Theses and Dissertations

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    KANT’S DOCTRINE OF TRANSCENDENTAL IDEALISM
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2024-04) Buchinski, Alexander
    My dissertation proposes a novel interpretation of Kant’s doctrine of transcendental idealism as presented in the Critique of Pure Reason. I aim to give a consensus interpretation by overcoming past errors in interpreting this doctrine. I support my interpretation through a textual exegesis of the Critique of Pure Reason with a special focus on the direct and indirect proofs of transcendental idealism. Transcendental idealism is the doctrine that objects of our experience, space, and time, when taken as they would be outside our possible experience, are nothing but mere representations. However, this does not make them into illusions. This is because Kant takes objects of our experience, space, and time to be empirically real. Empirical realism is the doctrine that objects of our experience, space, and time, when taken within our possible experience, exist independently of us. Yet, their empirical reality is not grounded in things in themselves, about whose existence Kant is agnostic. Instead, the reality of objects of our experience, space, and time depend on a standard of empirical reality that differs from the standard of transcendental reality. This separate standard of empirical reality allows Kant to hold transcendental idealism and empirical realism at the same time. Finally, while not strictly part of the doctrine of transcendental idealism, I answer the question of the relation of appearances and things in themselves. The distinction between appearances and things in themselves is a metaphysical distinction between two different ways of being, i.e., objectivity, properties, existence, reality. Yet, this is a metaphysical distinction within the same concept of an object. Thus, appearances and things in themselves are the same object bhiconceptually that is determined metaphysically in two different ways.
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    CONSTITUTING THE DEMOS: CONSTITUTIONALISM, CONSTITUENT POWER, AND THE ARTICULATION OF DEMOCRATIC BOUNDARIES
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2024-01) Briedis, Rafael Bruno Macía; Susan H. Williams, J.D. (Chair)
    This dissertation develops a critique of the theory of “constituent power” and of its incorporation into our understanding of constitutional democracy. The theory of constituent power argues that, in a democracy, the people always retain the power to alter or replace their constitutional regime regardless of the constitution’s amendment procedures. Because of its democratic appeal, this theory has been adopted by constitutional scholars and adjudicators interested in reinforcing the link between constitutionalism and popular sovereignty. Through a case-study of revolutionary constitution-making in Venezuela, however, this dissertation looks at the more troubling implication of attributing to “the people” a constituent power that exists beyond the reach of constitutional norms. In dialogue with theorists writing on the relationship between law and democracy, it argues that any allegedly “popular” exercise of extraconstitutional lawmaking requires the intervention of a self-authorized “representative” with the power to arbitrarily decide whether (and in what sense) “the people” have spoken. It is through this power-grounded, heteronomous intervention—which allows us to definitely ascertain who gets to participate (and how) in the process of constituent will-formation—that the people are then constituted as a constitution-authorizing unity. In contrast to this “constituent” mode of democracy, the dissertation proposes a view of constitutionalism as rendering “the people” independent from ad-hoc mediation by those in power. By projecting into the future a set of stable and legible norms of democratic belonging and participation, constitutional democracy transforms the demos into a “substantiated” agent whose participants can know themselves such (and know their mode of participation) prior to the act of identification of the popular will. The dissertation then studies how this unique democratic function (along with the very integrity of the constitutional framework) can be fundamentally undermined whenever the theory of constituent power is turned into a principle of constitutional design and interpretation. It concludes by proposing the constitutional codification of participatory reform clauses as a way of preempting the recourse to constituent extraconstitutionality during times of constitutional upheaval.
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    CHARACTER AS NARRATIVE: MORAL RESPONSIBILITY IN CONTEXT
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2024-05) Williams, Elizabeth Cargile; Kate Abramson, Ph.D., Chair (Philosophy)
    In this dissertation, I propose a theory of moral responsibility for character, understood as a kind of narrative. Narratives of character give evaluative and emotional coherence to the judgments and choices of others understood within context. In Chapter 1, I set the stage for the project by arguing that Gary Watson’s (1996) notion of accountability, properly understood, requires some reference to the particular person, rather than merely roles or rules. In Chapter 2, I push back against R. Jay Wallace’s (1994) view of responsibility that makes us out to be responsible only for our choices or the things we can directly control. In Chapter 3, I argue that T. M. Scanlon’s (1998) view rightly captures responsibility for judgment-sensitive attitudes but wrongly underplays the distinct importance of choice and control. In Chapter 4, I consider Susan Wolf’s (1990) and Fischer and Ravizza’s (1998) historical requirements on responsibility and conclude that the former too quickly removes agency and responsibility from those who have chosen to go down evil paths while the latter isn’t something we have access to in our everyday moral practices of accountability. In Chapter 5, I draw on Peter Goldie’s (2012) work on narratives to create a novel view of character, understood not as a stable disposition but as an actively constructed narrative built from a number of elements we care about, including our choices, our judgments, our history and context, as well as other features of what we’re like. These narratives often draw out patterns that have interpersonal import, and they can range from very small character studies to narratives that span a person’s life. Finally, in Chapter 6, I argue that constructing a taxonomy that clearly delineates who is responsible from who is not is a project that is doomed from the start, and I consider what my broadly Strawsonian approach can tell us about the excuses and exemptions.
