Peer-Reviewed Papers

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    Memoria, Verdad, y Justicia: Commemorative Acts of Solidarity for Memory, Truth, and Justice in South America
    (The North Meridian Review: A Journal of Culture and Scholarship, 2020-11-01) Stewart, JesAlana
    On March 24, 2016, a national holiday of Remembrance took place in Argentina as a means of commemoration of the fortieth anniversary of los desaparecidos (the disappeared ones). This holiday is a day to remember those who have been lost due to terrorism of the state, to celebrate the end of a murderous military coup, and to come together to demonstrate against past, current, and future crimes against humanity. Of the many groups that come in celebration and protest, none are as renowned or as influential as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. These women spoke out against the military regime when it was most dangerous to do so and gained invaluable steps against infringements on human rights. Thus, this organization became an example for others who fight on a global scale against the disappearances of loved ones, in turn amplifying a movement where individuals make and re-make their identities and activism through connection with the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo across national and geographic boundaries. This movement, described in this work as Global Critical Solidarity, provides a framework for further investigation of human rights movements based in local contexts that are (re)made in digital spaces to reach global audiences, in turn developing a deep sense of kinship that has critical implications for the understanding of shared humanity through diversity.
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    Comparative Higher Education Research Methods: Thematic analysis
    (Indiana University, 2020-01-20) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    The paper narrates different definitions of comparative education, identifies problems and barriers in comparative education studies. How comparative education finds and uses sameness (contrast) as universalism and difference as ultra-relativism in different national educational policy context. The paper deeply sees how comparative education policies are use, link and apply by comparativists’ to different social theories like modernization theory, conflict theory, structural-functionalism, positivism, relativism, historical and cultural studies, statistical methods (unit of analysis), realism, and post-structuralism, neo-liberalism, capitalism, localism, globalization, and govermentalism, etc. Then compare the comparative educational research findings of the issues, and results in different cultural contexts by using different research methods narrated by different comparative education scholars that can help change, modify or improve the comparative education research implementing model. The cross-cultural comparative education research benefits, shares and measures different education system or evaluate different education schemes. At the end, the paper explores how higher education financial aid policy can play a critical role in addressing persisting poverty and dependence in developed country.
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    Educational policy, policy appropriation and Grameen Bank higher education financial aid policy process
    (Indiana University, 2020-01-01) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    The paper talks about higher educational polices and their process of policy appropriations, policy as practices, policy as symbolic, policy as rituals, policy as myths, policy backward- mapping and policy-forward mapping, multi-stage policy implementation process, street-bureaucrats planners, and policy reform process. It critically looks at pros-and-corns of different educational policy theories and their applications in education, and the higher education student financial aid different policies, strategies and products and their impact on the college students. The paper also narrates the higher educational policies and methods of need-based, merit-based, means-test-based grants allocation and loan disbursement and their impact on student academic achievements. Moreover, it discusses the policy process model that has both agendas and multiple streams that consider looking at policy designing problems, solutions of the problems and their usefulness to SES students. Additionally, the paper narrates the Grameen Bank higher education student loan policy making process, although there is no higher education student financial aid services are not exist in Bangladesh. Literature reviews, conversations with higher education students, contextual analysis, and the author personal working experience incorporate here. The study finds for policy improvement, policy analysis is vital because policy analysis can explores usefulness of the policy for public well being and for effectiveness of the policy appropriation.
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    Against all odds: socio-economic and political factors related to female labor force participation and decision making power in Bangladesh
    (Indiana University, 2019-12-20) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    Gender inequality and discrimination is persistent in different socio-economic and political institutions. Women are mainly treated as second sex, sex objects, reproductive agent and their economic contributions to the family, market and state are largely ignored. These discriminations are transferred through the institution of patriarchy, labor force participation and different national and international programs and policy processes. The rigidity and confinement of women within households is experiencing minimal change. A majority of women continue to experience inequalities in different sectors of the society; both in developed and developing countries. However, in terms of gender inequality, female labor force participation is a major factor. This paper reviewed feminist literatures and author personal experiences working with women particularly marginalized women in many countries. The paper examines the interrelating issues of female labor force participation, patriarchy, differential household structures and development policies as they exist in Bangladesh.
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    Islamic Sharia based group micro-lending initiative and implementation trajectory experience in Kandahar during Taliban regime
    (2019-12-19) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    Although some people think the concept Sharia Law Islamic Banking system is ancient (old), modernized Islamic Banking has been introduced and operational for many decades in the world now. Countries like Bangladesh, Malaysia, UK, Singapore, Pakistan and Bahrain competitively run their Islamic banking side by side with modern commercial banks who are successful in their banking operations with financial sustainability. However, Islamic Sharia micro-financing servicers are rare and new in the Muslim world although it is urgent and it can be done easily to make poor economic actors in the society and to address the issue of poverty. The Islamic Sharia Law group micro-lending initiative and implementation in Kandahar, Afghanistan during Taliban Regime in 1996-1997 was one of the innovation launched by the author funded and supported by UHCR- Grameen Bank-Grameen Trust to revive and to make business entrepreneurs and economic actors instead provide aid relief to poor and to returnees’ repatriation rehabilitation. The project received approval from the Shura of Afghan Taliban Authority. The project got popularity as in the project area as it was ran by the Sharia based micro credit services that followed the Murabaha (loss and profit sharing investment) and Mudarabah (provide business materials in kinds instead cash to entrepreneurs) system in providing micro-credit to acute disadvantaged people; however, the project experienced that the unstable political and economic situation hinders to project operation, management and development. Islamic rational ethical values, norms and principles knowledgeable to elites and the support from local authority are crucial for implementing the Sharia micro-financing programs for eradicating poverty in any nation state especially in Muslim states.
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    Grameen Bank higher education student loan policies and strategies in Bangladesh
    (2019-12-01) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    Grameen Bank disburses the higher education student loans and scholarships to its borrowers’ children. The GB higher education student loan can receive by a borrower for all of his children who are studying higher education in Bangladesh. Grameen Bank scholarships are awarding to Primary, Middle, High School, and Grade-12 college students in Bangladesh who have outstanding results (GPA 5.0) in their Grade-5, Grade-8, Secondary School Certificate (Grade-10) and Higher School Certificate exam (Grade 12). Grameen Shikka (Education), a sister organization of GB, also offering scholarships to the children of the borrowers of GB. More than 55,000 children are receiving awards from Grameen Bank and Grameen Shilkka in Bangladesh every year. The student loan receiving borrowers start their student loan repayment after one month of their last student loan receiving installment. The service charge 5% of the student loan starts from the day when the students finish their studies. A GB borrower can receive this GB higher education student loan only for his biological children, not for adopted children. The loan receiving borrower and his children must have a Bangladeshi citizenship nationality certificate. Recently, GB squeezes its operation even though the higher education student loan program has a huge demand in Bangladesh.
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    Study findings of the Grameen Bank higher education student loan services in Bangladesh
    (2019-11-22) Abdur Rouf, Kazi
    A survey conducted on the Grameen Bank higher education student loan services in Bangladesh in 2015-2016. The survey sample size is only 61, and the paper narrates the survey findings. The purpose of the survey is to know the GB higher education student loan portfolios, the status of the student loan repayment rate, and the role of the student loan users in community development in Bangladesh. The study finds the student loan program of GB is accessible and useful to the children of GB borrowers for their higher education study in Bangladesh. The student loan receiving children of borrowers of GB is ornamental to engage in different community organizations and civic activity participation in their neighborhoods. However, GB needs to massively expand this program and improve its higher education student loan collection and monitoring strategies in Bangladesh.
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    International Student Academic Support: A comparison of the motivations of a Chinese international student and his instructor
    (TESOL Arabia, 2017) Stewart, JesAlana
    The foremost resource in helping non-native students to navigate western academia is the teacher. Therefore, this study attends to the expectations of an English composition teacher and his Chinese international student through a comparative analysis of their perspectives and strategies. This research finds many commonalities of expectations between the two, and a few dissimilarities, which affect motivation. Additionally, it discovers coping strategies used by the student to meet teacher expectations and strategies used by the instructor to help the student meet expectations. Finally, this study calls for more research into the available resources for internationals, and more training for teachers.
