Main Article Content
This study used an online-structured interview methodology to examine the impact of an intensive field experience in facilitating problem (PBL) and project-based learning (PjBL) on teachers’ pedagogy. The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent the field experience had transformed their teaching. Data were collected in the form of online interviews with 36 participants who completed the gifted education licensure program at a regional state university in the southeast. The online interviews were followed up with telephone interviews with four of the participants. The resulting themes can be grouped under the major categories of teacher-related and student-related themes. This article will focus on the teacherrelated themes, the most important being the change in the teachers’ pedagogy. The article will further discuss the obstacles that stood in the way of the teachers’ successful implementation of PBL and PjBL.
1. Publication and Promotion: In consideration of the Publisher’s agreement to publish the Work, Author hereby grants and assigns to Publisher the non-exclusive right to print, publish, reproduce, or distribute the Work throughout the world in all means of expression by any method now known or hereafter developed, including electronic format, and to market or sell the Work orany part of it as Publisher sees fit. Author further grants Publisher the right to use Author’s name in association with the Work inpublished form and in advertising and promotional materials
2. Copyright: Copyright of the Work remains in Author’s name.
3. Prior Publication and Attribution: Author agrees not to publish the Work in print form prior to publication of the Work by the Publisher. Author agrees to cite, by author, title, and publisher, the original Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning publication when publishing the Work elsewhere
4. Author Representations: The Author represents and warrants that the Work:
(a) is the Author’s original Work and that Author has full power to enter into this Agreement;
(b) does not infringe the copyright or property of another;
(c) contains no material which is obscene, libelous, defamatory or previously published, in whole or in part.
Author shall indemnify and hold Publisher harmless against loss of expenses arising from breach of any such warranties.
5. Licensing and Reuse: Reuse of the published Work will be governed by a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc/4.0/). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon the Work non-commercially; although new works must acknowledge the original Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning publication and be non-commercial, they do not have to be licensed on the same terms.
Barksdale-Ladd, M. A., & Thomas, K. F. (2000). What’s at stake in high-stakes testing: Teachers and parents speak out. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(5), 384–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487100051005006
Barron, B., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teaching for meaningful learning: A review of research on inquiry- based and cooperative learning. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/pdfs/edutopia-teaching-for-meaningful-learning.pdf
Barrows, H. S. (1986). A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Medical Education, 20, 481–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.1986.tb01386.x
Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(2), 39–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00098650903505415
Bell, T., Urhahne, D., Schanze, S., & Ploetzner, R. (2010). Collaborative inquiry learning: Models, tools, and challenges. International Journal of Science Education, 3(1) 349–377.
Benoit, B. (2000). Problem based learning. SCORE History/Social Science. Retrieved from http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/problearn.html
Bradley-Levine, J., & Mosier, G. (2014). Literature review on project-based learning. Retrieved from http://cell.uindy.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/PBL-Lit-Review_Jan14.2014.pdf
BIE. (n.d.). What is project-based learning? Buck Institute for Education. Retrieved from http://www.bie.org/about/what_pbl
Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). The flat world and education: How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (2011). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Kappan, 92(6), 81–92.
Dewey, J. (1997). How we think. New York, NY: Dover Publications.
Dweck, C., Walton, G., & Cohen, G. (2014). Academic tenacity: Mindsets and skills that promote long-term learning. Seattle, WA: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Ertmer, P. A., & Simons, K. D. (2006). Jumping the PBL implementation hurdle: Supporting the efforts of K-12 teachers. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 40–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1005
Esch, C. (1998). Project-based and problem-based: The same or different? San Mateo, CA: San Mateo County Office of Education.
Farmer, T., & Robinson, K., & Elliott, S. J. (2006). Developing and implementing a triangulation protocol for qualitative health research. Qualitative Health Research, 16(3), 377– 394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732305285708
Farrington, C. A. (2013). Academic mindsets as a critical component of deeper learning. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.