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    PSYCHIATRY’S SECOND VALIDITY CRISIS: THE PROBLEM OF DISPARATE VALIDATION
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2024-05) Zautra, Nicholas Gaddis; Cooke, Rivkah
    In response to the crisis of confidence in the validity of the DSM’s diagnostic categories, psychiatry has seen a proliferation of alternative research frameworks for studying and classifying psychiatric disorders in new ways. The big three alternative approaches—the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP), the Network Approach to Psychopathology, and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)—have been characterized as healthy responses to the DSM’s crisis of validity. A yet unexplored aspect of psychiatry’s validity crisis is related to disagreements regarding the standards of validity. Each of the approaches have multiple distinct senses of validity, which point to a thornier methodological problem for psychiatry that I term the problem of “disparate validation.” This two-part problem can be summarized as follows: scientific psychiatry aims at achieving empirically informed classifications that demonstrate validity in the sense that they correspond to real attributes of psychopathology. To achieve this, alternative research frameworks are now approaching the conceptualization, testing, organizing, and validation of different features of psychopathology by their own standards in the hopes of one day informing more valid systems of psychiatric classification. The first problem is given a system of classification, by whose standard of validity should such a system be validated? Is there a single validation procedure by which validation should proceed, or some other combination thereof? Second, when we attempt to validate classifications informed by differing standards of validity, will any such validation be capable of assessing a unified fundamental sense of validity that exists across the various frameworks, or will they only be valid in their own narrow sense? In this dissertation, I offer an assessment of the problem of disparate validation through faithful reconstructions of the Holy Quadrinity of distinct senses of validity in psychiatry: starting with diagnostic validity (DSM) and proceeding with psychometric validity (HiTOP), network psychometric validity (the Network Approach), and etio-pathophysiological validity (RDoC). I introduce commonalities across frameworks that have not been previously addressed, including how each framework employs expert curation, being the selection and justification of certain elements into their model based on compromises, and how the goal of each framework eventually becomes a return to the original validators of Robins and Guze to evaluate prognosis, biomarkers, and etiology of psychiatric classifications. By evaluating psychiatry’s distinct senses of validity, I argue that despite an appearance of a shared goal of informing more valid classifications, the existence of multiple frameworks in which each employs their own standards of validity and validation is a detrimental methodology to achieve any kind of unified validation work. At its core, fundamental disagreements concerning 1) the underlying phenomenon that researchers are attempting to make inferences about; 2) the sources of validating evidence; and 3) the very nature of validity and validation, move each framework further and further toward a state of unrecognized plurality, in which these frameworks are really not at all talking about the same thing and are in fact engaged in different projects with different aims. I conclude with a positive program that suggests in what ways such different frameworks with distinct validation procedures can achieve validity in their own specific sense while also coming to inform one another through a kind of complementary pluralism.
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    THE ROLE OF SEMANTICS IN THE EMERGENCE AND MAINTENANCE OF SUFFIXES: AN INVESTIGATION OF OLD HIGH GERMAN -HEIT AND -TUOM
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2024-05) Peters, Elijah; Cooke, Rivkah
    This dissertation is an investigation of how the suffixes -heit and -tuom develop in Old High German, and how these suffixes interact with the preexisting suffixes of the language. It has long been recognized that the head of a compound may be reanalyzed as a suffix. The present study examines this phenomenon for -heit and -tuom, and emphasizes the role that semantics plays in their emergence as suffixes from independent words, how they interact with the preexisting suffixes, and how they become productive. The answers to these questions provide insight into how a derivational system changes over time and the types of information that the system is sensitive to. The data are drawn primarily from corpora and include virtually all instances in which heit and tuom occur, including glosses. They are treated qualitatively by examining the contexts in which the words are used, though quantitative methods are used to examine the productivity of the suffixes. The heit and tuom data are separated into three categories, i.e., independent, compound, and suffix, that are each analyzed in turn. Then, an analysis is proposed to account for the shift from word to suffix. Lastly, the interaction of the new suffixes with the old ones is evaluated by comparing competing pairs within the same text. The analysis proposes that semantics alone is sufficient to account for the shift from word to suffix. The meaning of the word directly influences the meaning of the suffix, the types of bases it attaches to, and its productivity. Semantics continues to play a role in the organization of the system after grammaticalization has occurred. While the new suffixes appear to compete with the preexisting suffixes, it is shown that the new suffixes assume a meaning different from that of their competitors. The results of the present investigation generally corroborate previous research on the suffixes -heit and -tuom, but they provide new insights into the behavior of these suffixes and the motivations for that behavior. The analysis provides principled reasons, rooted in semantics, for why the two suffixes developed differently, and why they interacted with the preexisting suffixes in the way that they did. Furthermore, the development of these two suffixes proposed here supports similar research conducted for historical English. Future work should examine why English and German diverge in the development of these suffixes, as well as if the present analysis can account for other grammaticalizations that occur in Old High German.
