A Review of Video Triggers and Video Production in Higher Education and Continuing Education PBL Settings

Main Article Content

Päivi M Rasi
Sari Poikela


Higher education faces the challenges of bridging education and authentic work. In addition, it needs to respond to the highly multimodal and participatory communication and content creation practices, preferences, and cultures of present and future students. The aim of our article is to discuss how the use of video triggers and video production in PBL can help to respond to these challenges. Based on a literature review, we present and discuss the uses and outcomes of video triggers and video production within PBL contexts and related higher education and continuing education contexts. The research evidence reviewed in this article clearly illustrates the advantages of video triggers and video production in PBL settings while at the same time pointing out several conditions of their effective use.

Article Details

10th Anniversary Section: Past and Future


Albanese, M. (2005). Coming to a medical school near you: Full motion video medical education. Medical Education, 39(11), 1081–1082. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02311.x

Balslev, T., de Grave, W. S., Muijtjens, A. M. M., & Scher- pbier, A. J. J. A. (2005). Comparison of text and video cases in a postgraduate problem-based learning format. Medical Education, 39(11), 1086–1092. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02314.x

Barrett, T. (2005). Understanding problem-based learning. In T. Barrett, I. MacLabhraim, & H. Fallon (Eds.), Handbook of enquiry and problem-based learning. Irish case studies and international perspectives (pp. 13−25). Galway, Ireland: All Ireland Society of Higher Education & the National University of Ireland. Retrieved from http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-2/contents.html

Barron, C., Lambert, V., Conlon, J., & Harrington, T. (2008). “The child’s world”: A creative and visual trigger to stimulate student enquiry in a problem based learning module. Nurse Education Today, 28(8), 962–969. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2008.05.017

Barrows, H. (1985). How to design a problem-based curriculum for the preclinical years. New York: Springer.

Barrows, H. (1996). Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview. In L. Wilkerson & W. H. Gijselaers (Eds.), New directions for teaching and learning, Nr. 68 (pp. 3−11). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Bergdahl, B., Fyrenius, A., & Persson, A-C. (2006). EDIT-pro- jekti—PBL:n verkkoskenaariot haastavat opiskelijan ajat- telemaan. In T. Portimojärvi (Ed.), Ongelmaperustaisen oppimisen verkko [The web of problem-based learning] (pp. 185–196). Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.

Bonk, C. J., & Khoo, E. (2014). Adding some tec-variety. 100+ activities for motivating and retaining learners online. Bloomington, IN: Open World Books.

Boud, D., & Pearson, M. (1984). The use of trigger films as stimulus for affective learning. In O. Zuber-Skerritt (Ed.), Video in higher education (pp. 196–204). London: Kogan Page.

Brophy, J. (Ed.). (2004). Advances in research on teaching: Vol. 10. Using video in teacher education. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Chan, L., Bridges, S. M., Doherty, I., Ng, M., Jin, J., Sharma, N., Chan, N., & Lai, H. Y. (2015). A qualitative study on how health professional students and their PBL facilitators perceive the use of mobile devices during PBL. Interdisci- plinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 9(1), 83–95.


Chan, L. K., Patil, N. G., Chen, J. Y., Lam, J. C., Lau, C. S., & Ip, M. S. (2010). Advantages of video trigger in problem-based learning. Medical Teacher, 32(9), 760−765.

de Leng, B. A., Dolmans, D. H. J. M., van de Wiel, M. W. J., Mui- jtjens, A. M. M., & van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). How video cases should be used as authentic stimuli in problem- based medical education. Medical Education, 41(2), 181–188. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02671.x

Elliott, K. A., & Keppell, M. (2000). Visual triggers: Improving the effectiveness of virtual patient encounters. Online papers of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education’s 2000 Conference, Learning to Choose, Choosing to Learn. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org/conferences/coffs00/papers/kristine_elliott.pdf

Ellis, G., Lee, K. S., & Tham, A. (2004). Learning engineering mechanics through video production. Proceedings of the 34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. http://doi.org/10.1109/FIE.2004.1408659

Ghanchi, K. N., Khan, S., Afridi, A., Sajid, S., Afzal, S., Ahmed, I., Ahmed, R., & Ghias, K. (2013). Video or paper for deliv- ery of problem-based learning cases? Medical Education, 47(11), 1131–1131. http://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12353

Hakkarainen, P. (2007). Promoting meaningful learning through the integrated use of digital videos (Doctoral dissertation). University of Lapland, Finland.

