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    Supporting Indigenous youth activity programmes: A community-based participatory research approach
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-02) Coppola, Angela M.; Holt, Nicholas L.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F.
    The purpose of this three-year, multi-phase community-based participatory research (CBPR) programme was to explore how to support Indigenous youth activity programmes and programme planners in Alberta, Canada. This CBPR programme was comprised of five phases: (1) Identifying mutual interests and learning how to partner, (2) Building culturally-relevant activity programmes with and for youth, (3) Defining CBPR programme goals and understanding our roles, (4) Exploring how to support Indigenous youth activity programmes, and (5) Applying and informing practices for supporting Indigenous youth activity programmes. Phases Four and Five of this CBPR are the focus of this paper. Phase Four was an exploration of programme planners’ experiences of, and recommendations for, building partnerships and programmes to identify how to support Indigenous youth activity programmes and programme planners. Fifteen programme planners from four urban areas in Alberta participated in one-on-one interviews. Findings are represented by three themes: (1) Building capacity for collaboration and programme planning, (2) Connecting partners and existing programmes, and (3) Aligning and integrating goals and resources with existing programmes. Phase Five, the application phase of this CBPR, involved the co-development of a gathering event to apply areas of support (i.e. themes) from Phase Four of this CBPR, as well as to reflect on the strengths and challenges of applying such supports. Partners can use implications from the research programme processes and outcomes to explore their role in and practices for supporting these programmes.
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    The relative age effect in female gymnastics: A flip-flop phenomenon
    (International Journal of Sport Psychology, 2015) Hancock, David J.; Starkes, Janet L.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.
    Relative age effects are pervasive throughout sport; however, little is known about how relative age interacts with other mechanisms of expert performance such as sports characterized by young ages for peak performance. The purpose of this study was to examine relative age effects in gymnastics, a sport where athletes reach peak performance during puberty. Examining the birthdates of 921 female gymnasts, we discovered no relative age effects for the collective sample. Dividing the sample into two groups, we noted a relative age effect for under-15 gymnasts, but a reverse effect for over-15 gymnasts. Inspecting competitive standards, we noted over-representations of over-15 athletes born in the fourth quartile at all standards except national. In the discussion, we highlight the complexity of relative age effects by incorporating deliberate practice and competition standard as variables for consideration.
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    Citation network analysis of research on sport officials: a lack of interconnectivity
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2015-04-02) Hancock, David J.; Rix-Lièvre, Géraldine; Côté, Jean
    In sport research, the majority of attention is directed toward athletes. While investigations on sport officials have proliferated in recent years, many queries remain unanswered. Through citation analysis, we investigated how information is shared amongst sport official researchers. We focused on a particular group of sport officials that interact with athletes during competition, or what MacMahon and Plessner (2008) termed “interactors”. We searched 3 databases for articles published before 2012 that centred on psycho-social and perceptual-cognitive aspects of officiating. Three groups of research included personality, stress, and decision-making. The resultant 115-article network revealed that little connectivity within and between groups; that is, articles did not frequently cite other articles in the citation network (an average of 4.25 citations per article, with the median value being 2.0). The 12 most cited articles (appearing in 9 journals) were mainly original papers and focused on male soccer referees’ decision-making; however, the publication dates varied from 1990 to 2004. We discuss the results and implications this paper has on sport officials research, particularly related to sport officials being used as a context to study general expertise, the lack of a true sport official journal, and the similarities and differences of the most cited articles.
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    Why Ref? Understanding sport officials’ motivations to begin, continue, and quit
    (EDP Sciences, 2015-01-23) Hancock, David J.; Dawson, Donald J.; Auger, Denis
    With attrition rates of 30% (Deacon, 2001), organizations need to understand sport officials’ motivations to become and remain officials rather than quit. The purpose of this study was to assess these motivations. Using questionnaire data from an existing survey, we categorized participants (N = 514) as interactors, monitors, and reactors (MacMahon & Plessner, 2008). Sport officials were motivated to begin officiating for intrinsic and for the sport reasons. For continuing officiating, participants cited intrinsic and social motivations. Finally, interactors, monitors, and reactors cited lack of respect, too much stress, and lack of recognition, respectively, as their main beliefs for why sport officials quit. Practical recommendations are provided, which might assist sport governing bodies in recruiting and retaining sport officials.
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    Evidence-based policies for youth sport programmes
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2014-06-26) Côté, Jean; Hancock, David J.
    Youth sport involvement can lead to outcomes classified as the 3Ps: performance, participation, and personal development (Côté et al. 2007a). The 3Ps are central to youth sport systems aimed at providing quality experiences to participants. A challenge for countries and national governing bodies is structuring sport to simultaneously facilitate the achievement of excellence and participation (Collins 2010), or the 3Ps. To illustrate this challenge, consider deliberate practice, which is an important activity for performance improvements, but also considered less enjoyable and less motivating compared to other sport activities, such as play (Ericsson et al. 1993). Thus, governing bodies often face the challenge of deciding which activities they intend to emphasize (e.g., early specialization directed at talent development or early diversification aimed at increasing participation), and this can have implications for the success/failure of the 3Ps. The purpose of this article is to describe an inclusive sport structure for children (under age 13) targeting the development of the 3Ps, which would be an asset to sport scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Common goals for the 3Ps include: avoid burnout/dropout, cultivate intrinsic motivation, and maximize involvement in various sport activities. Our contention is the 3Ps can co-exist under one system when that system is structured according to the age and competitive level of participants. The Developmental Model of Sport Participation (Côté and Abernethy 2012) and its 7 postulates (Côté et al. 2009) will be used as the basis of this paper to provide evidence-based policies for children in sport.