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    RESTORATIVE JUSTICE SOLUTIONS TO GENOCIDAL RAPE IN MYANMAR
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2024-05) Halbert, Chloe; Cooke, Rivkah
    Although international organizations have attempted to address the complex needs of women who have suffered sexual violence in the aftermath of a conflict, their efforts have historically fallen short. Criminal tribunals, while an important tool of the international justice system, don’t always have the resources or bandwidth to adequately draw attention to the perpetration of violence against women. Women have even expressed that they felt revictimized by the justice process at the hands of outside international actors who have no connection to their history or their culture. The present analysis explores these apparent shortcomings of a retributive criminal justice framework and it establishes the importance of community-based justice mechanisms, ones which place the peace process in the hands of those who have been directly affected by the conflict. The following study utilizes the case of the Rohingya women in the ongoing conflict in Myanmar to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of this approach.
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    EXPLORING BELIEFS AND TEACHING PRACTICES USING UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING IN SPECIAL EDUCATION CLASSROOMS OF SAUDI ARABIA
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2024-02) Alwaqassi, Sarah Abdullah Saleh; Butera, Gretchen Ph.D.
    As education policy in Saudi Arabia is beginning to implement a more inclusive classroom model which educates children with and without special needs side-by-side, teachers are struggling to find the best practices that can meet the needs of students with diverse levels of learning abilities. However, the government’s Saudi Vision 2030 has committed to improving educational curricula and practices, which will open doors of opportunity for inclusive education and for teachers to develop their knowledge and skills in this new area of pedagogy. This dissertation focuses on the special education teachers and their practices in inclusive classrooms in Saudi Arabia. The data was collected via a mixed method that included interviews and surveys to determine the current practices that the teachers apply in their classrooms. The dissertation then evaluated the teachers' practices against the principles of Universal Design for Learning. This study aimed to provide a guide for the Saudi special education teachers to follow based on the Universal Design for Learning framework, and is expected to inform, benefit, and contribute to the Saudi government’s efforts to reform and improve inclusive teaching and learning approaches in the education system.
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    BRINGING OPERA TO SAXON AUDIENCES IN THE AGE OF NAPOLEON 1800-1817
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-12) Haugland, Kirby E.; Muxfeldt, Kristina PhD
    The Saxon cities of Dresden and Leipzig hosted musical theater throughout the Napoleonic era. Opera was simultaneously a form of mass entertainment, a political tool, and a business venture. In contrast to prior eras, when the region was a vibrant hub of opera composition, I argue that Saxon opera during this period was defined by the collision between local conditions and a cosmopolitan repertoire drawn from Paris, Vienna, and Central European theater networks. Saxon operatic institutions had long been entangled with the fortunes of the community and the state. These entanglements were even more evident as Saxony endured invasion, foreign domination, and eventually partition after the Congress of Vienna. Impresarios selected and adapted foreign compositions to fit their production capabilities and meet the demands of audiences, who ranged from middle-class intellectuals and rowdy Leipzig University students to visiting merchants, army officers, and monarchs. Two companies dominated the local musical theater industry: Andrea Bertoldy’s Italian opera at the Dresden Court, and Joseph Seconda’s itinerant German theater company, which alternated between a rustic theater outside Dresden and Leipzig’s more well-furnished city venue. Although they pursued different goals and had different resources, both companies relied on translations, musical substitutions, and more elaborate textual reworkings by local staff and outsiders. Their productions featured stage decorations and machinery from local artisans, who brought their own expertise and occasionally influenced audience reactions far more than the music. I provide focused explanations of each of these different aspects of adaptation through specific productions of operas by Joseph Weigl, Ludwig van Beethoven, Luigi Cherubini, Gaspare Spontini, and others. Drawing on performance materials, government documents, and a wide variety of contemporary periodicals and technical writing, I produce a vivid picture of what was required to bring opera to Saxon stages at a pivotal point in European history.
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    "YO DIGO 'ESTÁ' PORQUE... ": THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF THE SPANISH COPULA IN A STUDY ABROAD VARIETY IN CHILE
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-12) Evans-Sago, Travis; Geeslin, Kimberly Ph.D.
