Estelle Jorgensen Research Collection

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    Towards a Social Theory of Musical Identities
    (Universitetsbiblioteket, 2006) Jorgensen, Estelle
    In this article I address three questions: What is meant by the notion of 'musical identity'?, How are musical identities formed?, and What are the responsibilities of music educators in terms of shaping musical identities? Throughout, my purpose is to show the social nature and complexity of musical identity and the crucial role that music teachers can play in inter­vening in the process of identity formation. This argument is prefaced on assumptions that musical identities are multiple rather than singular and no particular identity is the most desirable. In a world of ''multiplicities and pluralities'' in which people from many different ethnic, religious, linguistic, and other cultural backgrounds dwell together, sharing common beliefs and practices and diverging from different others, some way needs to be found to enable a civil society in which humankind can dwell in peace and happiness. It presupposes societies that, in our time at least, are often diverse, and cultures in which there is a need to cope with barriers, suspicions, and hostilities between individuals and groups that can readily arise without the means to negotiate them peacefully. In Seyla Benhabid's view, following Vaclav Havel, rather than an ''epidermis'' that overlays often deeply held differences, cultures need to be negotiated in ways that support civil discourse and the freedom to disagree with others. As one important site of this struggle, education is at the center of cultural transformation as it also needs to prefigure the society that is desirable. To this end, music teachers, especially those in publicly supported schools, cannot avoid, indeed need to embrace, their political and cultural as well as musical roles of transmitting, shaping and re-shaping beliefs and practices from the past. My theoretical observations are necessarily philosophical in that they ask questions about how things ought to be.
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    On Values and Life’s Journey through Music: Reflections on the Eriksons’ Life Stages and Music Education
    (Peter Lang, 2021) Jorgensen, Estelle
    The premise of this chapter is that the values that guide music education and the objectives and methods consistent with them should be tailored to people at each phase of life. Thinking of a theme, “Life’s journey through music,” I sketch different values that should guide music education throughout the adult phases of life proposed in Erik and Joan Erikson’s psychosocial state theory, namely, young adulthood, adulthood, old age, and gerotranscendence, respectively. Practical implications of the differing objectives and approaches commensurate with these values are suggested and a critique of the analysis is offered.
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    Singing Through Grief: An Autobiographic Fragment with Brief Commentary
    (Peter Lang, 2021) Jorgensen, Estelle; Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura
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    Conclusion: On Making Music Education Humane and Good: Gathering Threads.
    (Indiana University Press, 2020) Jorgensen, Estelle
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    On the Role of Religion in Music Education
    (Indiana University Press, 2019) Jorgensen, Estelle
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    Music and International Relations
    (Praeger, 1990) Jorgensen, Estelle
    My purpose in this chapter is twofold. First, I shall outline several social processes illustrative of the important role music plays in international relations and cite examples of each drawn from the literature in the history and sociology of music. Second, I shall sketch a theoretical framework in which the interface of music and international relations can be analyzed and suggest considerations for melding aspects of music and international relations in the future. The list of social processes developed by the sociologist Henry Zentner provides a useful perspective from which to view music and international relations. In particular, seven processes are of interest, namely, image preservation, loyalty maintenance, personification, socialization, information exchange, cooperation and competition. While there is no claim for exhaustiveness in this list, it does illustrate the variety of ways in which music contributes to, and is affected by, international relations.
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    The Preparation of School Music Supervisors in Canada
    (Canadian Music Educator, 1980) Jorgensen, Estelle
    The following findings respecting the preparation of music super­visors in Canada are based on a survey conducted in January, 1977 (Jorgensen, 1979). Several aspects of the academic and professional preparation of music supervisors will be described, namely: academic qualifications, preparation in administrative theory, teaching exper­ience, mobility (or movement from one jurisdiction to another) and membership in professional associations.
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    The Scope and Nature of the School Music Supervisor Role in Canada
    (Canadian Music Educator, 1980) Jorgensen, Estelle
    In a survey of school music supervisors in Canada (Jorgensen, 1979), three aspects of the scope and nature of the school music supervisor role were examined, namely: music supervisor tasks; attitudes to aspects of the music supervisor role, communication with teachers, teacher visitation and planning of future activities; and problems faced by music supervisors. The findings will now be described.
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    The Academic and Professional Preparation of School Music Supervisors in Canada
    (Canadian Music Educator, 1979) Jorgensen, Estelle
    This article is the first of a series of three which will appear in the three numbers of Volume 21. We believe that there is value in having an extended look at a given topic in this fashion, and in the present instance the issue of music supervision is particularly timely. The cut-backs and budgetary prunings to which supervisory personnel are increasingly subjected make it imperative that we carefully examine our evaluative criteria.
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    Some Observations on the Methodology of Research in Music Education
    (Canadian Music Educator, 1979) Jorgensen, Estelle
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    Questions for Music Education Research
    (Music Education Research, 2008) Jorgensen, Estelle
    In addressing the question-set 'What questions do music education researchers need to address?', an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the specifically educational dimensions of music education? What are and should be the musical interests of music education? What are and should be the purposive and/or incidental, formal and/or informal attributes of music education? At what developmental stages are and should music education be cast? What disciplines and levels of generality do and should inform music education? What is the present status of music education and what should it be? How relevant is and should music education research be to practice?
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    What Philosophy Can Bring to Music Education: Musicianship as a Case in Point
    (British Journal of Music Education, 2003) Jorgensen, Estelle
    My response to the question "What can philosophy bring to music education?" is to offer a case in point. Three important tasks that philosophers can fulfil - clarifying ideas, interrogating commonplaces, and suggesting applications to practice - are illustrated through an analysis of musicianship. Doing philosophy is inseparable from the content of philosophy, and how the idea of musicianship is clarified, interrogated, and applied is of central interest to music education, as is the task of music education philosophy itself. The article highlights the crucial importance of teachers as participants in this work.
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    School Music Education and Change
    (Music Educators Journal, 2010) Jorgensen, Estelle
    Thinking hopefully about the problems and possibilities of school music education, particularly in the United States, I would like to suggest a number of ways in which we might think and act more broadly, inclusively, humanely, and musically toward transforming our thought and practice. Rather than espousing change for change's sake, or novelty for novelty's sake, I urge stakeholders in music education to critically reflect on the past from which we have come and the present situation that we face, to converse about the ways in which music education needs to change in the future, and to act in solidarity on behalf of not only school music but general education in the public sphere also.
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    "This-with-That": A Dialectical Approach to Teaching for Musical Imagination
    (The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 2006) Jorgensen, Estelle
    Among the various approaches to music education, my dialectical and epistemological view offers a way of thinking about music and education and deciding how to go forward in teaching and learning music. In this article I show how this particular philosophical perspective can play out in teaching for the development of musical imagination in a particular musical piece, in particular, Johannes Brahms's Intermezzo, op. 118, no. 2. Three questions lie at the center of this analysis: What is meant by my dialectical approach? How is musical imagination implicated, for example, in a performer's reading of this Intermezzo? How ought one to teach for the development of musical imagination?
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    Music, Myth, and Education: The Case of The Lord of the Rings Film Trilogy
    (The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 2010) Jorgensen, Estelle
    In probing the interrelationship of myth, meaning, and education, I offer a case in point, notably, Peter Jackson's film adaptations and Howard Shore's musical scores for J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy - The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. Intersecting literature, film, and music allows me to explore various perspectives or ways of meaning making associated with this myth. I then trace some of the implications of the analysis for musical and general education.
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    On Thick Description and Narrative Inquiry in Music Education
    (Research Studies in Music Education, 2009) Jorgensen, Estelle
    The use of `thick description' is evident in various research traditions in the social sciences. Important in American anthropology in the latter half of the 20thcentury, it has been imported somewhat uncritically into educational research. In our time, it is also seen as a means whereby scholars and scholar-practitioners can generate new descriptive knowledge and recover knowledge that has been lost or fallen into obscurity. My present task is to notice the philosophical roots of thick description in the work of Gilbert Ryle and its subsequent use by the American anthropologist, Clifford Geertz. I also note Adam Kuper's critique of Geertz's anthropological use of the term. And after `rescuing' aspects of thick description, I sketch implications for narrative inquiry in music education.
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    Shifting Paradigms in Music Education Research
    (Journal of Research in Music Education, 2015) Jorgensen, Estelle; Madura Ward-Steinman, Patrice
    The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of a hypothesized shift in the operative research paradigms in music education during the first quarter century of the publication of the Journal of Research in Music Education, during the period 1953 to 1978. This shift was from humanities-oriented historical and philosophical studies to scientifically oriented psychological studies, from studies couched at higher levels of generality to more specific levels of analysis of the data, and from studies geared toward broader contextual and institutional issues to those concerning the specific behaviors of students in music education. Data for our analysis are drawn from the first 26 years of the Journal of Research in Music Education during its formative period from 1953 to 1978. In order to test quantitatively these broad philosophical claims for shifting paradigms in music education research during this period, our specific research questions focused on indicators that, taken together, might document these changes. Based on heuristic models, 499 articles were classified according to types of research method, facets of music education, and integrative levels of analysis. Descriptive statistics and statistically significant correlations provided strong evidence of this shift. Implications for further research were sketched.
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    Roots and Development of the International Society for the Philosophy of Music Education (1985-2015)
    (Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, 2017) Jorgensen, Estelle
    This history traces the roots and development of the International Society for the Philosophy of Music Education (1985-2015). Taking a cross-disciplinary approach to historiography based on autobiographical reflection grounded in documentary evidence, it focuses on the people, events, and contributions of the society and the symposia out of which it grew and with which it was associated. Among the themes in this account are the American roots of the symposia, their growing internationalization and institutionalization, the founding of the Philosophy of Music Education Review and the International Society for the Philosophy of Music Education, evolving symposia structures, a democratic process of governance, the mentoring of philosophers and leaders in the community, and initiatives to strengthen the philosophical preparation of doctoral students in music education.
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    Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness: Values for Music Education
    (Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 2020) Jorgensen, Estelle
    In this article, the meaning of values of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness advanced in the Declaration of Independence (1776) are critically examined from musical and educational perspectives. These values are posited not only as American values but as human values. Their theoretical and practical implications for music education are unpacked and their implications for democratic music education are assessed.
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    Deconstructing Deleuze and Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus for Music Education
    (Journal of Aesthetic Education, 2013) Jorgensen, Estelle; Iris M. Yob
    In this essay, Deleuze and Guattari's ideas as discussed in their book, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, are critically examined with a view to determining the merits of their ideas as a basis for a philosophy of music education. Three principal questions are at the heart of this analysis: What are Deleuze and Guattari asking us to believe? What is our assessment of their contributions and detractions? What are the implications of our analysis for music education? Our approach is dialogical in juxtaposing an analysis of their ideas construed more broadly with an examination of selected metaphors that they use, and thereby combining literal and figurative thought. While their thinking constitutes a limited and flawed basis for a philosophy of music education, they prompt insights that are valuable for music education thought and practice.