438(00)00023-0

Cheng, Y. C. (2010, January). Building capacity for school leadership research and development in the Asia-Pacific region. Paper presented at the Asia Leadership Roundtable 2010. Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong.

Christensen, C. R. (1987). Teaching and the case method: Text, cases and readings. Boston: Harvard Business School.

Christensen, C. R. (1991). The discussion teacher in action: Questioning, listening, and response. In C. Christensen, D. A. Garvin, & A. Sweet (Eds.), Education for judgment. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Clawson, J. G. S., & Haskins, M. E. (2006). Teaching management: a field guide for professors, consultants, and corporate trainers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Colliver, J. A. (2000). Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: Research and theory. Academic Medicine, 75(3), 259-266. doi:10.1097/00001888-200003000-00017

Dickinson, G., & Summers, E. J. (2010). (Re)Anchored, video-centered engagement: The transferability of preservice training to practice. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 10(1). Retrieved June 30, 2011 from www.citejournal.org/vol10/iss1/ science/article1.cfm

Edgerton, R. (2001). Education white paper. Report prepared for the Pew Charitable Trusts, Pew Forum on Undergraduate Learning. Washington, DC.

Engel, C. (1991). Not just a method, but a way of learning. In D. Boud and G. Feletti (Eds.), The challenge of problem-based learning. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 23-33.

Evans, R. (1996). The human side of school change. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Evenson, D., & Hmelo, C. (2000). Problem-based learning: a research perspective on learning interactions. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Felder, R. M. (2004). Changing times and paradigms. Chemical Engineering Education, 38(1), 32-33.

Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th Edition). New York: Teachers College Press.

Garvin, D. A. (2003, Sept.-Oct.). Making the case: Professional education for the world of practice. Harvard Magazine.

Gijbels, D., Dochy, F., Van den Bossche, P., & Segers, M. (2005). Effects of problem-based learning: A meta-analysis from the angle of assessment. Review of Educational Research, 75(1), 27-61. doi:10.3102/00346543075001027

Hakkarainen, P. (2011). Promotion meaningful learning through video production supported PBL. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 5(1), 34-53.

Hallinger, P., & Bridges, E. (2007). Preparing managers for action. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Hallinger, P., & Kantamara, P. (2001). Learning to lead global changes across cultures: Designing a computer-based simulation for Thai school leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 39(3), 197-220. doi:10.1108/09578230110392857

Hallinger, P., & Lu, J. F. (2010). Assessing the instructional effectiveness of problem-based management education in Thailand: A longitudinal evaluation. Management Learning, 10(1), 1-21.

Heck, R. H., Thomas, S. L., & Tabata, L. N. (2010). Multilevel and longitudinal modeling with IBM SPSS. New York: Routledge Academic.

Hess, R. D., & Azuma, H. (1991). Cultural support for schooling: Contrasts between Japan and the United States. Educational Researcher, 20(9), 2-8. doi:10.3102/0013189X020009002

Hu, G. (2002). Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: The case of communicative language teaching in China. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 15(2), 93-105. doi:10.1080/07908310208666636

Interpretive Solutions. (no date). Pharmasim. http://www.interpretive.com/rd5/index. php?pg=ps4.

Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (1998). Expectations and questions in intercultural classrooms. Intercultural Communication Studies, 7(2), 37-62.

Kember, D. (2000). Misconceptions about the learning approaches, motivation and study practices of Asian students. Higher Education, 40(1), 99-121. doi:10.1080/07908310208666636

Kennedy, K. J. (2011). Conceptualizing quality improvement in higher education: Policy, theory and practice for outcomes based learning in Hong Kong. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 33(3), 205-218. doi:10.1080/1360080X.2011.564995

Klein, H. J., Noe, R. A., & Wang, C. (2006). Motivation to learn and course outcomes: The impact of delivery mode, learning goal orientation, and perceived barriers and enablers. Personnel Psychology, 59(3), 665-702. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00050.x

Lyon, P. M., & Hendry, G. D. (2002). The use of the course experience questionnaire as a moni- toring evaluation tool in a problem-based medical programme. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 27(4), 339-352. doi:10.1080/0260293022000001355

McClure, J., Meyer, L. H., Garisch, J., Fischer, R., Weir, K. F., & Walkey, F. H. (2011). Students’ attributions for their best and worst marks: Do they relate to achievement? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(2), 71-81. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.11.001

Major, C., & Palmer, B. (2001). Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning in higher education: Lessons from the literature. Academic Exchange, 5(1), 1-2.

McKeachie, W. J. (1997). Student ratings: The validity of use. American Psychologist, 52(11), 1218-1225.

Scriven, M. (1995). Student ratings offer useful input to teacher evaluations. (ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED39824)

Prawat, R. S. (1989). Promoting access to knowledge, strategy, and disposition in students: A research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 59(1),1-41. doi:10.3102/00346543059001001

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5

Sherwood, A. L. (2004). Problem-based learning in management education: A framework for designing content. Journal of Management Education, 28(5), 536-557. doi:10.1177/1052562904265773

Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571-581. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.85.4.571

Smith, K., Sheppard, S., Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (2005). Pedagogies of engagement: Classroom-based practices. Journal of Engineering Education, 94(1), 1-15.

Sockalingam, N. & Schmidt, H. G. (2011), Characteristics of problems for problem-based learning: The students’ perspective. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 5(1), 6-33.

Stinson, J. E., & Milter, R. G. (1996). Problem-based learning in business education: Curriculum design and implementation issues. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 68, 33-42. doi:10.1002/tl.37219966807

Tang, K. C. C. (1996). Collaborative learning: the latent dimension in Chinese students' learning. In D. Watkins & J. Biggs (Eds), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological, and contextual influences (pp. 183-204). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre/Melbourne: Australian Council for Education Research.

Tweed, R. G., & Lehman, D. R. (2002). Learning considered within a cultural context: Confucian and Socratic approaches. American Psychologist, 57(2), 89-99. doi:10.1037/0003- 066X.57.2.89

University Grants Committee (UGC). (2010). UGC annual report 2009/2010. Retrieved September 2010, 2010, from University Grants Committee: http://www.ugc.edu.hk/eng/ugc/ publication/report/figure2009/g004.htm

Vansteenkiste, M., Zhou, M., Lens, W., & Soenens, B. (2005). Experiences of autonomy and control among Chinese learners: Vitalizing or immobilizing? Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 468-483. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.97.3.468

Walker, A., Bridges, E., & Chan, B. (1996). Wisdom gained, wisdom given: Instituting PBL in a Chinese culture. Journal of Educational Administration, 34(5), 12-31. doi:10.1108/09578239610148250

Walton, H. J., & Matthews, M. B. (1989). Essentials of problem-based learning. Medical Education, 23(6), 542-558. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.1989.tb01581.x

Watkins, D. (2000). Learning and teaching: A cross-cultural perspective. School Leadership & Management, 20(2), 161-173. doi:10.1080/13632430050011407

Watkins, D. (2001). Correlates of approaches to learning: A cross-cultural analysis. In R. Sternberg and L. F. Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles (pp. 165-196). Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Watkins D., & Biggs J. (2001). The paradox of the Chinese learner and beyond. In D. Watkins, and J. Biggs (Eds.) Teaching the Chinese learner: Psychological perspectives (pp. 3-45). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre/Melbourne: Australian Council for Education Research.

Watkins, D., Reghi, M., & Astilla, E. (1991). The-Asian-learner-as-a-rote-learner stereotype: Myth or reality? Educational Psychology, 11(1), 21-34. doi:10.1080/0144341910110102