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    Review of A Sociolinguistic Diaspora: Latino Practices, Identities, and Ideologies
    (Chiricú Journal: Latina/o Literatures, Arts, and Cultures, 2017-07-14) Stewart, JesAlana
    A Sociolinguistic Diaspora: Latino Practices, Identities, and Ideologies, edited by Rosina Márquez Reiter and Luisa Martín Rojo, discusses the dynamic interplay of linguistic and sociocultural phenomenon of Latino diasporas in established, emergent, and virtual communities around the globe. This text specifies various ever-evolving individual/group Latino identities and the struggle to distinguish from and/or associate with either differing Spanish-speaking groups or the linguistic majority of a host country.
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    Blending Spaces: Mediating and Assessing Intercultural Competence in the L2 Classroom
    (The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 2015-11) Stewart, JesAlana
    With the vast amount of second language learners across the world in various contexts and  the  ever-­‐present  force  of  globalization,  it  becomes  essential  to  acknowledge  the  interaction of differing sociocultural and linguistic practices at play in second language (L2) learning. In doing so, a learner of a new linguistic code can gradually come to use both their first and second languages appropriately through the medium of a third space between  each  system.  Witte  discusses  the  unique  situation  of  L2  learners  when  faced  with a new, possibly competing linguistic system and culture, in such a way that would benefit both educators and researchers alike. He explains the challenges that a foreign language  learner  faces  in  having  two  competing  rhetorical  traditions,  and  he  explains  the interactions of these languages in a third space where reconciliation takes place in new  and  interesting  forms.  This  book  meticulously  and  gradually  builds  on  both  first  and second language development in order to construct the understanding of what intercultural competence could mean.
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    Grameen Krishi Foundation (GKF) and its donor’s contribution to Deep Tube-well irrigation-based rural agricultural community development in Northern Bangladesh
    (2019-10-30) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    The paper is exploring the relationship among the key stakeholders’ roles Grameen Krishi Foundation, and its funding donor United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), the roles of Government of Bangladesh and their impact to Northern Deep Tube-well (DTW) irrigation farmers crop production and community development in Bangladesh in 1991-1998. Grameen Krishi Foundation (GKF) Bangladesh-involves in agricultural irrigation farming, crop production, and crop marketing in Bangladesh. The author works with them as a coordinator in Dhaka that he narrates here his working experience. As of experience, the author finds instead of fully follow the TOR of the pre-inception of the project document, it is important the international donor funding agencies and other related stakeholders of the project should hear the implementing agency’s interaction experience with the community members and understand their interaction experiences; then design and develop post-inception project improvement strategies for the benefit of the community people and overall outcome of the project.
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    Canadian higher education student financial aid policies, products and services in Canada
    (2019-09-10) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    Although Canada is a welfare state and it has need-based priority student financial aid support policies in Canada; however, its higher education financial aid service is not universal. Rather its higher education support services have neoliberal policy matrix (public grants and private loan) financial aid services began to take root in most Canadian provinces. Although since 1964, the Canadian financial aid program has provided over $51 billion in Canada Student Loans to more than 5 million Canadians to help them finance their education and equip them to achieve their career aspirations. The average Canadian student debt is $27,000, up from $8,000 in 1990. The Government of Canada changes many of its higher education financial assistance policies, programs, and products; however, the ratios of the grants: loans are still questionable to many students, researchers, and laymen. Therefore, the federal, provincial and institutional grants need of the increased so that grants portion can be higher than 80% than the loan portion.
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    American Higher Education Student Financial Aid
    (2019-08-16) Rouf, Kazi Abdur
    The American higher education student financial aid program is an American national social financing program that has both grants and loans components from the public and the private financial institutions as a social investment for the American college students for their higher education human resource capital development. Although America provides higher education student grants yearly more than $250 billion; its student debts are accumulating more than $1.5 trillion in 2007-2008. Even now the student debts are more increasing. Therefore, it is important to know what the American higher education student financial aid acts, policies and strategies are at the federal, states and institutional levels; how the private student loan agencies are working; why the student debts are increasing; and what are the issues related to the student financial aid services in America. The federal, states and institutional financial grants and their policies are continuously changing but they are legislated the by congress and states legislators. The US Department of Education and many other agencies are monitoring and reviewing the student financial aid policies and budgets. The higher education student financial aid’s budgets and policies are altering to comply with the college students need and the colleges demand. Despite the American student financial aid system is decentralized; however, its policy appropriations need to be democratized.