    This dissertation explores Spanish copular verbs, ser and estar (both 'to be' in English), in pre-adjectival contexts within two Spanish varieties: first-language (Ll) Chilean speakers from Santiago (N = 29) and second-language (L2) English-speaking learners studying in Chile (N = 31). Bridging sociolinguistics and second language acquisition, it delves into sociolinguistic competence acquisition in an immersive context, focusing on copula development and use. The study collected data through a picture-based oral elicitation task and a written contextualized preference task at three time points for study abroad (SA) participants and a single point for Ll participants. It analyzed both linguistic factors (Adjective Class, Animacy, Experience With the Referent, Frame of Reference, Resultant State, and Susceptibility to Change) and extralinguistic factors (Age, Gender, Grammar Score, Previous Experience Abroad, Parent Origin, Spanish Major/Minor, Study Abroad Site, and social network factors like Number of Ll Contacts, Number of Contact Hours, Reported Closeness With Ll Contacts) to understand how these factors influence copula development and use over time. The findings reveal a progressive alignment of SA learners' copula use with Chilean participants, especially in terms of linguistic factors, albeit surpassing target variety norms in rates of estar use in the oral elicitation task. SA learners' development and use were also shaped by extralinguistic factors like Previous Experience Abroad and Reported Closeness to L1 Contacts. Conversely, extralinguistic factors had no significant influence on estar selection in the WCPT for Chilean participants. However, Parent Origin significantly affected estar use in the PDT, showing Santiago natives whose both parents were also from Santiago favoring estar over their counterparts. Further exploration of these factors can provide valuable insights into language acquisition, sociolinguistics, and the intricate interplay between language and context.
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    BITING OFF MORE THAN YOU CAN CHEW: GERMAN-BRAZILIAN CULTURAL CANNIBALISM
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-11) Morais, Nina Luiza de Oliveira; Robinson, Benjamin Ph.D.
    Cultural cannibalism is an aesthetic practice and an analytical tool that can be used to look closely at (trans)cultural encounters that happen in the arts. From its modernist roots, the term inherited a bold spirit, a playful self-assertion in the face of the other, a refusal to submit to the “good taste” of the metropole. This dissertation situates cultural cannibalism within the field of cultural and transnational studies and in conversation with other concepts, such as Fernando Ortiz’s transculturation, the melting-pot metaphor (both in the US and in Germany), the European Willkommenskultur, and the now popular cultural appropriation. Through concrete examples – such as the literary encounter between the German ethnographer Theodor Koch-Grünberg and the Brazilian modernist Mário de Andrade, and the (trans)cultural performances by the Swiss theater director Milo Rau – I show how cultural cannibalism is a long-needed analytical lens in the field, as it not only brings the playfulness and power inversion characteristic of its roots, but it also evokes a special affect, an irreverence and aggressivity that are not present in other concepts, as well as the idea of “punching-up,” of recognizing the agency and intentionality of the less powerful culture in a (trans)cultural interaction.
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    MECHANISMS AND EVOLUTIONARY CONSEQUENCES OF CRYPTIC FEMALE CHOICE IN DROSOPHILA
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-11) Peckenpaugh, Brooke; Moyle, Leonie C. PhD
    Sexual selection is proposed to be a powerful driver of reproductive trait diversity, including in traits that act after mating. Extensive work in Drosophila, particularly D. melanogaster, has shown that variation in male postmating traits can be critical for determining reproductive success. However, much less is known about the adaptive significance of female reproductive diversity, especially in postmating traits. In my dissertation, I sought to expand our understanding of how sexual selection shapes postmating trait evolution by studying female postmating adaptations in Drosophila. In Chapter 1, I assessed potential mechanism(s) of cryptic female choice (CFC)—the physical and chemical factors that determine which sperm are used by females after mating—in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Females of this species that occur in sympatry with Drosophila persimilis are known to preferentially select against heterospecific sperm. By assessing matings among multiple populations, I tested three potential mechanisms of CFC: copulation duration, the number of sperm transferred, and female reproductive tract toxicity. I found that reduced copulation duration could play a role in CFC in this system. In Chapter 2, I sought to understand how females make decisions about sperm use. To do so, I assessed whether Drosophila melanogaster females adjust their sperm use in response to male genotype, male courtship effort, male pheromone alteration, and sperm length. Each effect was evaluated factorially across four different D. melanogaster populations. I found that while females generally preferred longer sperm, this choice was dynamic and could actively be altered by female genotype-specific responses to male variation. Finally, in Chapter 3 I assessed the relative contributions of intersexual and intrasexual selection on reproductive trait evolution. By examining behavioral and morphological trait variation across 15 diverse Drosophila species, and complementing these data with up to 15 additional species, I found that male and female postmating traits coevolve, but neither male nor female traits are evolving more rapidly. This result suggests that intersexual selection may be a more important force in driving postmating reproductive trait evolution than intrasexual selection. Together, these findings demonstrate the diverse contributions that female reproductive adaptations can make to postmating sexual selection in Drosophila.
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    SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT MODULATES THE FUNCTION AND NEUROENDOCRINE REGULATION OF ELECTROCOMMUNICATION SIGNALS ACROSS SPECIES OF APTERONOTID FISHES
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-09) Freiler, Megan Kate; Smith, G. Troy, Ph.D.
