Indiana coals and the steel industry

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Indiana Geological & Water Survey


This paper discusses the characteristics of Indiana coals with regard to the application of this coal in the steel industry. Coal characteristics favorable for application of coal in coking blends and those suitable for application in pulverized coal injection (PCI) are considered. This study demonstrates that selected Brazil Formation coals have superior coking properties and could be successfully used in coking blends. They possess high fluidity, high fluid range, and unusually high amount of contraction for such a low rank coal. In addition to higher fluid properties, some of these coals, when compared, for example, with similar ranked Illinois coals, are characterized by lower sulfur, lower alkalies, and lower chlorine. The higher fluidity, coupled with lower sulfur and lower alkali index, result in high predicted and actual coke strength after reaction (CSR) for some of the Brazil Block coals. Replacement Ratio (RR) is an important parameter in evaluation of coal for application in PCI. Because of higher hydrogen content, some of the Indiana coals, especially Brazil Formation coals, have moderate predicted replacement ratio. This makes these coals attractive for use in blast furnace pulverized coal injection. This paper presents the locations of coals with adequate replacement ratios.



Coal, Steel industry, Mineral Resources


Valia, H. S., and Mastalerz, M., 2004, Indiana coals and the steel industry: Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 64, 28 p., 13 figs. doi: 10.5967/wams-1997

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