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    Three-Dimensional Surficial Geology of the Milan Quadrangle, Erie and Huron Counties, Ohio
    (Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, 2014) Pavey, Richard R
    The Central Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition (now the Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition or GLGMC) was formed in the late 1990s between the USGS and a network of state geological surveys which border the Great Lakes. The GLGMC was tasked with creating innovative three-dimensional (3-D) mapping, models, and other means for displaying the complex near-surface geology common to these states. These 3-D products, along with associated databases could be used to assist decision-makers on projects including geologic hazards, groundwater, mineral industries, and land usage. The Milan 7.5-minute quadrangle (Erie and Huron Counties) in north-central Ohio was chosen as one of the pilot projects for this program. The Milan quadrangle is transitional in origin and includes glacio-lacustrine, shoreline, alluvial, and glacial processes making for extremely complex series of depositional environments. A number of data sources including water well log data, engineering boring logs, NRCS soil surveys, theses, and prior reports were used to compile a series of maps using ESRI ARC-GIS tools. Each identified geologic unit or zone was identified and displayed as a discrete body. The origin, composition, and geomorphology of each body are thoroughly discussed herein. The entire sequence of overlapping units is represented as a geologic map and cross-section at scale of 1:24,000. The geologic map is accompanied by both a bedrock topography and drift thickness maps. A thick, elongated body of sand in the center of the mapping area was identified as a potentially important economic resource. A number of derivative maps were produced that include aquifer potential, aggregate potential, aquifer recharge, landfill suitability, and suitability for excavation and construction.
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    Karst of the Belfast and Sugar Tree Ridge 7.5-minute quadrangles, Ohio
    (Ohio Department of Natural Resources, 2016) Aden, Douglas J.
    Karst terrain forms by dissolution of carbonate rocks, such as limestone or dolostone, or evaporites, such as gypsum or salt, and is characterized by features including sinkholes, disappearing streams, caves, and springs. Sinkholes (or sinks) are enclosed depressions that do not usually hold water and often have a “throat” or opening at the bottom that drains to the subsurface. A stream that flows into a sinkhole is known as a disappearing stream or losing stream. Water flowing into the ground can cause solution enlargement of natural fractures in the rock; these fractures eventually can grow into caves. The Ohio Revised Code defines a cave as “…a naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnecting passages beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge…” (State of Ohio, 1989). When water exits these solutional features, a spring is formed. Passageways formed in karst terrain allow for high connectivity between the land surface and the water table. These passageways permit water to bypass soil and rock layers that can filter contaminants. Consequently, when compounds such as fertilizers, pesticides, and waste enter sinkholes, they are rapidly transported to the water table and can quickly pollute water wells, streams, springs, and rivers. Karst features may pose infrastructure complications; roads, utilities, houses, and other facilities built in karst areas are at risk of subsidence, collapse, or other damage. In order to provide a reference for future planning on both the local and regional scale, the Ohio Geological Survey has produced this map book identifying the known and suspected karst areas in the vicinity of Belfast, Ohio (fig. 1). This effort is among several other karst mapping projects (fig. 1) undertaken by the Ohio Geological Survey in recent years to document karst terrain throughout Ohio.
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    Karst of the Hillsboro, New Market, New Vienna, and Leesburg quadrangles, Ohio
    (Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, 2015) Aden, D. J.; Martin, D. R.