    Because communication is inherently social, signals and social behavior should coevolve. Physiological regulation of signal production and perception should also be linked to social evolution. South American weakly electric knifefishes are an excellent system for investigating neuroendocrine mechanisms that coregulate sociality and sensorimotor systems responsible for communication. Knifefishes produce electric organ discharges that they modulate to produce signals called chirps. In this dissertation, I first found that species’ sociality does not explain variation in chirp structure complexity. I next asked how context influences production and neuroendocrine regulation of chirps across three species that vary in sociality: territorial Apteronotus albifrons, semi-social Apteronotus leptorhynchus, and gregarious Adontosternarchus balaenops. I recorded fish overnight in isolation, in same-sex pairs, and in opposite-sex pairs. I collected blood and brains to measure circulating steroid hormones and gene expression for several neuromodulator receptors in electrosensory brain regions. Semi-social A. leptorhynchus chirped more than the other species. Males chirped more in A. leptorhynchus and in A. albifrons. Chirping was sexually monomorphic in A. balaenops. While chirping, hormone levels, and neuromodulator gene expression did not vary consistently with social context, they covaried with species and individual condition. Reproductive condition in A. albifrons and A. balaenops, but size in A. leptorhynchus, explained male chirp rates and gonadal steroid levels. Social cortisol levels were negatively correlated with individual condition in the territorial species. Abundance of eight neuromodulator receptor genes varied in two electrosensory brain regions across species. vi i Gregarious A. balaenops often had the lowest, while territorial A. albifrons often had the highest gene expression. Gene expression profiles and correlations among gene pairs were nonoverlapping across species and context. Despite the potential for social complexity, A. balaenops were less behaviorally and physiologically variable. Perceiving conspecific signals during the less predictable social interactions common in A. albifrons aggressive, territorial encounters or in A. leptorhynchus dominance hierarchies may be more critical for survival and reproductive success. Individuals may not need to be as responsive in stable groups of A. balaenops. This dissertation highlights that how variation in communication maps onto variation in social behavior differs across levels of biological control and is highly-context dependent.
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    FROM VIBRATION TO VISUAL AESTHETICS: POLITICAL ECONOMIES OF ATTENTION IN CAIRO’S CONTEMPORARY BELLY DANCE INDUSTRY
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-08) Morley, Margaret L.; Royce, Anya Peterson, Ph.D.
    This dissertation seeks to answer the question: how have foreign dancers come to seemingly dominate the belly dance industry in Egypt, in spite of most Egyptians’ negative evaluations of foreigners’ competence in the skills essential to Egyptian belly dance? Through answering, I also argue that the shifting values of the senses and beauty standards towards what sells best on social media exemplifies what I am calling “aesthetic colonization.” Foreigners are only dominating the parts of the industry visible to the general public — those whose marketing is entwined with social media — while Egyptians continue to predominate in venues operating largely outside of social media. In the latter, the aesthetic favors attunement to senses of vibration (sound, affect) and attention as interpersonal care is bought and sold, cultivating relational value. In the former, the visual aesthetics of Instagram prevail, and female beauty and attention are commodified to circulate online. The movement from prioritizing senses of vibration to a visual aesthetic is symptomatic of ongoing colonization processes, in particular the expansion and intensification of neoliberal capitalism and with it the increasingly onerous discipling of bodies. Due to the coloniality of power, proximity to whiteness and wealth are valued, putting foreign dancers at an advantage over Egyptians in contexts where the visual is more important than the vibrational. Furthermore, as discipline in the Foucauldian sense is based on the threat of possible attention and women in Egyptian society are generally supposed to avoid drawing attention to their moving bodies, the visibility demands of media capitalism and its attendant political economies of attention are dangerous to Egyptian women in ways that often don’t apply to foreign dancers. Thus, I argue that attention is both a resource and a weapon, and in both cases, is used to further discipline women’s adherence to gender norms and beauty ideals, intensifying as the visual becomes more important than the vibrational.
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    “THAT’S NOT HEAVY METAL”: EGALITARIANISM, ELITISM, AND WINNING ARGUMENTS IN THREE METAL MUSIC STUDIES CANONS
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-05) Landes, Nathan; Burkholder, J. Peter
    From the late 1980s to the 2000s, scholars in the academic discipline of metal music studies formed three canons in order to win scholarly arguments; I call these canons the Early Metal Studies Canon, “Serious” Extreme Metal Canon, and “Metal-as-Global-Culture” Canon. Scholars use these canons to defend metal music from its detractors, and they build their canons around the epistemological standards of the primary academic disciplines to which these scholars belong. The need for an academic defense of metal was established by scholars like Deena Weinstein and Robert Walser who created the Early Metal Studies Canon due to attacks on metal from other scholars, rock journalists, and political figures in the 1980s. Scholars who devised the latter two canons in the 2000s adopted this defensive stance as a convention, as there was no meaningful threat to metal at that time. The “Serious” Extreme Metal Canon, which draws from scholarship like Keith Kahn-Harris’s Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge, portrays metal music as complex art to defend it against those who would dismiss it as shocking noise. The “Metal-as-Global-Culture” Canon, an outgrowth of scholarship like that found in Jeremy Wallach, Harris M. Berger, and Paul D. Greene’s Metal Rules the Globe: Heavy Metal Music Around the World, portrays metal culture as resisting global forces that homogenize difference and suppress dissent. The two canons from the 2000s also had a secondary goal of promoting extreme metal, a collection of metal subgenres that feature complex music and transgressive viii lyrics and imagery. Non-scholar fans of extreme subgenres tend to promote their preferred music by marginalizing non-extreme subgenres. Further, some forms of extreme metal have adherents who are openly discriminatory toward marginalized identity groups, meaning that certain bands and fans of metal are excluded not only for their musical preferences but for their genetics or the circumstances of their birth. Scholars of the latter two canons almost exclusively reject discriminatory behavior, opting to take an ambivalent stance that praises the music while criticizing the objectionable politics. However, these scholars still overemphasize the importance of extreme metal and deemphasize non-extreme metal, either because they are fans of extreme metal or because they wish to produce scholarship that aligns with the stylistic preferences of metal studies for professional benefit. Due to the exclusionary nature of extreme metal and how it impacts arguments in metal studies, I propose that metal scholars should canonize bands that are musically significant and that model the egalitarian and inclusionary stance of the International Society for Metal Music Studies. In my conclusion I canonize Rage Against the Machine as an example of a band whose members are ethnically diverse and whose lyrics and imagery are anti-oppression.
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    INVESTIGATING THE COMPUTATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL DYNAMICS USING DEEP LEARNING TECHNIQUES
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-08) Alipour, Abolfazl; Tom James; John Beggs
    One of the main goals of computational neuroscience is to explain why and how certain dynamics emerge in neural circuits. A promising approach to address this question is to train deep neural networks (DNNs) on ecologically relevant tasks and analyze their dynamics to see if they resemble the dynamics of their biological counterparts; and if they do, take this resemblance as supporting evidence that the modeled circuit is solving the same task. This approach allows us to understand why (for what task) and how (under what learning rules) specific dynamics arise. We have utilized this approach to test the proposed task-dynamics relationships in two of the most commonly studied systems in the brain, namely, the visual system and the memory system. In the visual system (chapters 1&2), we first performed a deep review of the two visual streams hypothesis (TVSH) and then tested the dorsal amnesia sub-hypothesis of this theory. According to this sub-hypothesis, the ventral visual stream has a longer memory compared to the dorsal stream, which stems from the tasks that this stream performs. To test this hypothesis, we trained identical networks to perform either dorsal stream or ventral stream tasks. We found that a DNN trained on orientation classification (a dorsal pathway task) develops a shorter memory while the same DNN trained on object classification (as a ventral pathway task) develops a longer memory, corroborating the dorsal amnesia sub-hypothesis. In the memory system (chapters 3&4), we first analyzed the predictive coding theory for the brain and argued that based on this theory, the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit must be tasked with the prediction of the inputs, and an autoencoder architecture is a reasonable first approximation for this circuit. We showed that a sparse autoencoder network that is tasked to reconstruct its inputs develops scale-invariant place cells, corroborating the hypothesis that hippocampal dynamics may emerge as a result of an input prediction/reconstruction and supporting the validity of the deep learning framework for neuroscience. Additionally, our results showed that it is crucial to investigate the constraints that give rise to the behavior of DNNs and neural circuits because it can explain why biology has chosen one solution among all other solutions for a specific task. In summary, we showed that the deep learning framework for neuroscience can offer valuable insights into understanding the computational principles of neural dynamics when informed by theory and biology.