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    Social economy community outreach education
    (2019-07-13) Abdur Rouf, Kazi
    The social economy is trying to address the issues of social and economic disparity and to find alternative socio-economic solutions for poverty eradication and to facilitate community outreach public well-being. Currently, the social economy (SE) courses are teaching in many universities, colleges, and develop social enterprise different initiatives. Moreover, social economy researchers present their research findings at different seminars, conferences, symposiums; many books and journals are published on the social economy; however, very few initiatives have taken to educating the end users of community outreach the social entrepreneur. Hence, the paper focuses to discern how social economy (SE) concept, its different initiatives, operational strategies, and policies can be reached to community outreach people in order to orient them about these phenomena. The paper contains the definition of SE, the importance of SE, and issues in SE with examples, how social economy community outreach learning can be facilitated to inform readers. The paper is written based on literature reviews, the author’s personal experience, and secondary data. The paper finds SE ideas are traveling within academicians, researchers, social economy study students, and social economy practitioners. Therefore, the social economy community outreach education is very important to educate community outreach people to develop their understanding of the social economy, their benefit, to know how social enterprises can be initiated and managed by the community outreach people and prospective community social entrepreneurs.
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    Grameen Nabeen Uddugta (NU), new entrepreneur, social business funding education and service in Bangladesh
    (2019-07-22) Rouf, Kazi Rouf
    The researcher, Kazi A. Rouf, has conducted a research on the Grameen Bank Nabben Uddugta social business loan, the Grameen Nabeen Uddugta (NU) new entrepreneur social business equity funding (NUSBEF) project, and their impact on second-generation GB borrowers in Bangladesh in 2014-2015. He conducted the study and writes the preliminary report on the Grameen NUSBEF program attached to the Faculty of Environment and York Center for Asian Research (YCAR), York University. The purpose of this empirical policy research is to explore the policies, procedures, and strategies of this new social business equity funding project of the Grameen sister organizations, and to identify challenges facing second-generation GB borrowers in running their small social businesses in Bangladesh. The study examines whether second-generation GB borrowers participate in family and community green enterprises in a more egalitarian way than their parents; examine whether they are involved in recycling/repairing green businesses as an alternative to consumer credit; are advocates for the Sixteen Decisions of GB (a holistic socioeconomic and environmental messages), for alleviating rural unemployment and social injustice, and for other social issues. The study also intends to look at whether these borrowers encourage their neighbouring unemployed young to be involved in small business in order to address these social issues in Bangladesh. The research findings would help the Yunus Center social business design lab and the social business equity funding implementing agencies Grameen Bank and Grameen sister organizations to improve the social business funding program for better services to second-generation borrowers of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. The research generates new knowledge of social and green financing and social and green-enterprise development that could be used by social and community green-financing organizations elsewhere in the world. The findings of the research have shared with Grameen Bank, the latter being the Grameen sister organizations’ executive.
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    Grameen Bank community school organizing, and forming of groups and centers experience in Bangladesh
    (2019-06-08) Abdur Rouf, Kazi
    The objective of the paper is to narrate the Grameen Bank (GB) group and center organizing, designing, forming, and building tools in Bangladesh and to identify what mistakes the author and his colleagues have made during their journey in GB. It explores how they could do better jobs in organizing, designing, building and forming groups and centers and other activities if they are skilled in the community work ahead of their jobs in GB. The paper discusses different concepts, thoughts, and ideas of community organizing, community designing, community building, and different mechanisms of GB loans and savings services for the poor in Bangladesh. GB is continuously changing its center organizing and building tools and developing innovative loans, savings products that is suitable to its borrowers to overcome their poverty. The paper narrates the author and his colleagues’ personal working experience in GB during the late 1970s and 1980s. Moreover, the paper incorporates different challenges GB faces like social and economic barriers at the macro and micro level in implementing its services to poor people in Bangladesh at different times; and how GB overcomes these challenges and developed different innovative products and services in its Phase-1 and Phase-11. The narrated history of forming groups and organizing centers of GB and its different loan and savings products evolution process generates new knowledge and evidence in the field of group-based micro-credit. The process of evolution of GB would be a learning lesson for the readers, micro-finance practitioners, researchers and different community organizers in Bangladesh and elsewhere.