    Karst terrain forms by dissolution of carbonate rocks, such as limestone or dolomite, or evaporites, such as gypsum or salt, and is characterized by features including sinkholes, disappearing streams, caves, and springs. Sinkholes (or sinks) are enclosed depressions that do not usually hold water; they often have a “throat” or opening at the bottom where they drain to the subsurface. When a stream flows into a sinkhole, it is known as a disappearing stream or losing stream. Water flowing into the ground can cause solution enlargement of natural fractures in the rock and eventually can grow into caves. The Ohio Revised Code defines a cave as “…a naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnecting passages beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge…” (State of Ohio, 1989). The many passageways formed in karst terrain allow for high connectivity between the land surface and the water table. These passageways permit water to bypass soil and rock layers that filter out contaminants. Consequently, when compounds such as fertilizers, pesticides, and waste enter sinkholes, they are rapidly transported to the water table and quickly pollute water wells, streams, and rivers. When water exits these solutional features, a spring is formed. Such springs enable release of these contaminants at the surface. The different types of karst features may pose infrastructure complications; roads, utilities, houses, and other facilities built in karst areas are at risk of subsidence, collapse, or other damage. In order to provide a reference for future planning on both the local and regional scale, the Ohio Geological Survey has produced this map book identifying the known and suspected karst areas in the vicinity of Hillsboro, Ohio.
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    Karst of the Fireside quadrangle and portions of the Flat Rock and Clyde quadrangles, Ohio
    (Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, 2014) Aden, D. J.; Martin, D. R.
    Karst terrain forms by dissolution of carbonate rocks, such as limestone or dolomite, or evaporites, such as gypsum or salt, and is characterized by features including sinkholes, disappearing streams, caves, and springs. Sinkholes (or sinks) are enclosed depressions that do not usually hold water; they often have a “throat” or opening at the bottom where they drain to the subsurface. When a stream flows into a sinkhole, it is known as a disappearing stream or losing stream. Water flowing into the ground can cause solution enlargement of natural fractures in the rock and eventually can grow into caves. In Ohio, a cave is defined as “…a naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnecting passages beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge…” The many passageways formed in karst terrain allow for high connectivity between the land surface and the water table. These passageways permit water to bypass soil and rock layers that filter out contaminants. Consequently, when compounds such as fertilizers, pesticides, and waste enter sinkholes, they are rapidly transported to the water table and quickly pollute water wells, streams, and rivers. When water exits these solutional features, a spring is formed. Such springs enable release of these contaminants at the surface. The different types of karst features may pose infrastructure complications; roads, utilities, houses, and other facilities built in karst areas are at risk of subsidence, collapse, or other damage. In order to provide a reference for future planning on both the local and regional scale, the Ohio Geological Survey has produced this map book identifying the known and suspected karst areas in the vicinity of Bellevue, Ohio, including portions of Erie, Huron, Sandusky, and Seneca Counties.
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    Karst of the Bellevue quadrangle and portions of the Clyde and Castalia quadrangles, Ohio
    (ODNR Division of Geological Survey, 2013) Aden, D. J.
    Karst terrain forms by dissolution of carbonate rocks, such as limestone or dolomite, or evaporites, such as gypsum or salt, and is characterized by features including sinkholes, disappearing streams, caves, and springs. Sinkholes (or sinks) are enclosed depressions that do not usually hold water; they often have a “throat” or opening at the bottom where they drain to the subsurface. When a stream flows into a sinkhole, it is known as a disappearing stream or losing stream. Water flowing into the ground can cause solution enlargement of natural fractures in the rock and eventually can grow into caves. In Ohio, a cave is defined as “…a naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnecting passages beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge…” (State of Ohio, 1989). The many passageways formed in karst terrain allow for high connectivity between the land surface and the water table. These passageways permit water to bypass soil and rock layers that filter out contaminants. Consequently, when compounds such as fertilizers, pesticides, and waste enter sinkholes, they are rapidly transported to the water table and quickly pollute water wells, streams, and rivers. When water exits these solutional features, a spring is formed. Such springs enable release of these contaminants at the surface. The different types of karst features may pose infrastructure complications; roads, utilities, houses, and other facilities built in karst areas are at risk of subsidence, collapse, or other damage. In order to provide a reference for future planning on both the local and regional scale, the Ohio Geological Survey has produced this map book identifying the known and suspected karst areas in the vicinity of Bellevue, Ohio. References State of Ohio, 1989, Ohio Revised Code 1517.21 Cave definitions, in chap. 1517 of Title 15 Conservation of Natural Resources: State of Ohio, Ohio Revised Code, accessible at .
