International Journal of Designs for Learning 2019-05-21T19:45:39-04:00 IJDL Open Journal Systems <p>This multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed online journal is dedicated to publishing descriptions of artifacts, environments and experiences created to promote and support learning in all contexts by designers in any field. The IJDL Library of Congress ISSN is 2159-449X.</p> The Make to Learn Electric Motor Design Sequence 2019-05-21T19:45:37-04:00 Glen Bull Joe Garofalo Michael Littman Matthew Hoffman <p><em>Make to Learn</em> <em>Invention Kits</em> allow students to reconstruct working models of historic inventions. This design case describes the development of a series of <em>Make to Learn</em> <em>Electric Motor Invention Kits</em> that spans the time frame from development of the first patented electric motor in the United States to contemporary brushless motors. The design process is described and design decisions that led to the final sequence of electric motor kits are summarized.</p> 2018-05-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advancing Culturally Responsive Science Education in Secondary Classrooms through an Induction Course 2019-05-21T19:45:34-04:00 Julie C. Brown Elizabeth A. Ring-Whalen Gillian H. Roehrig Joshua A. Ellis <p>Culturally responsive science teaching has been associated with several positive academic outcomes for students of color, including improved science achievement, attitudes, and identities. Given the chronic science performance gap between students of color and white peers, culturally responsive teaching seems ideal for mitigating this disparity. Traditional teacher preparation programs, however, neither emphasize nor require multicultural science education coursework. Unfortunately, many science teachers exit preparation programs without critically examining their beliefs about culturally diverse students or increasing their confidence in working with them. In response to this concern, we designed a theoretically- and contextually-grounded induction course to support culturally responsive secondary science teacher development. The purpose of this four-week course was to engage beginning secondary science teachers (1-5 years of teaching experience) in activities, discussions, and reflections raising awareness of the importance of attending to attitudes about culturally diverse students, as well as abilities to incorporate students’ backgrounds into science instruction.</p> <p>Course goals included improving teachers’: understanding of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP); sociopolitical awareness and knowledge of their cultural identities; knowledge of and attitudes toward culturally diverse students, their families, and communities; critical reflection on classroom practices; and abilities to design culturally responsive science curriculum units integrating families’ funds of knowledge and/or sociopolitical ties. In this paper, we share our design and implementation experiences, as well as teacher outcomes. Continued conversations between researchers, teacher educators, and others involved in advancing culturally responsive science teaching are crucial to the academic success of culturally diverse student populations.</p> 2018-05-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using Causal Diagrams to Foster Systems Thinking in Geography Education 2019-05-21T19:45:38-04:00 Marjolein Cox An Steegen Jan Elen <p>To gain insight into complex sustainability problems and acknowledge complexity is essential and can be achieved by creating an overview of the entire system, including interaction between variables. Therefore, systems thinking is recognized as a vital cognitive skill required to grasp complex global problems. Nevertheless, the implementation of systems thinking into general education, and geography in particular, is sadly limited. Encouraging students to use appropriate tools will probably help them understand systems complexity. A lesson series to foster systems thinking in a Belgian high school geography course was developed and implemented. In this design, produced by researchers in consultation with teachers, students were required to elaborate causal diagrams based on original texts and graphs of complex geographical issues. Causal diagrams are expected to support the development of students’ systems thinking ability. The interpretation of the information sources from a geographical, and thus multidimensional perspective, is the core of inquiry-based instruction aimed at fostering systems thinking. By describing the gradual use of causal diagrams as a tool to visually represent given data, this article contributes an example of this scaffolding technique in geography education. In addition to a description of the lesson series itself, we also discuss how decisions in the design process were influenced by theoretical as well as practical aspects of geography education in Flanders (Belgium). Furthermore, first reflections on the implementation are illustrated.</p> 2018-05-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Developing Multi-Disciplinary Skills through a Course in Educational Software Design 2019-05-21T19:45:31-04:00 Marisa Exter <p>This design case covers a graduate course in educational software design that focuses on semester-long projects in response to client requests. The course was intended to address the need for professionals across disciplines, such as instructional design, computer science, and human-computer interaction design, to usefully collaborate on educational software projects. The ability to work on a multi-disciplinary team was fostered in several ways: through recruiting students across multiple majors; providing readings and student presentation topics related to language, processes, and techniques used by each discipline; and by scaffolding the work of multi-disciplinary student groups in a major semester-long project.</p> 2018-06-08T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Designing for Young Children: Learning, Practice, and Decisions 2019-05-21T19:45:29-04:00 Yanghee Kim Diantha Smith <p>This paper presents a vignette of our development of a robot-based app sponsored by the corporation producing the robot. The discussion in this paper begins with the affordances of humanoid robots that enable transformative pedagogical approaches to address children’s needs. Next, we present our design case, where we develop a humanoid robot-based English-learning curriculum for young children to learn English as a second language. This case highlights a multifaceted app development process that involves synergistic, multidisciplinary teamwork and design enhancement through repeated observations of child/robot interactions. We present a few snapshots from the design case to illustrate the teamwork and design enhancement. From our observations in repeated user testing, the robot app seems to induce independent navigation, sustained attention and engagement, and rich learning experiences for children. The design challenges and the way we address them may be useful for others developing similar interventions for young children.</p> 2018-06-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Refining a Summer Biomedical Research Training Program for American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) Students 2019-05-21T19:45:36-04:00 Naomi Lee Alfreda Nelson Vanessa Svihla <p>Literature shows that students who enter the science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical-related (STEMM) pipeline at earlier stages of their career are more likely to be successful. This is especially true for under-represented and economically disadvantaged students. Despite the increasing number of students entering the pipeline, American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students still have a higher attrition rate compared to other ethnic groups. Educators and government agencies have worked to improve the success rate for AIAN students across all levels and fields by developing various programs aimed at training and mentorship. In 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, increased their outreach efforts for recruiting AIAN students for the summer internship program. Our goal was to develop a culturally tailored research-training program that could recruit and retain AIAN students into STEMM degrees and careers. We adapted an existing program that provides training in biomedical science and mentorship at an NINDS research laboratory. From 2007 to 2016, of the 41 AIAN interns who participated, 35 (85%) remained in STEMM fields. Five interns obtained post baccalaureate positions at NIH and four entered graduate or medical school. These successful outcomes were brought about only after navigating myriad obstacles. We identified obstacles for AIAN student participation, and made adaptations to the summer internship. We made design decisions regarding recruitment, feasibility, lab placement and mentorship, supporting research and social networking, and sustaining AIAN culture. This design case highlights the obstacles and strategies for success that we developed.</p> 2018-05-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Makecourse-Art: Design and Practice of a Flipped Engineering Makerspace 2019-05-21T19:45:39-04:00 Sanghoon Park PARK2@USF.EDU Howard Kaplan Rudy Schlaf Eric Tridas <p>The Makecourse-Art is a makerspace designed to promote undergraduate students’ aesthetic design skills as well as functional design skills using an interdisciplinary team approach at the University of South Florida. To overcome the unique challenges of the Makecourse (earlier version) and to maximize students’ design efforts working on an engineering project in the classroom, the Makecourse-Art incorporated a flipped classroom model utilizing two instructional methods with corresponding activities. First, the explicit form of instruction is delivered through asynchronous video lectures/tutorials, including topics such as Arduino programming, CAD modeling with the Autodesk Maya, Mudbox, and coding skills. Second, interactive team-based classroom activities are offered to students based on student-centered learning theories such as peer-assisted collaborative learning and problem-based learning. In this paper, we present the design case of the Makecourse-Art with detailed descriptions of the components, and explain the key design decisions, obstacles during the design process, and how the challenges were resolved. In addition, we provide step-by-step examples of students’ engineering design experiences with visual images.</p> 2018-05-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Accessible Making: Designing Makerspaces for Accessibility 2019-05-21T19:45:28-04:00 Katherine M. Steele Brianna Blaser Maya Cakmak <p>The purpose of makerspaces is to increase access to “making” among the general community. Because of this social justice orientation, it is important to consider how welcoming and accessible makerspaces are to individuals with diverse abilities, including individuals with disabilities. This design brief examines a three-step process used to make a university-based makerspace more accessible and welcoming to individuals with disabilities including a tour, design activity, and brainstorming session. The process helps identify simple changes that were made to the makerspace, as well as increasing student, faculty, and community access. Using a similar process, other makerspaces could improve the accessibility of their spaces, procedures, and tools.