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    Compare and contrast Grameen Bank (GB) Higher Education Student Loan Service in Bangladesh and the state-managed student financial aid program in Canada and America
    (2018-08) Abdur Rouf, Kazi
    This policy research paper narrates ‘Compare and contrast the state-managed Canada and the American student financial aid program with the NGO-managed Grameen Bank (GB) Higher Education Student Loan program in Bangladesh’. This paper is a nutshell consolidation of the research that focuses on to compare and contrast policies, strategies and products of the Canadian and the American student financial aid policies and products with the policies, strategies and products of the Grameen Bank (GB) Higher Education Student Loan program for the second generation of GB borrowers in Bangladesh. The study finds the Canadian and the American student higher education financial aid programs have distinct variations; however, some of their policies, products and implementation strategies are similar to each other; however, the Canadian and the American student higher education financial grants and loans policies have been modifying over time to address the needs and demands of the students since inception. However, although the Grameen Bank student higher education loan policies and products, initiated in 1997, it remains unchanged even it has limited expansion although the GB student higher education loan program is very popular and it has huge demand in Bangladesh. This research generates new knowledge of NGO--managed student loan financing services in Bangladesh that has impact to address poverty and employment creation in Bangladesh. The research findings help Canada and America and GB Bangladesh to improve their student higher education financial aid services in in these countries.
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    Language contact and translingual literacies
    (Multilingual Matters, 2016-05-03) Samuelson, Beth; Coronel-Molina, Serafin
    In this essay we examine the notions of language contact phenomena such as borrowing, codeswitching, codemixing, codemeshing, and translanguaging. We also explore the concepts of translingualism and translingual literacies. We discuss how the notions of bilingualism and multilingualism are differentiated from translingualism and translingual literacies, and how these concepts came into existence according to different theoretical positions. We also introduce the contents of the other articles included in this special issue, and highlight their key points, framing them in the context of research on translingual literacies. The following six areas from around the world are covered: (1) negotiating voice in translingual literacies, (2) Amerindian and translingual literacies, (3) translingual and transcultural practice in a rural classroom, (4) translingual and transcultural navigation among immigrant children and youth, (5) créolisation and the new cosmopolitanism, and (6) translingual practice among African immigrants in the USA. Last but not least, we include two book reviews related to translingual literacies, and we also provide some conclusions on the topics discussed, as well as some suggestions for further directions in future research.
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    Poster presentations in teacher education: Designing meaningful assignments
    (Duke University Press, 2012-04-01) Samuelson, Beth; Hick-Kennard, Cathy
    Poster sessions aren't just for professional conferences. They are popular in a variety of academic disciplines, where they have been shown to boost motivation, foster alternative assessment, and promote peer interaction. They are gaining popularity as a classroom teaching strategy, because they promote the development of student research skills and foster positive attitudes toward research. They encourage collaboration and peer interaction. Visual presentation strategies provide opportunities for students to display their ideas and knowledge in several multimedia formats. Poster sessions also promote alternative assessment strategies such as peer and self-assessment. We report here on the ways that we have used this assignment format in our basic linguistics class, titled “The Nature of Language.” We conclude with tips on incorporating poster assignments into teacher education classes regardless of the content matter.
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    How to Succeed in Physics Without Really Crying
    (Science and Children, 1996-05) Dickinson, Valarie
    As a first-grade teacher, I enjoy watching my students learn as they explore and investigate. So I welcomed the chance to make my own discoveries in an introductory college-level course titled "Physics and Society." I soon learned, however, that there would be no hands-on learning or cooperative group participation in this class.