Posters - IGWS

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This series is comprised of maps and topical posters, usually containing a combination of photographs and graphics. Typically educational in nature, they are intended for a public audience. Posters go through a full formal review, are usually commercially offset printed in large batches, and are sold through the IGWS Bookstore.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 33
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    Generalized stratigraphic column of Indiana bedrock (6A)
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2015) Sowder, Kimberly; Thompson, Todd Alan; Johnson, Matthew R.
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    Modern and Ancient Tides
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 1998) Hill, Barbara T.; Kvale, Erik; Sowder, Kimberly
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    Generalized stratigraphic column of Indiana bedrock
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2015) Sowder, Kimberly; Thompson, Todd Alan; Johnson, Matthew R.
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    Minerals of Indiana
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2006) Day, John M.; Hill, Barbara T.; Shaffer, Nelson R.; Sowder, Kimberly
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    Fossils of Indiana
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2006) Day, John M.; Hill, Barbara T.; Sowder, Kimberly; Steinmetz, John C.
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    Geodes of Indiana
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2008) Shaffer, Nelson R.
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    Sedimentary Rocks of Indiana
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2009) Keith, Brian D.; Thompson, Todd Alan
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    Meteorites of Indiana
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2010) Shaffer, Nelson R.
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    Glaciers of Indiana
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2017) Loope, Henry M.; Sturgeon, Polly R.
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    Coal of Indiana
    (Indiana Geological & Water Survey, 2010) Drobniak, Agnieszka; Mastalerz, Maria
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    Deglacial chronology of the Sturgis Moraine in south-central Michigan and northeast Indiana
    (2014-10-19) Horton, Jennifer; Fisher, Timothy; Loope, Henry; Karaffa, Marni
    The landscape of south-central Michigan and northeastern Indiana was formed from the retreat of the Saginaw Lobe of the LIS. Studying this landscape aids an understanding of the climate conditions during the retreat of the lobe from its LGM position. The purpose of this study is to generate chronology for the retreat of the Saginaw Lobe by dating the Sturgis Moraine. Previous work suggests that the Sturgis Moraine formed sometime between 15.5 14C and 16.1 14C kyrs BP. To date the Sturgis Moraine, Livingstone sediment cores were collected from lakes associated with the moraine. Ages of 13.7±6014C, 13.75±8014C, and 13.3±6014C kyrs BP were from wood fragments at the bottom of each sediment core. These ages are similar to the age of the Ft. Wayne Moraine and the Valparaiso Moraine.
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    Indiana Shallow Geothermal Monitoring Network: A Test Bed for Optimizing Ground-Source Heat Pumps in the Glaciated Midwest
    (2012-04-23) Gustin, Andrew R.; Naylor, Shawn; Ellett, Kevin M.
    Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) represent an important technology that can be further developed by collecting data sets related to shallow thermal regimes. Computer programs that calculate the required lengths and configurations of GSHP systems use specific input parameters related to the soil properties to enhance the accuracy of models and produce efficient system designs. The thermal conductivity of sediments varies significantly depending on texture, bulk density, and moisture content, and it is therefore necessary to characterize various unconsolidated materials under a wide range of moisture conditions. Regolith texture data are collected during some installations to estimate thermal properties, but soil moisture and temperature gradients within the vadose zone are rarely considered due to the difficulty of collecting sufficient amounts of data. Six monitoring locations were chosen in Indiana to represent unique hydrogeological settings and glacial sediments. Trenches were excavated to a depth of 2 meters (a typical depth for horizontal GSHP installations) and sediment samples were collected at 0.3-meter intervals for a laboratory analysis of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density, and moisture content. Temperature sensors and water-content reflectometers were installed in 0.3-meter increments to monitor changes in temperature and soil moisture with depth. In-situ thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were measured at 1.5-meters using a sensor that detects radial differential temperature around a heating wire. Micrometeorological data were also collected to determine the surface conditions and water budgets that drive fluxes of energy and moisture in the shallow subsurface. Preliminary results indicate that increases in water content can increase thermal conductivity by as much as 30% during wetting front propagation. Although there is a change in temperature associated with the infiltration of wetting fronts, thermal conductivity appears to be independent of soil temperature. By establishing continuous data sets, fluctuations in seasonal energy budgets and unsaturated zone soil moisture can be determined. This information can then be used to establish accurate end members for thermal properties and improve the efficiency of geothermal systems.