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    MODELING THE GLOBAL FORMATION OF TROPICAL CYCLONES
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-08) Vu, The-Anh; Kieu, Chanh
    The first part of the thesis examines the large-scale factors that govern global tropical cyclone (TC) formation. Using idealized simulations for an aqua-planet tropical channel, we show that the tropical atmosphere has a maximum capacity for generating TCs, even under ideal environmental conditions. Regardless of how favorable the tropical environment is, the total number of TCs generated in the tropics has a cap across experiments. Analyses of daily TC genesis events reveal further that global TC formation is intermittent throughout the year in a series of episodes at a roughly 2-week frequency, with a cap of 8–10 genesis events per day. Examination of different large-scale environmental factors shows that 600-hPa moisture content, 850-hPa absolute vorticity, and vertical wind shear are the most critical factors for this global episodic TC formation. Once TCs form and move poleward, the total moisture content and the absolute vorticity in the main genesis region subside, thus reducing large-scale instability and producing an unfavorable environment for TCs to form. It takes ∼2 weeks for the tropical atmosphere to re-moisten and rebuild the largescale instability associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) before a new TC formation episode can occur. These results offer new insights into the processes that control the upper bound on the annual global TC number. In the second part of the thesis, we examine the clustering of global TC formation from theoretical and numerical perspectives. Using an analytical model and idealized simulations, we find that global TC clusters can be produced by the internal dynamics of the tropical atmosphere, even in the absence of landmass surface and zonal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Our analyses of a two-dimensional ITCZ model capture indeed some planetaryvii scale stationary modes whose zonal and meridional structures support the formation of TC clusters at the global scale. Additional idealized simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model confirm these results in a range of aqua-planet experiments. These numerical results are consistent with the ITCZ breakdown model and reveal some forcing structures that can support stationary "hot spots" for global TC formation beyond the traditional explanation based on zonal SST anomalies. The last part of this thesis examines possible future changes in TC lifetime for the northwestern Pacific basin. Using high-resolution dynamical downscaling, we show that TC lifetime appears to increase under both future emission scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. This is mostly seen at the tail of TC lifetime distribution with more long-lived TCs (lifetime of 8-11 days) and less short-lived TCs (lifetime of 3-5 days). Unlike previous studies, the correlation between TC lifetime and the Nino 3.4 index shows a mixed value in the future climate, with much less statistical significance. Analyses of the TC track distribution reveal instead more noticeable northeastward shifting of TC tracks by the end of 2050. This change in TC track climatology results in an overall longer duration of TCs in the open ocean, thus increasing TC lifetime. Such a shift in TC track pattern is ultimately linked to the strengthening of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), which retreats to the south during July and to the east during August-September in the future. These findings provide different insights into how large-scale circulations can affect TC lifetime in the northwestern Pacific basin under different climate projection scenarios.
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    IN THE SYSTEM BUT NOT OF THE SYSTEM: UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE AND EXPERIENCES OF MENTAL HEALTH PEER SPECIALISTS
    ([Bloomington, Ind.]: Indiana University, 2023-08) Frieh, Ellis C.; Perry, Brea L.
    Certified peer specialists are mental health professionals who provide non-clinical mental health services to individuals in the community who may be struggling with mental health difficulties. They focus on providing support, hope, and the goal of recovery and do so by drawing upon their own lived experiences with mental illness or, to use non-psychiatric terms, distress, difficulties in living, and extreme states. The case of certified peer specialists allows for an investigation into how peer specialists carry out and experience their work and the implications of their unique approach. Specifically, I consider how peer specialists resist biomedicalization by emphasizing and prioritizing nonmedical, social environmental factors in the etiology and “treatment” of mental health problems. They identify trauma as a key contributor to individuals’ experiences of distress and push back against psychiatric labeling, which may contribute to stigma. Further, the professionalization of peer specialists lends insight into how new professions operate to seek and establish legitimacy, autonomy, and credibility. They must resist stigmatizing attitudes and uncertainty about the profession’s status to legitimize their expert knowledge from lived experience as lay professionals. Finally, peer specialists must engage in emotion work in their everyday work and must cope with their emotions through social support and personal coping strategies. Due to the mutuality, or even power differential, of peer support, what is considered appropriate emotion work for peer specialists may look different than what is appropriate for other professions, namely the ability to openly experience emotions with those receiving support. Using a combination of in-depth interviews with peer specialists, viii participant observation fieldwork at a peer-run nonprofit organization, and a survey of peer specialists across the United States, I investigate how peer specialists operate to demedicalize mental illness, legitimize their profession, and navigate emotions and boundaries at work. This research has meaningful theoretical and practical implications and contributes to a major gap in the sociological literature on peer support, professions, and resistance to biomedicalization.
