Show simple item record Engs, Ruth C. en Hanson, David J. en 2014-04-02T21:18:38Z en 2014-04-02T21:18:38Z en 1988 en
dc.identifier.citation Engs, R.C. & Hanson, D.J. (1988) TESTING REACTANCE THEORY WITH A NATIONWIDE SAMPLE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR COLLEGE ALCOHOL EDUCATION PROGRAMS USING THE HEALTH BELIEF MODEL. White Paper: Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Retrieved from IUScholarWorks Repository: en
dc.identifier.uri en
dc.description Other research papers on college student drinking and problems with alcohol can be found at:; and Further information about the questionnaire, calculations used for the study, and the original data base can be found in the following item records within IUScholarworks repository. Details about the reliability and validity of the SAQ are found at:; The classic 1975 SAQ is found at ALL QUESTIONNAIRES developed by Engs are found in the repository at: en
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: There is a need to improve existing alcohol education programming for young adults, including college students. Telling students it is illegal to drink, according to Reactance Theory, is counterproductive as students are unlikely to comply as reactance motivation has been aroused as they perceive their autonomy to be denied. They will do the opposite in order to regain control. Since it is now illegal for those under 21 years old to purchase alcohol, and since drinking has been traditionally part of the college experience, it was hypothesized that more underage, compared to legal age students, would drink and experience problems related to drinking. The Health Belief Model suggests that people do not change behavior unless they personally feel susceptible and can take action in which the benefits outweigh the costs. In order to reduce abusive drinking behaviors, problems in which youth are personally susceptible need to be identified and used as part of an overall educational program. PURPOSE: based upon and the behavioral science Reactance Theory and the health education Health Belief Model, a purpose of the study was to explore principles for more effective alcohol education. Other purpose were to test Reactance Theory, to determine what alcohol problems students exhibited, and to provide information for campus alcohol education programming based upon research. METHODS: The Student Alcohol Questionnaire was used. It has demonstrated an internal consistency reliability of .79 and includes demographic items, questions regarding the consumption of various alcoholic beverages, and 17 items concerning possible negative consequences of drinking. The sample was from a nationwide sample of 3,375 university students during the 1987-1988 academic year. RESULTS: The results of the study support Reactance Theory. Significantly more underage students (81%) drank and were heavy drinkers (24%) compared to legal age students (75% and 15%). Based upon the common alcohol abuse problems of vomiting, hangovers and driving while intoxicated and the implications of reactance Theory and the Heath Belief Model, sample educational messages to prevent alcohol abuse are described. en
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.rights This work is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license. For permission to reuse this work for commercial purposes, please contact Dr. Ruth Engs or the IU Archives. en
dc.subject Underage drinking, Health Belief Model, Reactance theory, binge drinking, harm reduction, alcohol eduction en
dc.type Working Paper en
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