Hakkarainen, P. (2009). Designing and implementing a PBL course on educational digital video production: Lessons learned from a design-based research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 57(2), 211–228. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-007-9039-4

Hakkarainen, P. (2011). Promoting meaningful learning through video production-supported PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 5(1), 34–53. http://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1217

Hakkarainen, P., Saarelainen, T., & Ruokamo, H. (2007). Towards meaningful learning through digital video-supported case-based teaching. Australasian Journal of Edu- cational Technology, 23(1), 87–109. Retrieved from http://ajet.org.au/index.php/AJET/article/view/1275/648

Hakkarainen, P., & Vapalahti, K. (2011). Meaningful learning through video-supported forum-theater. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 23(3), 314–328. Retrieved from http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/pdf/IJTLHE1047.pdf

Hargis, J., & Marotta, S. M. (2011). Using Flip camcorders for active classroom metacognitive reflection. Active Learning in Higher Education, 12(1), 35–44. http://doi.org/10.1177/1469787410387816

Hmelo–Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235−266. http://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDPR.0000034022.16470.f3

Hmelo–Silver, C. E., & Barrows, H. S. (2006). Goals and strategies of a problem-based learning facilitator. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(1), 21–39. http://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1004

Hmelo–Silver, C. E., Nagarajan, A., & Derry, S. J. (2006). From face-to-face to online participation: Tensions in facilitation problem-based learning. In M. Savin–Baden & K. Wilkie (Eds.), Problem-based learning online (pp. 61–78). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.

Hung, V. H. K., Keppell, M., & Jong, M. S. Y. (2004). Learners as producers: Using project based learning to enhance meaningful learning through digital video production. In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer, & R. Phillips (Eds.), Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference (pp. 428–436). Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education.

Jin, J., Bridges, S. M., Botelho, M. G., & Chan, L. (2015). Online searching in PBL tutorials. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 9(1), 96–108. http://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1514

Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational Technology Research & Development, 48(4), 63−85. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02300500

Jonassen, D. H., Howland, J., Moore, J., & Marra, M. (2003). Learning to solve problems with technology. A constructivist perspective (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Kamin, C., O’Sullivan, P., Deterding, R., & Younger, M. (2003). A comparison of critical thinking in groups of third year medical students in text, video and virtual PBL case modalities. Academic Medicine, 78(2), 204–211. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2003/02000/A_Comparison_of_Critical_Thinking_in_Groups_of.18.aspx

Keppell, M. (2005). Reusable media-rich problem-based learning cases: Creating learning objects for teacher- education. In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2005 (pp. 1865–1873) [CD-ROM]. Associa- tion for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

Kerfoot, B. P., Masser, B. A., & Hafler, J. P. (2005). Influence of new educational technology on problem-based learning at Harvard Medical School. Medical Education, 39(4), 380– 387. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02105.x

Knowles, A. J., & Ballantyne, N. (2007). Enhancing student learning with case-based multimedia: The views of social work students in Scotland and Canada. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 3(4), 363–374. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol3no4/knowles.htm

Koponen, J., Pyörälä, E., & Isotalus, P. (2012). Comparing three experiential learning methods and their effect on medical students’ attitudes to learning communication skills. Medical Teacher, 34(3), 198–207. http://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2012.642828

Kuure, E., & Miettinen, S. (2013). Learning through action: Introducing the innovative Simulation and Learning Environment Service Innovation Corner (SINCO). World Conference on E-Learning, 21–24 October 2013, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. Retrieved from http://sinco.fi/xyz/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/LearningthroughAction_Proceedings_KuureMiettinen.pdf

Langford Korin, T., & Wilkerson, L. (2011). Bringing problems to life using video, compare/contrast, and roleplay: Applying experience from medical education to your PBL context. In T. Barrett, & S. Moore (Eds.), New approaches to problem-based learning. Revitalising your practice in higher education (pp. 75–86). New York: Routledge.

Leahy, M., & Walshe, I. (2005). Designing a problem-based learning (PBL) module: A case study of a speech and language therapy module at Trinity College Dublin. In T. Bar- rett, I. Mac Labhrainn, & H. Fallon (Eds.), Handbook of enquiry & problem based learning: Irish case studies and international perspectives (pp. 55–63). Dublin: All Ireland Society of Higher Education and Higher Education Authority.

Lee, M. J. W., & McLoughlin, C. (2007). Teaching and learning in the Web 2.0 era: Empowering students through learner-generated content. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 4(10). Retrieved from http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Oct_07/article02.htm

Leppänen, P.-R., & Vähämaa, K. (2006). Ongelmat innos- tavat ja palvelevat oppimista. Terveysalan koulutuksen opintojaksojen ongelmien tarkastelu fysioterapeutti-ja sairaanhoitajaopiskelijoiden näkökulmasta. In T. Portimojärvi (Ed.), Ongelmaperustaisen oppimisen verkko [The web of problem-based learning] (pp. 157–184). Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.

