Journal of Muslim Philanthropy & Civil Society <p>The<em> Journal of Muslim Philanthropy &amp; Civil Society</em> (<em>JMPCS</em>), is a bi-annual, peer reviewed, open access journal published by the Center on Muslim Philanthropy in partnership with Indiana University Press, Lake Institute on Faith &amp; Giving, World Congress of Muslim Philanthropists, International Institute of Islamic Thought, and the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy at Indiana University. <em>JMPCS</em> seeks original academic research examining the broad scope of Muslim philanthropy and civil society. This peer reviewed online academic journal will publish research related to Muslim nonprofit, philanthropic and voluntary action. The terms “Muslim” and “philanthropy” are defined broadly to be inclusive of cutting-edge research from across the world and disciplines. <em>JMPCS</em> is intended to shed light on the dynamic practice and understanding of Muslim Philanthropy.&nbsp;</p> The Center on Muslim Philanthropy en-US Journal of Muslim Philanthropy & Civil Society 2578-4404 <p>Copyright to works published in Journal of Muslim Philanthropy and Civil Society is retained by the author(s). Articles published in this journal are licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>Journal of Muslim Philanthropy and Civil Society charges no publication fee for authors. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br> <br> Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process.</p> Engaging Politics with Zakat <p class="Abstract">One of the eight categories of zakat recipients mentioned in the Qur’an is the muʾallafa qulūbuhum, or “those whose hearts are brought close.” Many classical jurists interpreted this category as one that allows strategic spending to win allies and protect the Muslim community. This paper studies this interpretation as found in classical works of Islamic law and attempts to map the key features of this classical interpretation onto the context of Muslim minorities in the West—assessing the parallels and the differences between the two contexts and their implications if the overall objective of the classical interpretation, that of allowing strategic spending to win allies to protect the Muslim community, is to be maintained. It concludes by considering how the issues raised by the differences in context in relation to the key features of the classical interpretation may be addressed from within Islamic textual sources and Muslim historical practices and opening a discussion, in light of this paper, on whether zakat funds may be used to support activities such as advocacy, campaigning, and lobbying on behalf of minority Muslim communities in the West. This is an interesting new chapter for Muslim philanthropy in minority settings.</p> Mohammed Aziz Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammed Aziz 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Zakat Practice in Nothern Nigera <p>This paper contributes to discourse on religious and social relationships in Nigeria with a focus on contemporary institutions involved in zakat administration. It highlights how zakat practices evolved, including the principles of its collection and distribution among Muslims, which has historically varied. The paper explores the involvement of two Muslim institutions in northern Nigeria that engage in zakat collection and distribution, i.e., Izala and Jamā’at Nasril Islam. The paper argues that zakat, being a religious obligation, is contested by these institutions, among others, including shariʿa states, which has increased competition for its control. It concludes by looking at the challenges of public zakat disbursement. Within this context, this article examines the perspectives of zakat beneficiaries and the impact of the various zakat bodies in society in northern Nigeria.</p> Dauda Abubakar Copyright (c) 2021 Dauda Abubakar 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Financing Kindness as a Society <p>A sine qua non in any basic understanding of the history of Islamic philanthropy is a familiarity with the story of the charitable foundation/endowment in Islam known as the waqf. Using necessarily broad but accurate brushstrokes, this paper tells the story of the waqf. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, it is divided into six major sections. Following a section on the background for the emergence of the institution of the waqf are five sections, each of which treats one of what I propose to be the five different phases of the history of this institution. The first focuses on the formative period and discusses the central concepts and themes that were critical for the foundation and establishment of the waqf as one of the premier institutions of Islamic philanthropy. The second deals with the post-formative period and explores the emergence of jurisprudence regarding the normative beneficiaries of the waqf, as well as the evolving multiplicity of various genres of and terminologies for the waqf across a panoply of local cultural contexts. The third and fourth sections review the maturation and transformational periods, respectively. Finally, the fifth section explores the salient features of the deterioration period.</p> Khalil Abdur-Rashid Copyright (c) 2021 Khalil Abdur-Rashid 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Morally Reimagining the Waqf <p>This paper builds on the insights found in Abdur-Rashid (2021) and reimagines how the Islamic civilizational heritage of awqāf (charitable endowments) might look today. Throughout Islamic history, waqf institution changed in form as the community’s material and historical circumstances changed but retained the substance of its spiritual imperative. What are some of the root causes of poverty in today’s world, and how might the waqf be resuscitated to acknowledge and remedy those causes?</p> Zara Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Zara Khan 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Islam, Civil Society, and Pluralism: Literature Review Afshan Paarlberg Copyright (c) 2021 Afshan Paarlberg 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Forging Ideal Muslim Subjects: Discursive Practices, Subject Formation, & Muslim Ethics Micah Hughes Copyright (c) 2021 Micah Hughes 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Outsiders at Home: The Politics of American Islamophobia Rafeel Wasif Copyright (c) 2021 Rafeel Wasif 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Women, Islam and Education in Iran Hawraa Al-Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Hawraa Al-Hassan 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1 Muslim Schools, Communities and Critical Race Theory: Faith Schooling in an Islamophobic Britain? Rob Faure-Walker Copyright (c) 2021 Rob Faure-Walker 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 5 1