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The objective of this design case is to describe a cross-cultural, online graph-oriented collaborative argumentation tool for middle school students from a faculty expert’s perspective, and discuss the processes that were instrumental in creating the tool. Supported by the professional staff in the Digital Convergence Lab (DCL) at Northern Illinois University, a student team was involved in the design process of such a tool. The team designed two versions of graphic icons to represent the essential elements of argumentation skills. The first version of icon designs used human figures and symbols to represent two groups, five argumentation elements, and one icon for teacher input. After middle school students, in the United States and Taiwan, experienced the icon designs, the design team refined them to be gender and culturally neutral. The design team also modified the design of the user interface throughout the project.
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