Quantitative Research - Pub.

Permanent link for this collectionhttps://hdl.handle.net/2022/17133


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Now showing 1 - 20 of 38
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    (2013) Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth Clifford
    Problem: Post-secondary institutes are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive study. Data were collected during the 2011-2012 academic year from a convenience sample of students enrolled in a personal health course at a large Midwestern university. Data were compared to findings from the 1991-1992 academic year for the same course. Self-reported survey data regarding illness and alcohol and tobacco use were collected using the Student Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Results: Compared to 20 years ago, more males reported abstaining and fewer were classified as heavy or binge drinkers. However, the opposite was true of women, who reported less abstention and trends towards heavier drinking. The choice of alcoholic beverage changed from beer to consuming more hard liquor. Smoking was significantly decreased along with self-reported upper respiratory infections and episodes of acute illness. Conclusions: Smoking prevention efforts appear to be having a positive effect on campus health, but more gender-specific efforts may be needed to reduce the risk behavior of drinking.
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    The Association of Alcohol Consumption with Self-Reported Illness
    (This is final draft for Psychological Reports, 1995) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Aldo-Benson, Marlene
    Many reports over the years have indicated an association between alcohol consumption and infectious illness among chronic heavy drinkers; however, many patients in these studies have been chronically ill. Thus the question of whether alcohol can appreciably influence immunity in humans and affect the incidence of infectious diseases remains largely unanswered. For this study over 1,100 undergraduate students from a general education course at large midwestern university were surveyed. Students were asked about their drinking habits and acute health problems. Analyses showed no increase in acute health problems or upper respiratory infections in students drinking between one and 21 drinks per week. However, students drinking 28 or more alcoholic drinks per week had significantly more health problems in the aggregate and those drinking more than 22 drinks per week had more upper respiratory infections compared to the other students including non drinkers. It was concluded that excessive alcohol intake increased the risk of respiratory infections and acute illnesses in this sample of students, but more moderate alcohol consumption had little effect on the risk for these health problems.
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    (Pergamon Press Ltd., 1983) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Mulqueeney, Kerry E.
    During first semester 1980, 96 first and last year male police students and 166 law students were surveyed about their drug use patterns and attitudes towards alcohol. Of these students, 69.3 percent drank at least once a month, 80.7 percent used coffee or tea, 23.6 percent analgesics, 3 percent antihistamines and marijuana and less than 1 percent sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, hallucinogens, cocaine or opiates once a month or more. Law students used caffeine and marijuana significantly more frequently than police students. On the whole, there were more similarities than differences between the two groups in terms of drug consumption. In terms of attitudes, police students felt significantly more than law students that alcoholism was caused by moral weakness and medical illness as shown in the Attitude Towards Alcoholism questionnaire. But significantly more police students (82 percent) than law students (37 percent) felt that it was important to have drug and alcohol education as part of their course of study. Also significantly more police students (58 percent) than law students (24 percent) felt that they were prepared to manage drug or alcohol problems professionally.
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    Boozing and brawling on campus: A national study of violent problems associated with drinking over the past decade
    (Elsevier, 1994) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Hanson, David J.
    BACKGROUND :An increase in alcohol-related violent crime in the United States since the early 1980s has been found. Concomitantly there has been a decrease in per capita consumption of alcohol. Cultural Theory suggests that students will follow the trends of society in terms of behaviors such as alcohol consumption and violence related to drinking. Subcultural Theory, on the other hand, suggests that these behaviors will reflect subcultural rather than societal trends. Thus, the PURPOSE of this study was to determine possible changes in drinking patterns and violent behavior related to drinking from 1982 until 1991 with the same sample of universities from all contiguous states in the United States. A secondary purpose was to test the Cultural and Subcultural models of behavior. METHODS: The student alcohol questionnaire was used with university students from around the nation over four time periods (1982-1991). RESULTS: Based on a sample over 4,000 students, at each of four time periods over the past decade, a significant (p < .001) decrease in the percentage of students reporting that they had consumed alcohol at least once during the preceding year was found. The percentage declined from 82.4 in 1982 to 78.8 in 1991. Likewise, there was a significant (p < .001) decrease in the mean amount of alcohol consumed (14.3 to 12.8 drinks per week between 1982 and 1991). With regard to self-reported violent/legal problems related to drinking, there were significant increases (p < .001) in the percentages of students who had “gotten into a fight” (11.6 to 17.2) and had had “trouble with the law” (4.4 to 7.6) between 1982 and 1991 because of drinking. Likewise, there were significant increases (p < .05) in the percentages who had engaged in vandalism (9.3 to 10.5) and had had “trouble with the school administration” (1.9 to 2.5) because of drinking. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the Cultural Theory of behavior in that the students' drinking and violence related to drinking appear to have followed the trends of the United States as a whole over the past decade.
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    (Elsevier, 1991-03) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Slawinska, Jadwiga B; Hanson, David J.
    A study of 3375 American and 1408 Polish university students was accomplished to test the hypotheses that cultural differences influence drinking patterns and beverage preferences between countries. Using the same questionnaire in both samples, the results revealed that significantly (p < .001) more drinks per week were consumed by both Polish male (24.9) and female (15.2) students compared to American male (15.0) and female (7.6) students. Significantly (p < .001) more wine was consumed by Polish (8.7) compared to the American (0.8) students. American female students consumed more beer than Polish female students. There was no difference between beer and spirits consumption between American and Polish males and Polish students in latter school years consumed more alcohol compared to students in the first years of school. It was concluded that the samples of students in this study reflected their cultures in terms of drinking patterns and beverage preference.
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    (Elsevier, 1980) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    A survey of 1691 first- and final-year students in the helping professions (medicine, law, nursing, pharmacy, police science, seminary, social work/psychology, and teaching) as to their use of drugs was carried out during February to April, 1980, in Brisbane, Australia. The results indicated that about 86% drank coffee or tea, 85% drank alcohol, 85% used non-prescription analgesics, 31% used tobacco, 25% antihistamines, 9% marijuana, 9% sedatives, 6% tranquilizers, 2% hallucinogens, 2% stimulants, 1% cocaine and 1% used opiates at least once a year. Of these students, females used analgesics and antihistamines significantly more frequently than males and consumed more caffeine, tobacco and analgesics than males, while males drank significantly more alcohol than females. Final-year students used more alcohol, coffee or tea and tobacco, and used marijuana, coffee and tea and tobacco significantly more frequently than first-year students. Individuals who did not consider relation important used more alcohol and tobacco and used marijuana, tobacco and hallucinogens more frequently compared to individuals who considered religion to be important. There was also a significant difference in drug usage between the different courses of study for most of the substances, with law students using the majority of substances the most frequently and seminarians the least frequently.
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    (AMS Press, Inc, 1997) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    The Health Concern Questionnaire has been used by instructors in various health courses and by researchers. The PURPOSE of the study was to update the terminology, determine construct validity, and revalidate the internal consistency of the instrument. METHODS: Current terminology was added after a panel of health educators reviewed the instrument. Factor analysis of the 50 items lead to two factors. A correlation between the two factors was positive (r=.6). This relationship enabled the collapse of the 50 items into one factor and the feasibility of computing total mean health concern score. Cronbach' s alpha (r= .96), Spearman-Brown's split-half technique (r=.92) and Gunman's split half technique (r=.92) all revealed high reliability coefficients. RESULTS: A total mean Health Concern score can be ascertained and the instrument showed high internal consistency and homogeneity.
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    A Cross-Sectional Study of Drinking Patterns, Prelicensure Nursing Education, and Professional Identity Formation
    (Elsevier, 2014) Hensel, Desiree; Middleton, Mary Jean; Engs, Ruth Clifford
    The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to describe drinking behaviors and professional identity formation among student nurses. METHOD: Survey data were collected from 333 students enrolled in a traditional BSN program on three campuses of a large Midwestern university using the Nurse Self-Concept Questionnaire and the Student Alcohol Questionnaire. ANOVA and Pearson r statistical tests were used to analyze data.
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    The Alcohol Knowledge and Drinking Myths of a National Sample of University Students
    (John Hopkins University Press, 1989-03) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Hanson, David
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    Responders vs. Non-Responders to a Mail Survey: Are They Different?
    (Canadian Evaluation Society, 1992) Gliksman, Louis; Smythe, Cynthia; Engs, Ruth Clifford
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    Let's Look Before We Leap: The Cognitive and Behavioral Evaluation of a University Alcohol Education Program
    (American Alcohol and Drug Information Foundation of Lansing, Michigan, 1977) Engs, Ruth Clifford
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    Again Let's Look Before We Leap: The Effects of Physical Activity on Smoking and Drinking Patterns
    (American Alcohol and Drug Information Foundation of Lansing, Michigan, 1981) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Mulhall, Peter
    The use of jogging and other types of vigorous physical activities are becoming increasingly popular alternative programs for the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse problems in many communities and schools. The drinking and smoking patterns of a group of university students participating in active endurance and in passive participatory types of exercises were examined before and after a 15-week period of engaging in the activities three times a week at 40 minutes a day. The results of this study indicate no change in either smoking or drinking patterns for either group at the end of the 15-week period. Perhaps other factors than just vigorous exercise are important for changes in drinking and smoking patterns such as a conscious commitment to changing life styles. The authors suggest that before alternative methods such as physical activities are introduced into the schools and communities as drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs that they first be evaluated as to their effectiveness.
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    The Health, Concerns of Students and the Implication for Alcohol Education Programming
    (American Alcohol and Drug Information Foundation of Lansing, Michigan, 1983) Engs, Ruth Clifford
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    The Drinking Patterns and Problems of College Students: 1983
    (American Alcohol and Drug Information Foundation of Lansing, Michigan, 1985) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Hanson, David
    A survey of 6115 college students from every state indicated that 81.9% were drinking at least once a year and 20.2% were Heavy drinkers. There was a significantly higher percentage of men. whites, first year students, individuals with low grade point averages, Roman Catholics, individuals to whom religion was not important and students attending college in the North Central part o f the United States who were Heavy drinkers or experienced problems related to drinking (p < .05). A sub-sample composed of the same or equivalent colleges as found in a similar 1974 study, conducted by the first author, indicated almost the same percentage of students drinking (79.4% and 78.6%) and a significant (p < .05) increase in students heavy drinking (11.6% and 16.9%). Compared to the 1974 sample there was a significant increase in problems related to drinking of "hangovers," "drinking while driving," and "missing class because o f hangovers" only (p < .05). There was no significant increase among men, blacks (of either sex), or class levels in either drinking, heavy drinking or problems related to drinking between the two time periods. However, there was a significant increase among women, and in particular white women, of heavy drinking and several problems related to drinking.
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    Gender Differences in Drinking Patterns and Problems Among College Students: A Review of the Literature
    (American Alcohol and Drug Information Foundation of Lansing, Michigan, 1990) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Hanson, David
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    The Drinking Patterns and Problems of a National Sample of College Students, 1994
    (American Alcohol and Drug Information Foundation of Lansing, Michigan, 1996) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Hanson, David; Diebold, Beth
    Over 12,000 university students from every state were administered the Student Alcohol Questionnaire during the 1993-1994 academic year. Of all students 72.0% consumed alcohol at least once a year and 20.6% were heavy drinkers (consuming 5 or more drinks per occasion once a week or more). A mean of 9.6 drinks per week was consumed by all students in the sample, 31% of males consumed over 21 drinks per week and 19.2% of females consumed over 14 drinks a week. Of the drinkers, 28.4% were heavy and 71.6% were light to moderate drinkers and they consumed a mean of 10.9 drinks per week. A significantly higher proportion of men, whites, under 21 years old, Roman Catholics, individuals to whom religion was not important, individuals with low grade point averages, fraternity/sorority members, students attending college in the North East part of the United States, in small communities, private schools and colleges under 10,000 students exhibited heavier drinking and a higher incidence of problems related to drinking. These results are similar to other studies which have been accomplished over the past two decades. The results do not support dramatic changes in the demography of heavier drinkers within most demographic categories. It was concluded that demographic variables need to be taken into consideration when planning campus educational and prevention programs. In times of limited budgets, the primary target needs to be these high risk students.
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    Health Knowledge of Crisis Intervention Volunteers
    (Taylor & Francis, 1976) Engs, Ruth Clifford; Kirk, Robert
    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the health knowledge of crisis intervention.volunteers. These volunteers are often required to give health knowledge to their clients. The school health educator is often asked to help train these volunteers in health content areas; however, the health knowledge of the crisis intervention volunteers is not generally known. Health knowledge for the most part has only been assessed in students at various grade and age levels. In the state of Tennessee, 74 crisis intervention volunteers were given the Kilander-Leach health knowledge test. The results of the t tests indicated that females had significantly more health knowledge of the crisis intervention volunteers is not generally known. and mental health. There was no significant difference on health knowledge due to age. Length of service as a volunteer resulted in significantly higher total health knowledge scores. The results of the study also indicated that volunteers working in agencies sponsored by a church or school have significantly higher total health knowledge scores than volunteers at community-sponsored agencies.
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    College Students' Knowledge of Alcohol and Drinking
    (Taylor & Francis, 1978) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    Alcohol abuse during the past few years has been seen by college administrators, student health and counseling personnel, and educators to be a major problem. To encourage colleges to examine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of their students regarding the use of alcohol and to develop alcohol awareness programs on their campuses, the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and its National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (NCALI) began a program in 7975 called the University 50 plus 72 Project. (1) During the initial phase of this program, staff and students from 62 selected universities were invited to a conference at Notre Dame in the fall of 7975 to discuss campus drinking problems and to share ideas about alcohol education programs. Among these participants there was a definite feeling that students adhered to a variety of drinking myths and had a minimal amount of factual information concerning the effects of alcohol on the body. They also felt that students lacked basic objective information for making responsible decisions concerning drinking to become responsible drinkers, if they chose to drink. This group felt that basic information concerning students' knowledge o f alcohol for comparison and as an aid in developing alcohol awareness and education programs should be determined. It was also felt that various demographic characteristics, which in the past have been related to drinking patterns such as sex, race, and parental drinking, should be obtained so that programs could be developed for particular subgroups if relationships were found between these variables and alcohol knowledge.
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    The Drinking Behaviors of a Sample of University Students in Nanning, Guangxi Province, People's Republic of China
    (Informa Healthcare, 1997) Lu, Zhuo-Ping; Engs, Ruth Clifford; Hanson, David
    A Chinese translation of the Student Alcohol Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 190 students at two universities in Nanning, China. Males consumed alcohol significantly more frequently and in greater quantities than did females. A significantly higher proportion of males also experienced problems resulting from their drinking. Beer was the alcoholic beverage of choice for both males and females. Most students of both genders drank with friends, and most have also consumed with their parents; about half reported that their parents approved of their alcohol consumption. The results support earlier observations that moderate drinking is widely accepted in the Chinese culture and results in few problems.