Login or Register to make a submission.

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Instructors to Authors, which is found in About the Journal.
  • The author should disclose any financial relationships that may exist that could influence the content of the paper in an Acknowledgments section just before the References. This should include disclosure of funding as well as a statement describing the sponsor’s role in any aspect of the research for, and the writing of, the paper. In the case of multi-author papers, the corresponding author is responsible for disclosing this information for all co-authors.



Material may be submitted for publication online at the Hindsight website run by IUScholarWorks. Authors will need to register with the journal prior to uploading submission.


Size: Submissions should be no more than 10,000 words including references or notes. Typical submissions are between 1,500-5,000 words. Abstracts are required for all articles.

File Format: Manuscripts must be in a Microsoft Word 97-2004 (doc), Microsoft Word 2007 (docx) or Open Office (odt) format.

Attribution: Author name, acknowledgements and other identifying information should be included in the header. Please include full name, degrees, affiliation and position, and email address.  Please also include a short biographical paragraph as a separate document. If you have a URL or ORCID, please include in this document.

Abstracts:  200 words or less and identify the research question or background, methods and sources, thesis and conclusion.

Keywords:  Keywords should not repeat words in the title or abstract as most search engines will use these two items to index your article.  Keywords should give potential readers and researchers additional information about your methods, techniques and specific area of research and study.  Google Scholar, EBSCOhost and PubMed are all good resources for researching which keywords will return articles similar to yours.

Font: Georgia

Body text: 12 pt, single-spaced, justified

Titles: Not more than 20 words in 18 pt, bold, left justified

Section Titles: 14 pt, all capitals. Subsections titles should be in 12 pt, all capitals. Further subdivisions will be in 12 pt, capitalized (the first letter of all world except prepositions and conjunctions), bold. Further subdivisions should be in 12 pt, underlined.

Paragraphs: Indent 5 spaces at first line; no vertical space between paragraphs

Figures: Please DO NOT integrate figures (tables, graphs, images) in the manuscript. Instead, indicate in the text where you would like the image or figure to appear with a tag and desired caption (e.g., [FIGURE 1: Fabulous image, date. Image courtesy OWNER/CREATOR]). Attach figures and permissions as separate files along with the article copy.

The editorial staff reserve the right to determine the validity of a figure to enhance understanding of the author’s topic and to publish the final article without the figure.  In this instance, the staff will notify the author of the decision prior to publication.

Please use the table function in the software used to create the manuscript to create tables. Images in the initial submission may be medium-quality JPEG files. You should submit separate image files of good quality in either JPEG, PNG or TIFF form for the final submission should your submission be chosen for publication. For black and white images, 8-bit, 300 dpi images are suitable.  For color or sepia photos, 24 RGB, 300 dpi images are suitable.


Please make sure to obtain permissions to use copyrighted figures and submit proof of those permissions with your draft. This includes use permissions from archives or other repositories. If images are in the public domain, please provide a link to this information. Authors who wish to use direct quotations of substantial length (300 words for a book length work or 10% of the total word count of the source), tables, figures, or illustrations from copyrighted material must obtain written permission from the publisher or copyright owner. Short quotations may be acknowledged by quotation marks and a reference citation.  If you are unsure whether your passage requires permission, it is best to seek permissions from the copyright holder.



Place acknowledgement between the text of the article and the reference section.  Sources of support, such as grant funding or other significant assistance, should be acknowledged.  The assistance of persons who contributed to the work may also be acknowledged. Acknowledgements should not be more than 150 words.


Place your references at the end of the article.  Number references in order of their citation in the body of the article.  In text citations should be superscript numbers. Please use Arabic numbers.  Authors are responsible for ensuring that reference listings are correct.  Examples of the proper citation format

Journal articles

  1. Calvo M, Enoch JM. Early use of corrective lenses in Spanish colonies of the Americas including parts of the future United States: reference to Viceroy Luis de Velasco (the son). Optom Vis Sci 2003;80:681-689.

Section in a single author book

  1. Hofstetter HW. Optometry: Professional, Economic, and Legal Aspects. St. Louis: Mosby, 1948:17-35.

Chapter in a multi-author volume

  1. Penisten DK. Eyes and vision in North American Indiana cultures: An historical perspective on traditional medicine and mythology. In: Goss DA, Edmondson LL, eds. Eye and Vision Conditions in the American Indian. Yukon, OK; Pueblo Publishing, 1990:186-190.

Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for further questions about references and in-text citations.

Extensive use of uncommon abbreviations, symbols, and acronyms is discouraged.  Common abbreviations, such as D for diopters or cm for centimeters, may be used.  Common symbols, such as Δ for prism diopters, may be used when the context for their use is clear.  The first use of acronyms should be accompanied by the name or phrase spelled out followed by the acronym in parentheses (e.g., The Optometric Historical Society (OHS) has produced a quarterly publication since 1970.) Italicize non-English words at their first appearance in the manuscript. If the word recurs frequently, it does not need to be italicized in subsequently.

For stylistic questions not answered in this document, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style.