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    INFERENCE OF HIDDEN HIERARCHIES FROM OBSERVABLE NETWORKS
    ([Bloomington, Ind.]: Indiana University, 2023-07) Pebes Trujillo, Miguel Raúl; Manrique-Vallier, Daniel
    In this dissertation I propose probabilistic models and computational estimation methods to infer the hierarchical organization of network systems from the observable patterns of interactions among their elements. My formulation is based on the general idea of statistical network reconstruction (Peixoto (2019a)). Current advancements in this area allowed us to infer some forms of system organization but not hierarchical. Hierarchical systems that manifest as networks are pervasive and statistical models dedicated to their characterization are scarce. This work fills the existing gap that prevents us from understanding several observable phenomena that might be naturally explained by the existence of a hierarchy among their components. Chapter 1 has two parts. First we go through the minimal algebraic and graph theory background on which the addressed problem builds up. We also discuss the general problem we are trying to solve, which is network reconstruction. The second part focuses on hierarchies, as we need clear understanding of what hierarchy means. We discuss why they are important within the network reconstruction framework. Chapter 2 goes through the specific characterizations for hierarchies and hierarchical systems I pick for this dissertation. We focus on those hierarchies, but will also have a high-level introduction to the observables those hierarchies generate. We discuss the general statistical framework that will be later used. Chapter 3 is totally inferential. We will learn how hierarchies can be treated as random objects to enable inference of them from network data. Computational estimation methods as well as hierarchy estimators are discussed. Chapter 4 focuses in one particular model for hierarchical observable networks that unipartite, which is dominance hierarchies. This is an intuitive problem that exemplifies how hierarchies can actually be reconstructed. We derive the theoretical model and fit it to data. Chapter 5 focuses in another particular model for hierarchical observable networks that are bipartite. This problem is more complex and requires more modeling tools. We derive the theoretical 1 model and fit it to data. Chapter 6 summarizes the statistical thinking that drove this dissertation. The main structural features of this family of models are discussed, The focus is on how the hierarchy drives the information passed to the likelihood on these models. This is key to understand all the possibilities this framework offer to explain a variety of real hierarchical systems. We will conclude discussing the contributions of this thesis and its future extensions.
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    STATUS AND THE PSYCHE: HOW MENTAL HEALTH PARADOXES CHALLENGE THEORIES OF INEQUALITY
    ([Bloomington, Ind.]: Indiana University, 2023-07) Coleman, Max E.; Perry, Brea L.
    Social scientists have documented a set of unexpected sociodemographic patterns they call health paradoxes or epidemiological paradoxes. Like all paradoxes, such findings compel scholars to reconsider their assumptions about the social world—findings are only “paradoxical” when viewed from a certain perspective. This dissertation centers on mental health paradoxes, cases in which persons deemed low-status (less educated individuals, racial minorities, immigrants) report better mental health despite greater marginalization. I examine three paradoxes: (1) elevated rates of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) in socioeconomically advantaged college students, (2) greater risk of psychiatric disorders in White vs. Black Americans (the Black-White mental health paradox), and (3) higher rates of mental health problems among the native-born (the healthy immigrant paradox). For each paradox, I test a range of potential mechanisms including social support, stressors, and identity measures. I leverage data from two national studies: the Healthy Minds Study (HMS) of college and university students (2009–2019) and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III (NESARC–III, 2012–2013). Findings challenge the distributive paradigm inherent in dominant approaches such as the stress process model and fundamental cause theory, both of which are limited by a similar focus on material and psychosocial “resources.” Taken together, my results highlight the resilience of groups deemed low-status and suggest that structural and cultural arrangements imposed by high-status groups (including an individualist focus on success and self-advancement) may harm well-being.
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    PERFORMING ANDALUSIAN IN POLITICAL SPEECH: POLITICAL PARTY AND SOCIOPHONETIC PATTERNS ACROSS PRODUCTION AND PERCEPTION
    ([Bloomington, Ind.]: Indiana University, 2023-07) Pollock, Matthew; Díaz-Campos, Manuel; Obeng, Samuel
    I examine Peninsular Spanish politicians’ use of performative style, a sociolinguistic variable permitting identity formation, using a sociophonetic approach. While all speakers style-shift between prestige and non-prestige variants, politicians in particular use language both to reflect social position and to appeal to voters. Using quantitative and qualitative methodologies, I examine variation in Andalusian and Madrid Spanish, determine how style-shifting occurs at the individual level, and consider how Andalusian voters perceive political speech. Using a composite approaches, I determine that speakers’ use of linguistic resources differs by political affiliation and gender. Stage one of the analysis tracks how 32 peninsular politicians produce ten regional phenomena associated with Andalusian Spanish. While geographic and linguistic factors condition variation, additional social factors including speaker gender, political party, interlocutor gender, and age also explain variation. In Stage two, politicians were examined using Lectal Focusing in Interaction, tracking regional variation and style-shifting over time. Liberal politicians used moments of regional peaks as a means of emphasizing working-class solidarity, while conservatives used regionalisms more performatively to convey southern and friendly indexical meaning. Finally, the perceptual instrument in stage three showed how Seville listeners applied different criteria to community and political speech, evaluating regional variants positively, and associating them with female liberal and male conservative voices. The composite results suggest the rising populism in Spain is leading to a change, whereby conservative voices produce more Andalusian features than liberals, and young listeners associate ix regional speech with the political right. Meanwhile, female politicians navigate a web of indexical meaning, avoiding the stigma of overly vernacular speech while using regionalisms to craft unique identity. While there is an automaticity to the unmarked register of political speech that follows pre-established norms and expectations, politicians can also agentively sidestep them at times to perform identity work. This finding deepens our understanding of political discourse and Andalusian Spanish, presenting a methodology for in-depth examination of a speech community. This dissertation offers a means of generalizing beyond geographical and linguistic contexts, offering insight into stance accumulation and the connection between perception and production.