</p> 2018-06-13T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Evolution of Designing E-Service-Learning Projects: A Look at the Development of Instructional Designers 2019-05-21T19:45:33-04:00 Jill Stefaniak Jennifer Maddrell Yvonne Earnshaw Paige Hale <p>This design case will discuss how design strategies evolved through the development and implementation of two e-service-learning project cohorts. The article provides a detailed account for how Designers for Learning launched its first e-service-learning instructional design project to address adult basic education needs. Information and design feedback gathered at the end of project informed design decisions and changes to the process for a second iteration. The authors discuss the rationale for design decisions made throughout the course of these two cohorts as well as recommendations for mentoring and coaching novice instructional designers through a service-learning project.</p> 2018-05-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Evidence Based Curriculum Design Framework: Leveraging Diverse Perspectives in the Design Process 2019-05-21T19:45:35-04:00 Philip J Vahey David Reider Jillian Orr Ashley Lewis Presser Ximena Dominguez <p>The ubiquity of touchscreen, mobile tablet technology has resulted in a plethora of “apps for learning” yet few leverage the learning sciences as a design driver. This paper describes our approach to integrating the learning sciences with best practices in app design: a design framework that involves researchers and developers in a co-development process to create apps based on research and evidence. Our framework centers around a learning blueprint which is intended to serve as a “boundary object.” This boundary object facilitates a design process that allows the design team to focus on both children’s engagement and learning. Here we describe the challenges that our project team encountered and our approaches to overcome those challenges on the Next Generation Preschool Math (NGPM) project, a development and research effort devoted to creating a supplemental preschool math curriculum supplement with integrated digital apps.</p> 2018-05-09T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Empowerment and Constraint: Design of a Homecare Worker Training Program 2019-05-21T19:45:32-04:00 Amber Gallup Judith Tomasson Vanessa Svihla <p>A worker education center in California requested the development of a job training pilot program for 6,000 state-remunerated homecare workers. These workers provide personal care services to Medicaid-eligible adults over 65 years of age and to adults with disabilities, enabling them to remain living at home. In recognition of the homecare workers’ position as a first line of defense against health crises and costly hospitalizations, the center sought to enhance their roles by training them to be more engaged members of the care team and more knowledgeable in health and safety topics. The training design was challenging for two reasons. First, in California, consumers (recipients of care) are the legal employers of their homecare workers and are their designated job trainers. This hard-won right clashed with elements of the center’s training initiative. Second, diverse linguistic backgrounds limited education and low literacy levels among homecare workers led to a non-traditional approach to worker training that required buy-in from diverse stakeholders. The design process was fast-paced and iterative, involving research around themes established by committee, coordination with an illustrator, and numerous revisions in consultation with subject matter experts, including a disability rights advocate who was also a consumer. The result was a hands-on, collaborative design rooted in social constructivist learning theory. After two years, health outcomes among consumers whose homecare workers received training were positive, leading us to infer that both the design and the efforts to address learners’ needs and consumers’ concerns had been effective.</p> 2018-05-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design and Implementation of a Web-based Project Management Information System 2019-05-21T19:45:32-04:00 Jeremy Bellah Liang Chen Chris Zimmer <p>BPM software is the result of a need to have easy to use software that supports the teaching of project management at both the undergraduate and graduate levels of instruction. Existing project management software offerings are not conducive to learning project management techniques as specified in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). This case details the development of the software and describes its use in real world projects. Additionally, it presents empirical evidence that students find the software easy to use and that it enhances their understanding of project management concepts.</p> 2018-05-29T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of an Online Graph-Oriented Collaborative Argumentation Tool for Middle School Students: A Faculty Expert's Perspective 2019-05-21T19:45:30-04:00 Pi-Sui Hsu Silvia Ginting Margot Van Dyke <p>The objective of this design case was to describe the development of an online graph-oriented tool to support the representation of collaborative argumentation for middle school students from a faculty expert’s perspective and discuss the processes that were instrumental in developing the tool. Supported by the professional staff in the Digital Convergence Lab (DCL) at Northern Illinois University, a student team was involved in the development process of such a tool. Based on the design document from the design team, the development team developed a prototype and the faculty expert conducted a series of usability tests with 119 middle school students in the United States. Overall, the results of the usability testing suggested that the prototype is targeted at supporting the representation of scientific argumentation. The student participants also provided suggestions for further improvement of the prototype.</p> 2018-06-08T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##