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    Monitoring near-surface thermal properties in conjunction with energy and moisture budgets to facilitate the optimization of ground-source heat pumps in the glaciated Midwest
    (2011-12-07) Naylor, Shawn; Gustin, Andrew R.; Ellett, Kevin M.
    By exploiting the near-surface heat reservoir, ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) represent an important renewable energy technology that can be further developed by establishing data sets related to shallow (<100m) thermal regimes. Although computer programs are available for GSHP installers to calculate optimal lengths and configurations of ground-coupling geothermal systems, uncertainties exist for input parameters that must first be determined for these models. Input parameters include earth temperatures and thermal properties of unconsolidated materials. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of sediments varies significantly depending on texture and moisture content, highlighting the need to characterize various unconsolidated materials under varying soil moisture regimes. Regolith texture data can be, and often are, collected for particular installations, and are then used to estimate thermal properties for system design. However, soil moisture and temperature gradients within the vadose zone are rarely considered because of the difficulty associated with collecting a sufficient amount of data to determine predominant moisture and temperature ranges. Six monitoring locations were chosen in Indiana to represent unique hydrogeologic settings and near-surface glacial sediments. The monitoring approach includes excavating trenches to a depth of 2 meters (a typical depth for horizontal GSHP installations) and collecting sediment samples at 0.3-meter intervals to determine thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and heat capacity in the laboratory using the transient line heat source method. Temperature sensors are installed at 0.3-meter intervals to continuously measure thermal gradients. Water-content reflectometers are installed at 0.3, 1, and 2 meters to determine continuous volumetric soil moisture. In-situ thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are measured at 1.5 meters using a differential temperature sensor that measures radial differential temperature around a heating wire. Micrometeorological data (precipitation, insolation, ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) are also collected to determine surface energy and water budgets that drive fluxes of energy and moisture in the shallow subsurface. By establishing continuous, year-round data, fluctuations in seasonal energy budgets and unsaturated zone soil moisture can be considered such that GSHP system designers can establish accurate end members for thermal properties, thereby optimizing the ground-coupling component of GSHPs. These data will also provide empirical controls such that soil moisture and temperature regimes can be spatially distributed based on mapped soil units and hydrogeologic settings in Indiana.
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    Improvements to the Indiana Geological Survey’s Petroleum Database Management System
    (2011-09) Zuppann, C. W.; Daniels, M.I.S.; Rohwer, P.; Jacob, D.; Proffitt, T. A.
    The Indiana Geological Survey’s Petroleum Database Management System (PDMS) is a web application that provides online access to petroleum-related geological information. Since its debut in 2004, the application has been widely used by the petroleum industry, academia, government agencies, and the general public. On June 6, 2011, a significantly enhanced version of the PDMS went online. New features include a robust search menu that permits elaborate queries of more than 74,000 petroleum wells, rapid and convenient online viewing and downloading of PDF-file well reports and both PDF- and TIFF-file geophysical and other well logs, and streamlined menus for easily accessing extensive well data. An interactive, context-driven web help explains every concept or term used. The PDMS is organized in three main sections. The Well Tables Section includes such information as well location descriptions, completion zones, logs, operators, lease names, tests, reports, hydrocarbon shows, samples, cores, geologic formations and tops, and directional survey data. The Map Viewer Section contains many user-selectable layer options for showing well locations, petroleum fields, producing formations, aerial photographs, and topographic maps. Wells shown in the Map Viewer are hyperlinked to the Well Tables for easy access to the well data. The Fields and Production Section summarizes oil, natural gas, and gas storage field data, including historical oil production volumes in both tables and charts.
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    : Bringing a novel research into the classroom: Carbon sequestration as a new opportunity for science education
    (2011-02) Medina, Cristian R.; Ellett, Kevin M.; Rupp, John A.; Steinmetz, John C.
