A Contextual Examination of Gender Role Conflict Among College Football Players

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American Psychological Association


This mixed methods study examined the contextual nature of gender role conflict (GRC). Using a quasi-experimental design, 153 male college football players were randomly assigned to two groups wherein they were instructed to report levels of GRC based on the assigned life domain (within the football environment vs. life outside of football). Results indicated that participants did not differ significantly in levels of GRC across life domains, but did reveal that life domain (within the football environment) moderated the significant relationship between Restrictive Affectionate Behavior Between Men (RABBM) and life satisfaction. Qualitative findings provided support for quantitative results, and described ways that football players express emotions and affection toward other men within this unique context. Results can help psychologists design interventions that normalize and encourage affective and emotional expression within the domain of football, with the intent of teaching players to transfer these behaviors to life domains outside of football.



contextual masculinity, student-athletes, intercollegiate sports, life satisfaction, masculinity socialization, mixed-method studies


Steinfeldt, J. A., Wong, Y. J., Hagan, A. R., Hoag, J. M., & Steinfeldt, M. C. (2011). A contextual examination of Gender Role Conflict among college football players. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12, 311-323.


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