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    GIS Tools for 3-D Surficial Mapping in Ohio
    (U.S. Geological Survey, 2008) McDonald, James; Pavey, Richard R.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wells, Joseph G.
    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is currently mapping the surficial geology of Ohio in three dimensions (3-D) using a modified version of the stack-mapping technique of Kempton (1981). The stack-mapping technique depicts the geology for an area in 3-D by listing the unconsolidated (mostly glacial) geologic units from the surface to bedrock, the thickness of each unit, and the underlying bedrock unit. The new mapping of the surficial geology is intended to replace the older and smaller-scale mapping that was based upon generalized, two-dimensional mapping techniques. Three ArcMap-based software applications were developed to assist with the stack-unit mapping program. The first software application used the lithologies from water wells to create on-screen graphics representing the stratigraphic columns for each well record. These stratigraphic columns are interpreted by the geologist to assign a generalized stack unit for each polygon. The second software application consists of two tools used to attribute and label the stack-map polygons, which will capture the information in the GIS and for cartographic display. The first tool attributes a one-to-many relationship between a surficial-geology polygon and the lithology table. The second tool labels the surficial-geology polygons with the stack text for use in map publishing. The third application performs custom queries against the lithology table that can be used to create derivative mapping products, such as location and thickness of sand and gravel resources. These three applications allow the efficient creation of 3-D surficial-geology polygons and labels within a GIS database, and provide analysis tool to facilitate the use of the 3-D surficial geology maps for specific applications.
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    Surface Terrain of Indiana—a Digital Elevation Model
    (U.S. Geological Survey, 2004) Rupp, Robin F.
    The surface terrain model of Indiana was created using part of the National Elevation Dataset (NED)—a digital elevation information product for the United States—and newly created digital elevation models (DEMs). New digital elevation data replaced 275 of the 710 Indiana 7.5-minute quadrangles. This report describes the processes of 1) creating new DEMs, 2) merging the new data and the original NED into a new grid, and 3) creating images from the final data set. The revised digital elevation model for Indiana and parts of the surrounding states is available on a CD-ROM as a raster in ESRI grid format. This report also provides the background for the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) Poster 5 and the forthcoming terrain image series.
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    Developing a Web Site to Provide Geologic Data and Map Products for Allen County, Indiana
    (U.S. Geological Survey, 2008) Rupp, Robin F.; Olejnik, Jennifer; Hasenmueller, Nancy R.; Walls, A. Chris; Radhakrishnan, Premkrishna; Karaffa, Marni D.; Eaton, Nathan K.
    The Internet is becoming the medium of choice for delivering geologic information to both technical users and the general public. The Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) is currently creating a Web-based glacial and bedrock geologic map site for Allen County in northeastern Indiana. Allen County is the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana’s second largest city, and lies within IGS mapping and outreach priority areas based on population density and transportation corridors. This Web site provides detailed geologic information in an area that continues to experience pressure on natural resources by a large population and expanding transportation network. It is anticipated that the information from the Web site will be widely used by the general public and by industry and government entities. The Allen County Web site includes an Internet map server (IMS), as well as illustrations, educational summaries, and discussions of geologic maps, terrain images, and databases that complement the IMS. The site provides a front-end to the IGS enterprise geodatabases, which contain information used simultaneously for research and for viewing by the general public. The geodatabase systems allow maps and data to be efficiently created, managed, updated, and distributed. Maps provided on the Allen County Web site include: (1) digital elevation model terrain, (2) Landsat imagery, (3) surficial geology, (4) drift thickness, (5) bedrock topography, (6) bedrock geology, and (7) water-table elevation. Technical database information includes: (1) lithologic information compiled from water-well information in the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water well records, (2) natural gamma-ray geophysical log data, (3) stratigraphic test hole data, and (4) petroleum-well data. The development of the Web site was funded by the IGS and the Central Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition.