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Do external regulations imposed on Podlasie milk farmers limit their agency? This article addresses the issue of economic and social aspects of running milk farms in the west Podlasie region in east Poland. I am trying to answer the question whether farmers from the Sokoly commune and the neighboring areas are agent actors, intentionally functioning within their daily reality and in the face of challenges posed by this reality. I consider the professional awareness of farmers and what really motivates them to work. I analyze the problem through descriptions in the area of economic anthropology and such notions as informal lease, investments, EU grants, loans. I also explain the paradox of enlarging cow herds and the arable land, which does not necessarily result in the growth of farms.