Main Article Content
This study aims to explore the effects of argumentation with the concept map method during medical problem-based learning (PBL) on individual clinical reasoning. Individual clinical reasoning ability was assessed through problem-solving performance and arguments that students constructed during individual clinical reasoning processes. Toulmin’s model of argument was utilized as a structure for arguments. The study also explored whether there would be any differences between the firstand second-year medical students. Ninety-five medical students participated in this study, and they took two PBL modules. During PBL, they were asked as a group to construct concept maps based on their argumentation about a case under discussion. Before and after each PBL, they were asked to write individual clinical problem-solving tests. One-way, within-subjects ANOVAs were conducted to examine the quality of arguments and clinical problem-solving performance in three individual tests. The results provided evidence that utilizing argumentation with the concept map method during PBL positively affects the development of clinical reasoning skills by individual students.
1. Publication and Promotion: In consideration of the Publisher’s agreement to publish the Work, Author hereby grants and assigns to Publisher the non-exclusive right to print, publish, reproduce, or distribute the Work throughout the world in all means of expression by any method now known or hereafter developed, including electronic format, and to market or sell the Work orany part of it as Publisher sees fit. Author further grants Publisher the right to use Author’s name in association with the Work inpublished form and in advertising and promotional materials
2. Copyright: Copyright of the Work remains in Author’s name.
3. Prior Publication and Attribution: Author agrees not to publish the Work in print form prior to publication of the Work by the Publisher. Author agrees to cite, by author, title, and publisher, the original Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning publication when publishing the Work elsewhere
4. Author Representations: The Author represents and warrants that the Work:
(a) is the Author’s original Work and that Author has full power to enter into this Agreement;
(b) does not infringe the copyright or property of another;
(c) contains no material which is obscene, libelous, defamatory or previously published, in whole or in part.
Author shall indemnify and hold Publisher harmless against loss of expenses arising from breach of any such warranties.
5. Licensing and Reuse: Reuse of the published Work will be governed by a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc/4.0/). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon the Work non-commercially; although new works must acknowledge the original Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning publication and be non-commercial, they do not have to be licensed on the same terms.
Barrows, H. S., & Feltovich, P. J. (1987). The clinical reasoning process. Medical Education, 21(2), 86–91.
Cerbin, B. (1988). The nature and development of informal reasoning skills in college students. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 298 805.
Charlin, B., Lubarsky, S., Millette, B., Crevier, F., Audétat, M. C., Charbonneau, A., . . . Bourdy, C. (2012). Clinical reasoning processes: Unravelling complexity through graphical representation. Medical Education, 46(5), 454–463.
Cho, K. L., & Jonassen, D. H. (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 5–22.
Diemers, A. D., Wiel, M. W., Scherpbier, A. J., Baarveld, F., & Dolmans, D. H. (2015). Diagnostic reasoning and underlying knowledge of students with preclinical patient contacts in PBL. Medical Education, 49(12), 1229–1238.
Erduran, S., Simon, S., & Osborne, J. (2004). Tapping into argumentation: Developments in the application of Toulmin’s argument pattern for studying science discourse. Science Education, 88(6), 915–933.
Eva, K. W. (2005). What every teacher needs to know about clinical reasoning. Medical Education, 39(1), 98–106.
Groves, M. (2012). Understanding clinical reasoning: The next step in working out how it really works. Medical Education–Oxford, 46(5), 444.
Harasym, P. H., Tsai, T. C., & Hemmati, P. (2008). Current trends in developing medical students’ critical thinking abilities. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 24(7), 341–355.
Humbert, A. J., Johnson, M. T., Miech, E., Friedberg, F., Grackin, J. A., & Seidman, P. A. (2011). Assessment of clinical reasoning: A script concordance test designed for pre-clinical medical students. Medical Teacher, 33(6): 472–477.
Jonassen, D. H. (2011). Learning to solve problems: A handbook for designing problem-solving learning environments. New York: Routledge.
Jonassen, D. H., & Kim, B. (2010). Arguing to learn and learning to argue: Design justifications and guidelines. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(4), 439–457.
Ju, H. J. (2016). Enhancing medical students’ argumentation during hypothetico-deductive reasoning (hdr) in problem- based learning (PBL). PhD diss., University of Georgia.
Kassab, S. E., Fida, M., Radwan, A., Hassan, A. B., Abu-Hijleh, M., & O’Connor, B. P. (2016). Generalizability theory analyses of concept mapping assessment scores in a problem-based medical curriculum. Medical Education, 50(7), 730–737.
Kassab, S. E., & Hussain, S. (2010). Concept mapping assessment in a problem-based medical curriculum. Medical Teacher, 32(11), 926–931.
Kirschner, P. A., Buckingham Shum, S. J., & Carr, C. S. (2003). Visualizing argumentation: Software tools for collaborative and educational sense-making. London: Springer.
Kong, L. N., Qin, B., Zhou, Y. Q., Mou, S. Y., & Gao, H. M. 2014. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on development of nursing students’ critical thinking: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of
Nursing Studies, 51(3), 458–469.
Kreiter, C. D., & Bergus, G. (2009). The validity of performance‐based measures of clinical reasoning and alternative approaches. Medical Education, 43(4), 320–325.
Kuhn, D., & Udell, W. (2007). Coordinating own and other perspectives in argument.” Thinking & Reasoning, 13(2): 90–104.
Knudson, R. E. (1991). Effects of instructional strategies, grade, and sex on students’ persuasive writing. Journal of Experimental Education, 59(2), 141–152.
Novak, J. D., & Cañas, A. J. (2006). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct them. Technical report IHMC Cmap Tools 2006-01. Pensacola, FL: Institute for Human and Machine Cognition.
Oh, S., & Jonassen, D. H. (2007). Scaffolding online argumentation during problem solving. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23(2), 95–110.
Patel, V. L., Arocha, J. F., & Zhang, J. (2005). Thinking and reasoning in medicine. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 727–750). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rendas, A. B., Fonseca, M., & Pinto, P. R. (2006). Toward meaningful learning in undergraduate medical education using concept maps in a PBL pathophysiology course. Advances in Physiology Education, 30(1), 23–29.
Rochmawati, E., & Wiechula, R. (2010). Education strategies to foster health professional students’ clinical reasoning skills. Nursing & Health Sciences, 12(2), 244–250.
Sanders, J. A., Wiseman, R. L., & Gass, R. H. (1994). Does teaching argumentation facilitate critical thinking? Communication Reports, 7(1), 27–35.
Saunders, K. M. (1994). Law as rhetoric, rhetoric as argument. Journal of Legal Education, 44(4), 566–578.
Siegel, H. (1995). Why should educators care about argumentation? Informal Logic, 17(2), 159–176.
Simon, S., Erduran, S., & Osborne, J. (2006). Learning to teach argumentation: Research and development in the science classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 28(2–3), 235–260.
Stoyanov, S., & Kommers, P. (2008). Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning, 18(1), 40–53.
Taylor, D., & Miflin, B. (2008). Problem-based learning: Where are we now? Medical Teacher, 30(8), 742–763.
Toulmin, S. (1958). The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Toulmin, S. E. (2003). The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Toulmin, S. E., Rieke, R. D., & Janik. A. (1984). An introduction to reasoning (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Wu, B., Wang, M., Grotzer, T. A., Liu, J., & Johnson, J. M. (2016). Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive- mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning. BMC Medical Education, 16(1), 216–224.
Yeh, S. S. (1998). Empowering education: Teaching argumentative writing to cultural minority middle-school students. Research in the Teaching of English, 49–83.
Yuan, H., Williams, B. A., & Fan, L. (2008). A systematic review of selected evidence on developing nursing students’ critical thinking through problem-based learning. Nurse Education Today, 28(6), 657–663.