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    Examining Young Recreational Male Soccer Players' Experience in Adult- and Peer-Led Structures
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2016-06-17) Imtiaz, Faizan; Hancock, David J.; Côté, Jean
    Purpose: Youth sport has the potential to be one of the healthiest and most beneficial structures that children can partake in. Participation in a combination of adult-led and peer-led sport structures appears to lead to favorable outcomes such as enhanced physical fitness as well as social and emotional development (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & Deakin, 2005). The purpose of the present study was to examine the subjective and objective experiences of 27 recreational male soccer players between the ages of 10 and 12 (M = 10.11, SD = 0.32) across adult-led and peer-led sport structures. Method: Direct video observation and experience rating scales were utilized in an effort to shed light on the impact of adult-led and peer-led sport structures on the same athletes. Results: In the adult-led structures, youth experienced high levels of effort and concentration, and spent more time being physically or mentally engaged. Meanwhile, youth experienced high rates of prosocial behaviors, sport-related communication, as well as general communication during the peer-led structures. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that rather than one approach being superior to the other, both adult- and peer-led sport structures have the potential to yield unique benefits towards children’s positive experiences in sport.
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    Exploring Perceptions of Group Processes in Ice Hockey Officiating
    (Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2017-07-10) Hancock, David J.; Martin, Luc J.; Evans, M. Blair; Paradis, Kyle F.
    Understanding factors that influence sport officials’ performance is vital to ensuring fair sport competition. Through semi-structured interviews (N = 17), we explored officials’ perceptions of group processes that occurred among ice hockey officiating teams. Participant responses revealed numerous ways that group processes were present within officials’ interactions, and two unique characteristics involved the transient nature of officiating groups (frequently performing with different officials) and intra-team competition pertaining to post-season assignments. In the discussion, we expand on the unique nature of officiating groups, synthesize activities in which officials seek to enhance groupness, and provide insights for future interventions and researchers.
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    Birthplace effects: Is it population size or density?
    (Journal of Sports Sciences, 2017-01-12) Hancock, David J.; Coutinho, Patricia; Côté, Jean; Mesquita, Isabel
    Contextual influences on talent development (e.g., the birthplace effect) have become a topic of interest for sport scientists. The birthplace effect occurs when being born in a certain city size leads to participation or performance advantages, typically for those born in smaller or mid-sized cities. The purpose of this study was to investigate birthplace effects in Portuguese volleyball players by analysing city size, as well as population density—an important but infrequently used variable. Participants included 4062 volleyball players (Mage = 33), 53.2% of whom were male. Using Portuguese national census data from 1981, we compared participants across 5 population categories. Additionally, we employed ANOVAs to study expertise and population density. Results indicated that athletes (male and female) born in districts of 200,000-399,999 were nearly 2.4 times more likely to attain elite volleyball status, while all other districts decreased the odds of expert development. For male athletes, being born in high-density areas resulted in lower chances of achieving expertise, though no differences existed for female athletes. In the discussion, we explain the impact of these results on birthplace effect research, and offer suggestions for future directions.
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    Relative age effects and the second-quartile phenomenon in young female ice hockey players
    (Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2017-09) Hancock, David J.
    Relative age effects exist across sports and cultures (Cobley, Baker, Wattie, & McKenna, 2009), though a recent, unusual trend is females born in the second quartile of the selection year are most over-represented on elite teams. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the second-quartile phenomenon was the result of first-quartile female athletes registering to play male sport. Players included 29,924 female ice hockey players (ages 7-17 years). Relative age effects (the second quartile most over-represented) existed for the entire sample (χ2 [3, 29923] = 401.95, p < .001), those registered for female ice hockey (χ2 [3, 24984] = 369.90, p < .001) and those registered for male ice hockey (χ2 [3, 4938] = 37.88, p < .001). It appears the second-quartile phenomenon cannot be explained by athletes’ choice to play male sport. The discussion includes integration of results with previous literature, along with plausible explanations.
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    Considering Culturally-Relevant Practices and Knowledge-Sharing when Creating an Activity-Promoting Community Research Agenda
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2016-01-11) Coppola, Angela M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F
    The purpose of the article is to discuss and reflect upon a process of building relationships and conducting community consultations to co-create a relevant community-based participatory research agenda exploring Indigenous youth activity-promoting programming. Four consultations were conducted with approximately 30 community members in Edmonton, Alberta to relevantly and respectfully engage Indigenous Peoples and community members in discussions about Indigenous youth activity-promoting programming. A research question was created from the community consultations to inform relevant knowledge generation. A research agenda was also created with community members to inform future community engagement in the research. We reflect upon our process and discuss the strengths, challenges, and recommendations of incorporating culturally-relevant practices and sharing knowledge within and outside of the community group. This work contributes to literature enhancing relevant and respectful methodological and relational research practices with Indigenous Peoples and communities.