    Carbon sequestration technology is an emerging area of research that is rarely presented in the current middle and high school curriculum. This poster complements a concurrent lecture at HASTI (Kevin Ellet and Cristian Medina) and presents three objectives: (1) to introduce the topic of carbon sequestration as a promising area of research for the mitigation of global warming; (2) to show how this technology draws from different science disciplines (e.g. earth science, physics, chemistry, and mathematics) and thus offers new opportunities for science education; (3) to present skills study can learn by studying this technology, such as the use and display of quantitative data and the use of online resources to perform literature searches. This poster presents issues raised in the HASTI position paper “Science Institutions in Indiana: Global Perspectives” ( and encourages discussion on how to maximize science learning in Indiana classrooms.
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    Geocellular Model Development for Simulation of CO2 Storage in the Arches Province and Southern Michigan of the Midwestern United States
    (2011-05) Sminchak, Joel; Patterson, Kyle; Kelley, Stephen; Medina, Cristian; Rupp, John A.; Greb, Stephen
    A geocellular model was developed for areas of the midwestern United States to facilitate numerical simulations on the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into the Mount Simon Sandstone (Cambrian). These simulations are focused on evaluating the infrastructure necessary to implement large-scale CO2 storage in the region. The study area is located in southern Michigan and the Arches Province, which includes areas of northwestern to southeastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio, where Paleozoic rocks form broad arch and platform structures. The main rock formation for potential CO2 storage in the study area is the Mount Simon Sandstone (Cambrian), which has been used as a repository for waste disposal for many decades. Geophysical well logs, deep injection operational data from wells, reservoir test results, and geotechnical core test data were collected for the Mount Simon Sandstone and the overlying Eau Claire Formation (Cambrian) confining layer. This study integrates these various types of data into a geocellular model. For example, reservoir permeability was estimated using reservoir test results obtained at injection well sites. In addition, geostatistical analysis was used to interpret spatial trends in parameters. The geocellular model includes parameters for numerical simulations, such as porosity and permeability distribution. Our model development improves the understanding of the nature of the Mount Simon Sandstone in the Arches Province, and will provide input for numerical simulations of large-scale CO2 injection in the region.
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    Constraints on the origin and volume of gas in the New Albany Shale (Devonian – Mississippian), eastern Illinois Basin
    (2010-09-25) Mastalerz, M; Drobniak, A; Rupp, JA; Strąpoć, D; Schimmelmann, A; Hasenmueller, NR
    This study investigates kerogen petrography, gas desorption, geochemistry, and micro- and mesoporosity of the New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in the eastern part of the Illinois basin. Core analysis from two locations, one in Owen County, Indiana and one in Pike County, Indiana was conducted. The volumes of gas in the locations studied are primarily dependent on total organic carbon (TOC) content and the micropore volume of the shales. Gas origins were assessed using stable isotope geochemistry, whereas maturity assessments utilized both measured and modeled Ro values. Different depths of burial and formation water salinities are likely responsible for dominant origins of the gas in the two locations studied. The shallower Owen County location (415 to 433 m deep) contains significant microbial methane, whereas the Pike County location (832 to 860 m deep) is characterized exclusively by thermogenic gas. Despite differences in the gas origins, the total gas in both locations is similar, reaching up to 2.2 cm3/g (70 scf/ton). The lower thermogenic gas content at the shallower location (probably because of the lower thermal maturity and possibly higher loss of gas related to uplift and leakage via relaxed fractures) is compensated by additional generation of microbial methane most probably stimulated by influx of glacial meltwater causing both brine dilution and microbial inoculation. The characteristics of the shale of the Maquoketa Group (Ordovician) in the Pike County location indicate that the controls on the gas volumes are similar to those in the New Albany Shale.