Fishman, B. J., Marx, R. W., Best, S., & Tal, R. T. (2003). Linking teacher and student learning to improve professional development in systemic reform. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(6), 643–658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(03)00059-3
Fullan, M., & Langworthy, M. (2013). Towards a new end: New pedagogies for deep learning. Seattle, WA: Collaborative Impact. Retrieved from http://www.newpedagogies.info/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/New_Pedagogies_for_Deep%20Learning_Whitepaper.pdf
Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L. Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38 (4), 915–945. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312038004915
Ginsburg, H. P., & Opper, S. (1987). Piaget’s theory of intellec- tual development (3rd ed). New York, NY: Pearson.
Grant, M. M., & Hill, J. R. (2006). Weighing the risks with the rewards: Implementing student centered pedagogy within high-stakes testing. In R. Lambert & C. McCarthy (Eds.), Understanding teacher stress in an age of accountability (pp. 19–42). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Press.
Haney, J. J., Jing, W., Keil, C., & Zoffel, J. (2007). Enhancing teachers’ beliefs and practices through problem-based learning focused on pertinent issues of environmental health science. Journal of Environmental Education, 38(4), 25–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.38.4.25-33
Hewlett Foundation. (n.d.). What is deeper learning? The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.hewlett.org/programs/education/deeper-learning/what-deeper-learning
Hung, W. (2011). Theory to reality: A few issues in implementing problem-based learning. Education Technology Research Development, 59(4), 529–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-011-9198-1
James, N., & Busher, H. (2012). Internet interviewing. In J. F. Gubrium, J. A. Holstein, A. B. Marvasti, & K. D. McKinney (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interview research: The complexity of the craft, (2nd ed., pp. 177–192). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). Educational psychology success story: Social interdependence and theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 365–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09339057
Korthagen, F. A., & Kessels, J. P. (1999). Linking theory and practice: Changing the pedagogy of teacher education. Educational Researcher, 28(4), 4–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X028004004
Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Nieto, S. (2003). Challenging current notions of “highly qualified teachers” through work in a teachers’ inquiry group. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(5), 386–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487103257394
Opfer, V. D., & Pedder, D. (2011). Conceptualizing teacher professional learning. Review of Educational Research, 81(3), 376–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654311413609
Papert, S. (2001). Seymour Papert: Project-based learning. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/seymour-papert-project-based-learning
Park, S. H., & Ertmer, P. A. (2008). Examining barriers in technology-enhanced problem-based learning: Using a performance support systems approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(4), 631–643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00858.x
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Pecore, J. L. (2012). Beyond beliefs: Teachers adapting problem-based learning to preexisting systems of practice. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 7(2), 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1359
Savery, J. S. (2006). Overview of PBL: Definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 9–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1002
The Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). (1991). What work requires of schools: A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/whatwork/whatwork.pdf
Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Singleton, R., & Straits, B. (2012). Survey interviewing. In J. F. Gubrium, J. Holstein, A. B. Marvasti, & K. D. McKinney (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interview research: The complexity of the craft (2nd ed., pp. 77–98). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based learning. Buck Institute for Education. Retrieved from http://www.bie.org/index.php/site/RE/pbl_research/29
Vega, V. (2012). Project-based learning research review. San Rafael, CA: Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/pbl-research-learning-outcomes
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MS: MIT Press.
Wagner, T. (2012). Creating innovators: The making of young people who will change the world. New York, NY: Scribner. Wetherell, M., Taylor, S., & Yates, S. J. (Eds.) (2001). Discourse as data: A guide for analysis. London, UK: Sage Publications.
Wilhelm, J. G., & Wilhelm, P. J. (2010). Inquiring minds learn to read, write, and think: Reaching all learners through inquiry. Middle School Journal, 41(5), 39–46.
Zhao, Y. (2012). World class learners: Educating creative and entrepreneurial students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.