Lu, J., & Chan, L. (2015). Differ in socio-cognitive processes? Some comparisons between paper and video triggered PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 9(2). http://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1495

Mayberry, J., Hargis, J., Boles, L., Dugas, A., O’Neill, D., Rivera, A., & Meler, M. (2012). Exploring teaching and learning using an iTouch mobile device. Active Learning in Higher Education, 13(3), 203–217. http://doi.org/10.1177/1469787412452984

McLellan, H. (2004). The case for case-based teaching in online classes. Educational Technology, 4, 14–18.

Moeller, S., Spitzer, K., & Spreckelsen, C. (2010). How to configure blended problem based learning—Results of a randomized trial. Medical Teacher, 32(8), 328–346. http://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2010.490860

Moust, J. H. C., Van Berkel, H. J. M., & Schmidt, H. G. (2005). Signs of erosion: Reflections on three decades of problem-based learning at Maastricht University. Higher Education, 50(4), 665–683. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-004-6371-z

Multisilta, J. (2014a). Editorial on mobile and panoramic video in education. Education and Information Technologies, 19(3), 565–567. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-014-9340-x Multisilta, J. (2014b). Mobile panoramic video applications for learning. Education and Information Technologies, 19(3), 655–666. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-013-9282-8

Nordstrom, K., & Korpelainen, P. (2011). Creativity and inspiration for problem solving in engineering education. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(4), 439–450. http://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2011.560379

Pea, R., & Lindgren, R. (2008). Video collaboratories for research and education: An analysis of collaboration design patterns. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 1(4), 1–13. http://doi.org/10.1109/TLT.2009.5

Poikela, S. (2003). Ongelmaperustainen pedagogiikka ja tutorin osaaminen [Problem-based pedagogy and tutor’s knowing and competence] (Doctoral dissertation). Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.

Poikela, E., & Poikela. S. (2006). Problem-based curricula— Theory, development and design. In E. Poikela & A. R. Nummenmaa (Eds.), Understanding problem-based learning (pp. 71–90). Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.

Poikela, E., & Poikela, S. (2010). Learning tourism and storytelling. In H. Urponen & R. Mark (Eds.), Lifelong learning for the new decade (pp. 107–114). Proceedings of the 39th EUCEN Conference. Rovaniemi, Finland: Lapland University Press.

Poikela, S., Vuoskoski, P., & Kärnä, M. (2009). Developing creative learning environments in problem-based learning. In Tan Oon-Seng (Ed.), Problem-based learning and creativity (pp. 67–85). Singapore: Cengage Learning.

Portimojärvi, T. (Ed.). (2006). Ongelmaperustaisen oppimisen verkko [The web of problem-based learning]. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.

Rahimi, E., van den Berg, J., & Veen, W. (2015). Facilitating student-driven constructing of learning environments using Web 2.0 personal learning environments. Computers & Education, 81(2015), 235–246. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.012

Roy, R. B., & McMahon, G. T. (2012). Video-based cases disrupt deep critical thinking in problem-based learning. Medical Education, 46(4), 426–435. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04197.x

Savin–Baden, M. (2007). A practical guide to problem-based learning online. New York: Routledge.

Savin–Baden, M., & Howel Major, C. (2004). Foundations of problem-based learning. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press/SRHE.

Savin–Baden, M., & Wilkie, K. (Ed.) (2006). Problem-based learning online. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press. Schmidt, H.G. (1983). Problem-based learning: Rationale and description. Medical Education, 17(1), 11–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.1983.tb01086.x

Schwartz, D. L., & Hartman, K. (2007). It is not television anymore: Designing digital video for learning and assessment (pp. 335–348). In R. Goldman, R. D. Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry (Eds.), Video research in the learning sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Tambouris, E., Panopoulou, E., Tarabanis, K., Ryberg, T., Buus, L., Peristeras, V., . . . Porwol, L. (2012). Enabling problem based learning through Web 2.0 technologies: PBL 2.0. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 238–251. Retrieved from http://www.ifets.info/journals/15_4/21.pdf

Vuojärvi, H. (2013). Conceptualising Personal and mobile learning environments in higher education. Focus on students’ perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Rovaniemi, Finland: University of Lapland Printing Centre. Retrieved from http://lauda.ulapland.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/61642/Vuoj%C3%A4rvi_Hanna_ActaE_133pdfA.pdf?sequence=4

Vuoristo, O., & Heino, N. (1961). Kiiskismarkkinat [Fishing Market]. Folkcloristic short film. Suomi-Filmi Oy.

Wilson, S., Liber, O., Johnson, M., Beauvoir, P., Sharples, P., & Milligan, C. (2007). Personal learning environments: Challenging the dominant design of educational systems. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 3(2), 27–38. Retrieved from http://www.je-lks.org/ojs/index.php/Je-LKS_EN/article/view/247