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    CO2 emissions from Illinois Basin coals and influence of their petrographic composition
    (2010-09-12) Drobniak, Agnieszka; Mastalerz, Maria; Chadwick, Crystal
    Lithotypes from Pennsylvanian high-volatile bituminous coals from the Illinois Basin were isolated by hand and analyzed to investigate the influence of their chemical and petrographic composition on the amount of CO2 emissions during combustion. Heating values and ultimate carbon contents were used to calculate CO2 emissions from individual lithotypes as well as whole seam samples. The influence of maceral composition, vitrinite reflectance (Ro), and other selected coal properties on calculated CO2 emissions was investigated for the Danville, Springfield, and Lower Block Coal Members of the Dugger, Petersburg, and Brazil Formations, respectively. In general, little difference in CO2 emissions has been documented for each of the four locations. Calculated mean values of CO2 emission from bulk seam samples vary from 86.04 to 88.38 (in kg of CO2 per gigajoule [GJ]). Emissions from selected lithotypes show more variations. In fusains, CO2 emissions vary from 78.93 to 95.58, with 89.58 being the average. Fusain is the lithotype that has the highest average emissions of all lithotypes studied. For vitrains, calculated emissions range from 86.18 to 89.01, having the average of 87.92. Clarain, the dominant lithotype of these coals has a range of emissions from 86.02 to 86.86 kg of CO2 per gigajoule. On a maceral scale, our study shows that an increase in inertinite content correlates with an increase of CO2 emissions, whereas increasing liptinite content is associated with decreasing CO2 emissions.
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    Complex Lithofacies Relationships between the Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones: Clarifying Reservoir Relationships in the Indiana Subsurface
    (2009-09-22) Zuppann, Charles W.; Parke, Mary A.; Droste, John B.
    Typically irregular vertical and lateral distribution of lithofacies within the Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones (Mississippian Blue River Group) has historically resulted in the inaccurate correlation of uppermost Ste. Genevieve lithologies (Joppa Member) with Paoli units of similar composition and appearance (Aux Vases and Renault Members). The Joppa Member of the Ste. Genevieve thins northeastward toward the Illinois Basin margin, losing the distinctive log signature that characterizes this unit in more basinward locations. The Aux Vases and Renault Members of the Paoli Limestone also become difficult to distinguish from each other and from the Joppa Member in basin margin locations because of rapid changes in composition and bed distribution. As a consequence, many Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestone pay zones have been assigned to the wrong reservoir pool, sometimes within the same field. Pay zones from Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestone reservoirs were reassigned according to current stratigraphic divisions. These new correlations more accurately reflect spatial relationships within and between hydrocarbon pools, and could contribute to more effective reservoir management. Improved correlations should also provide a useful tool for future hydrocarbon exploration and development activities in Indiana. Our investigation also suggests that revisions to formal Ste. Genevieve-Paoli stratigraphic nomenclature should be considered.
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    Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in the Upper Cambrian Basal Sandstone of the Midwest Region: A County-Based Analysis
    (2009-09-20) Medina, Cristian R.; Rupp, John A.
    Porosity values collected from core analyses and geophysical logs from the Upper Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone in the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) region indicate a predictable decrease in porosity with depth that is best described by the relationship φ (d, in feet) = 16.36 * e-0.00012*d (r2=0.41). This relationship and the Mt. Simon’s thickness were used to calculate net porosity feet, which was incorporated into the methodology presented in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada for estimating the potential storage capacity of CO2 in deep saline aquifers. The variables that affect the volumetric calculations include: 1) the area that defines the region being assessed (county by county assessment in this study); 2) the mean porosity of the stratigraphic unit; 3) the gross thickness of the basal sandstone; and 4) the CO2 storage efficiency factor, which accounts for material properties, including reservoir continuity and effective porosity. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to create two scenarios for CO2 storage capacity, including efficiency factors of 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. To gain some insights into how applicable this methodology is, we compared the theoretical values of net porosity obtained from core analyses with those obtained from geophysical logs. This approach generated solutions for the spatial distribution of net porosity feet that facilitated the calculation of storage volume potential for each county within the region. The total storage capacity for the region, calculated using efficiency factors of 0.01 and 0.04, is estimated to be 37.8 and 151.2 billion metric tons of CO2 respectively. This is approximately 74 percent higher than the values of 21.7 and 86.9 billion metric tons of CO2 estimated by the MRCSP for the capacity of the Mount Simon Sandstone in the states of Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio.