Theses and Dissertations

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This collection contains theses and dissertations from students who have completed Master of Education (M.S.Ed.), Education Specialist (Ed.S.), and Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) degrees in the School of Education.

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    SUSTAINING THE EMPODERAMIENTO OF SPANISH HERITAGE LEARNERS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL THROUGH CRITICAL SOCIOCULTURAL PEDAGOGIES
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-12) Adán, Marta M.; Medina, Carmen Ph.D.
    Spanish is the second most spoken language in the US and thus it comes to no surprise that schools across the country have Spanish heritage language learners across all grades and at different level of proficiency. Many of these students come to the World Language Spanish classroom with funds of knowledge from different cultures, races, and socioeconomic backgrounds since the group of learners is as far as being a monolith as the diversity within Latinx identities. Although their presence in our classrooms is statistically expected, World Language education and teacher preparation is primarily geared towards second language (L2) education rather than the reality of mixed (L2 and heritage) language learners. Engaging in research that places heritage language learners in the center thus becomes an act of resistance and a question of social justice within the field. Although there have been studies that focus on Spanish heritage language learners (SHLLs), there is a call for more studies in different contexts that show practical applications of asset-based pedagogies and critical language awareness within a multiliteracies framework. This dissertation is a practitioner researcher qualitative case study of students enrolled in a dual-enrollment Spanish writing course. Data includes observations, lesson notes, student and teacher generated reflections, and student artifacts to better understand how SHLLs in an upper-level secondary course generate and conduct their own inquiry projects in response to learned topics that focus on multilingual identity, activism within US Latinxs, climate issues, and social-emotional health and well-being. Beyond building awareness in students, this study focuses on how students and their teacher engage in critical literacy practices for students to see themselves as agents of change and how this in turn sustains their multilingual identities.
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    INSTITUTIONAL POLICY CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE QUALITY OF STUDY ABROAD PROPOSALS AND STUDENTS' INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE: A PROGRAM EVALUATION
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-12) Alexander, L.Blair; Nelson Laird, Thomas F. Ph.D.
    This dissertation provides a detailed program evaluation of a study abroad program within a college of education at a large, research I land grant university. The focus of the evaluation was to examine administrative policy changes and their effect on program quality. Using the guidelines in the Kellogg Foundations' Project-Level Evaluation Model (1998), I focused on describing the context, exploring the changes implemented, and documenting outcome changes. I began with an examination of the context of the program, including the environment in which it operated, internal and external forces that were influencing the need for change, and resources and support available to facilitate change. This dissertation describes and evaluates the implementation of policy and procedural changes that were designed to affect program outcomes. Finally, the dissertation evaluates the outcomes of the administrative policy changes on 1) quality of faculty study abroad proposals and 2) students' intercultural competence as evidenced in study abroad experience reflections. I present evidence that college administrators acted on a need to create more guidance to oversee the impact and effectiveness of the study abroad program. Policies were created with the intent of directing faculty to consider how their study abroad experiences might be purposely designed as a high impact learning experience for both disciplinary learning and intercultural competence. Faculty proposal quality was measured using nine best practices identified in the literature. After implementation of policy changes, faculty proposal scores were significantly higher than before policy implementation. Student's intercultural competence was measured using the AAC&U VALUE Intercultural Knowledge and Competence Rubric. Students' intercultural competence scores (as evidenced in their reflections) were compared between the 2014-2015 time frame (before changes were made) and the 2019-2021 time frame (after changes were made). In 2019-2021 reflection essays I found significantly higher scores for self-awareness, worldview, empathy, and openness. Communication and curiosity scores were not significantly different and may be due to short duration of the experiences (communication) and the fact that the experiences were embedded in credit bearing course with a thoroughly detailed analysis of cultural differences (curiosity).
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    A Case Study of Student Perceptions of Online Course Design Features and Success in a Bachelor of Health Sciences Program
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-10) Hatfield, Jennifer; Brush, Thomas Ph.D.
    Asynchronous online courses have often been a challenge regarding student success. This case study aims to examine student perceptions of course design features that are viewed as most or least helpful in three required asynchronous online courses in the Vera Z Dwyer College of Health Sciences at Indiana University South Bend. Thus, the research questions are (1) Which course design features do students identify as the most effective for supporting their learning in an online course? and (2) What aspects of an online course do students perceive as most and least beneficial to their success? To obtain information about course design features a survey was disseminated via Qualtrics to five asynchronous online courses in the College of Health Sciences. Results showed that students found elements of course organization to be the most helpful in their success.
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    EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS ATTENDING MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES: UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS AND SUPPORTS TO IMPROVE STUDENT SUCCESS
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-12) Arnold, Stacey; Palmer, Megan M. Ph.D.
    The purpose of this study was to understand what international students attending MSW programs in the US perceive as barriers and supports to their success in their graduate program. for In this study, I explored various aspects of the participants' experiences including overall campus engagement, social work program engagement, the classroom experience, and field placements. As these aspects were explored, I simultaneously explored how these various aspects of the program have an impact on students' perceived success and encountered barriers Research regarding international graduate student experiences in specific disciplines is limited. Further, much of the research on international graduate students focuses heavily on the academic aspects of the student experience such as language proficiency (Kaya, 2020; Ren & Hagedorn, 2012) and meeting academic requirements (Rodríguez et al., 2019). Studies related to the experiences of international graduate students studying social work are dated (Desai & Brieland, 1970; Murase, 1961), limited in richness and depth (Cetingok & Hirayama, 1990; Ndirangu, 1993), or focus on specific areas of the Master of Social Work (MSW) student experience such as field/internship experiences (Zunz & Oil, 2009). One of the areas in which knowledge needs to be expanded is in relation to the lived experiences of international graduate students in specific disciplines. To obtain a more in-depth understanding of the experiences of international students completing MSW degrees in the United States I utilized a qualitative study design with phenomenological influence. I interviewed international MSW students via zoom, transcribed their interviews, and analyzed their responses utilizing a qualitative analysis tool. I found several common themes including the importance of social interaction and engagement as well as perseverance. I also uncovered themes which hindered student success including bureaucracy, stealth international students and ill equipped programs and institutions, social and cultural challenges and limited post program preparation. This data can be utilized to improve student service provision to international MSW students in the United States.
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    DEVENONS ÉCO-CITOYENS: ENGAGING WITH ECOJUSTICE LITERACIES IN AN UPPER-LEVEL US HIGH SCHOOL FRENCH CLASSROOM
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-11) Dubrulle, Kathryn Whitney-Leigh Daniel; Damico, James Ph.D.
    Across the globe, 2023 has seen record heat, unrelenting wildfires, and flooding. Climate disasters are at an all-time high. When climate disasters happen, they are most harmful to minorities and socio-economically disadvantaged groups. Engaging in ecojustice literacies will allow us as humans to recognize the interrelationality we share with our planet and better understand the consequences those relationships can have on the well-being of all parties involved. It is paramount that schools play a role in this effort across content areas, including world language education. Nearly all upper-level world language textbooks and curricula include a section on the environment. Both the Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) level courses have themes that incorporate the study of the environment. Yet, there is an absence of research literature on what happens when world language teachers engage in discussions and work with their students on climate justice literacies. Gaining linguistic competence, agency, and eco- citizenship through eco-critical approaches in upper-level language instruction, notably, the IB Language classroom is something that should be further explored. This dissertation is a practitioner-researcher inquiry that examined what happens when students and their teacher engage in ecojustice literacies in the high school upper-level World Language class. Data was collected during the academic school year. Using the tools of critical incident analysis and thematic analysis, five essential mediated practices were discerned that begin with the redesign of curriculum, disruption of classroom norms, the development of an ecoconscientization, participation in cultural ecological analysis, and finally the formation of eco-citizens. Implications of this project point to patterns of teaching and learning that can challenge the status quo in the World Language classroom in ways that show how language teachers can directly support students in their eco-civic endeavors in addition to language learning with an increased focus on real world connections.
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    UNDERSTANDING PERCEPTIONS AND PRACTICE OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP IN A CATHOLIC ARTS-INTEGRATED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-11) Harville, Andrea; Lochmiller, Chad R. Ph.D.
    School principals have an ongoing responsibility to support teachers and students. By adopting a school-wide arts-integrated approach, principals can potentially observe greater academic success, engagement, and ownership of the learning experience among their students (Bellisario & Donovan, 2012; Deasy, 2002; Eisner, 2002a; Garrett, 2013; Melnick et al., 2011; Pope & Foster, 2018; Rabkin & Redmond, 2004, 2006; Robinson, 2013; Shaw & Bernard, 2022; Sterman, 2018). The purpose of this research study was to understand how a Catholic elementary school principal and classroom teachers implemented an arts integrated curriculum or school program. Specifically, the study sought to understand what Catholic elementary school principals and teachers did during the implementation process and how school-based factors influenced the implementation of the arts integrated program. Because this is a practice-based dissertation study, its aim is to communicate how the actions taken in the school setting can be relevant or informative to educators in non-Catholic school contexts. These recommendations could, in theory, support the improved implementation of an arts integrated program model. Based on the data collected and in light of the research questions, this qualitative case study describes the experiences of a principal and teachers at an arts-integrated Catholic elementary school in California. An analysis of the data collected from transcribed interviews, observations, and documents ultimately produced several findings. First, the findings indicate the continued importance of a clear vision and mission for the school that is widely accepted and bought into by school staff. Moreover, the findings demonstrate the vital role that effective hiring and collaboration play in creating opportunities for teacher learning and engagement. Finally, effective implementation depends upon sustained resource allocation and support for the arts-based program. Collectively, these activities support the implementation of an arts curriculum and create conditions that support teachers in becoming effective in delivering the arts-based program. Certain school-based factors also influenced the implementation of this arts integrated Catholic elementary school program and may pose specific considerations for all educational leaders in both Catholic and non-Catholic school contexts. These school-based factors include having adequate funding and ensuring teacher retention to effectively implement and sustain an arts-integrated school program.
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    THROUGH A DIS/ABILITY STUDIES AND CRITICAL RACE THEORY LENS: BLACK FAMILIES’ PERSPECTIVES OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-05) Harris-Johnson, Cynquetta; Wohlwend, Karen Ph.D.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical and current impact of racism and ableism in speech language pathology using the counterstories of African-American families. Utilizing a qualitative, critical narrative research approach I investigated the experiences expressed and lived by Black families through interviews, current research and my experience as a Black speech specialist. The data collected was analyzed using a DisCrit lens which allowed me to uncover the multi-layers of identity, social constructs, power, privilege and ability within the participants’ stories. Once analyzed, the seven Tenets of DisCrit were used as themes to organize the data.
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    ESL AND CONTENT AREA TUTORS IN THE ONLINE, FOR-PROFIT SHADOW EDUCATION SETTING: UNMASKING THE TRANSIENT EDUCATOR
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-07) Kerr, Emily Lerche; Hines, Mary Beth Ph.D.
    Supplementary for-profit tutoring, also known as shadow education, has grown significantly worldwide and has become a multi-billion-dollar industry (Fortune Business Insights, 2021) over the past few decades, in both the number of organizations offering tutoring and the number of participating students (Aurini & Davies, 2004; Bray, 2010/2012; Zhang & Bray, 2017; Bray, 2021, 2022). Shadow education includes the distinct characteristics of privateness, supplementation, and academic subjects. Individuals pay for tutoring outside of school hours that supplements principal academic subjects in mainstream schooling. It does not include unpaid tutoring or extra lessons, nor “domains that are learned mainly for leisure and/or personal development such as music, art, and sports” (Yung & Bray, 2017, p. 96). Due to the dearth of research about the tutors working in this industry, this qualitative study voices the lived experiences of tutors working for a company offering tutoring services for Chinese international undergraduate students studying abroad in English-speaking countries. Based in sociocultural theory, it uses the theoretical frameworks of Gee’s (1989, 2002) and Fairclough’s (2003) concepts of identity and discourse as a foundation for critical discourse analysis (CDA). The study reveals how the for-profit setting influences tutors’ classroom practices and their professional identities as educators and creates identity conflict for them as they and their work do not match the traditional concept of who a teacher is and what a teacher does. This is identified as the t/Teacher dichotomy, which questions who a “real” teacher is, and also highlights the instability that educators working as independent contractors or who are in contingent, part-time positions face, and how this teaching context affects their livelihood.
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    CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PRACTICE IN THE ROLE OF THE READING SPECIALIST
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-05) Kelley-Nazzaro, Patricia A.; Hines, Mary Beth Ph.D.
    The disproportionality of marginalized populations in K-12 Special Education in the US (Donovan & Cross, 2002; Barrio, 2021) is a longstanding problem. One solution is recognizing student differences as resources (Cooc & Kiru, 2018), not deficits. Asset-based pedagogies, which appreciate differences as strengths (Alim & Paris, 2017), are critical to apply when students are being considered for or are already placed in special education for reading. When reading specialists teach students to read in the dominant language, they must recognize students’ cultural and linguistic assets to avoid identifying students as deficient when their skills don’t match the dominant culture. This qualitative study aimed to determine if and how reading specialists implemented three asset-based pedagogies in reading instruction: culturally responsive teaching (Gay, 2002a), culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson-Billings, 1995), and culturally sustaining pedagogy (Paris, 2012). Findings showed the application of myriad culturally responsive practices, including broadening the definition of reading, designing curriculum, and building relationships. However, multi-level barriers negatively impacted efforts, including limited resources, access to specialized knowledge, and whole-school practices. Additionally, students often responded to literacy challenges in ways that impeded their learning. Findings have implications for research, teacher education, and K-12 students. Future research must include students’ perspectives in identifying identity-affirming practices. Teacher education must include multiple ways for students to engage in literacy activities. Expanding literacy practices is essential to providing equitable learning spaces for all students.
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    CHALLENGING THE NORM: A LITERACY SPECIALIST’S APPROACH TOWARDS DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE LITERACY INTERVENTION
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-05) Larson, Kaitlin T.; Wohlwend, Karen Ph.D
    Early literacy intervention teaching spaces largely consist of approaching literacy learning and development as a linear, cognitive driven process constrained by standardized, pre-prescribed curricula and a focus on quantitative data collection through standardized testing (Purcell-Gates et al., 2004). Further, Bean and Goatley (2021) have drawn attention to the fact that current strategies implemented by literacy specialists have not seemed to produce the desired results of remediating and preventing student literacy failure, and that there must be continued efforts to improve early student literacy learning. For early childhood children, including those in literacy intervention instructional spaces, the framework of developmentally appropriate practice provides an alternative pathway for moving away from a constricted model of literacy. Instead, taking up a developmentally appropriate approach to literacy can remind literacy educators that ‘best practice’ for early childhood children is the ability to balance both children’s unique abilities and interests flexibly within a required curriculum. This practitioner inquiry dissertation sought to challenge the current prescriptivism of literacy intervention instructional spaces by implementing developmentally appropriate teaching practices alongside a scripted literacy intervention curriculum with a small group of first grade students. Exploring the overarching research question, “How do I, as a literacy specialist, incorporate developmentally appropriate teaching practices with a research-based literacy intervention program?”, findings suggest that developmentally appropriate teaching practices can indeed be implemented along with a research-based curriculum when literacy educators work to negotiate prescribed curricular practices and expand their lens of effective literacy instructional practices. Findings also found that incorporating developmentally appropriate teaching practices expands literacy educator’s instructional toolbelts and allows for joyful student learning opportunities and deep engagement. As a result, literacy practitioners, like school literacy specialists, have the opportunity to be better positioned to provide more equitable forms of literacy instruction for school’s youngest marginalized learners, such as those labeled as ‘struggling readers’.
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    Student Perception Surveys as a Component of a Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation System: A Case Study of Elementary Principals
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-05) Kaiser, Matthew M.; Lochmiller, Chad Ph.D.
    While multiple states have implemented a multiple measures approach to teacher evaluation, this approach has not significantly improved the ability of evaluations to identify variations in teacher performance. The purpose of this research study was to understand what elementary school principals in one Midwestern school district believe are the relative strengths, weaknesses, and potential affordances of using student perception data in the context of the teacher evaluation system in their district. To understand teaching evaluations and the impact of satisfactory performance ratings, the study examined the perspective of school principals working in a district that considers the integration of student perspectives in its teacher evaluation system. A qualitative interview study was conducted to gather information through 10 semi-structured interviews with school personnel, including school principals and district central office administrators. District artifacts were also analyzed. The study shows that the participants perceived that student perception data could be useful in informing teacher evaluations and may influence administrative practices related to the evaluation of teacher quality. However, the participants argued that the benefits of these data depend on the implementation of the system and the conditions for its use that were established by the school district.
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    ELEMENTS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT THAT IMPACT TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN THE CLASSROOM
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-06) Huber, Jackie; Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne Ph.D.
    Technology in the hands of students has the potential to enhance teaching and learning. Teachers need to be provided with professional development experiences to learn best practices to integrate technology. Based on research, successful elements of impactful PD include a technology coach to provide PD and support integration in the classroom. The research study examined the technology professional development experiences of K- 12 teachers that support technology integration. Based on input from the technology coaches, all teachers are not provided consistent opportunities to learn about technology tools and enhance instruction. Students are not provided consistent experiences with technology to impact their learning. The teacher technology professional development model should reflect elements that support successful integration. The study design used for the research was a mixed-methods case study. Data regarding professional development experiences were provided by teachers and technology coaches through online questionnaires. A sample of teachers and technology coaches participated in interviews to further investigate professional development activities that support technology use. The qualitative and quantitative data provided insight into the professional development experiences and the role of the technology coach. The results identified elements of teacher professional development and the role of a technology coach that impact technology-rich instructional practices. The teacher data revealed three themes, including teachers’ perceptions of technology and use with students, the qualities of impactful PD content, and PD formats supported by the technology coach. The technology coach data identified three themes, the perceptions of teacher and student technology use, features of PD content offered to teachers, and impactful PD formats supported by the technology coach. Based on the study, technology PD has the potential to impact technology integration in the classroom. Implications from the study include implementing the elements of impactful PD and constructs of coaching when planning technology PD for teachers. Important elements of the technology coach include building relationships, personalizing instruction, collaborating with the teachers, focusing on classroom content, and ongoing training. Other considerations include the best time to provide PD and support the teachers. If provided with impactful professional development opportunities, teachers may be more inclined to integrate technology in the classroom.
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    EXPLORATION OF ACTIONS AND LITERACIES: A NEXUS ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSES WITH TOYS, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGY DURING ONLINE IMAGINATIVE PLAYGROUPS
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-06) Horrace, Rebecca; Wohlwend, Karen Ph.D.
    Play has always been central in the lives of children. However, the decline of free play opportunities for children has become a noticeable trend in the current years (Digennaro, 2021; Gray et al., in press). During the pandemic, children turned to online environments to find entertainment and socialization. However, the online spaces available for children were adult-invented worlds or pre-constructed games that had an end goal, which made me question: Could there be an online space where children meet for playgroups similarly to in-person, where children share their toys, chat about their interests, and engage in imaginative play? This study utilized technology to expand a child’s playroom to include friends who could not be nearby but still wanted to engage in imaginary play with physical toys, addressing the parallels of their play worlds and connections they make with one another surrounding their favorite toys, media, and stories. Throughout this study, I utilized nexus analysis to investigate children’s imaginative play in a unique setting, deviating from the traditional, of an online space through Zoom, as children mediated shared discourses and literacies to expand the definition of local by converting distant interactions into a common, shared space, allowing endless imaginative play opportunities across the nation. By analyzing children’s play I interpreted several components of children’s online imaginative play experiences to include– mediated actions, literacy Discourses, digital literacies, online restrictions, and media incorporations– across their play avenues as children moved back and forth between digital and non-digital realities during their participation in online imaginative playgroups. Future implications for this research include several exciting possibilities to implement online playgroups within other social groups, such as mobile families, homeschoolers, hospitals, public schools, and libraries, as well as looking at additional group dynamics such as gender, multiculturalism, and age of participants.
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    EXAMINING INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNERS’ AND FACULTY MEMBERS’ RELATIONSHIP BUILDING AND PERCEPTION OF CO-DESIGN HIGHER EDUCATION PARTNERSHIPS
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-06) Hansel, Carrie Ann; Ozogul, Gamze Ph.D.
    The instructional designer – faculty collaborative co-design process requires building rapport to effectively create a quality online course but limited research has been conducted within this context. Within the literature, the primary focus revolves around the instructional designer perspective but situates the faculty partner more as a recipient of the relationship rather than an equal contributor. This qualitative, multi-case study examined the co-design relationship of two instructional designer - faculty dyads co-creating online courses using two questions: How do instructional designers and faculty partners build a relationship during the co-design process? How do instructional designers and higher education instructors perceive this co-design relationship? Using interviews, observations, and document analysis, this study sought to develop a richer understanding of the experience of both partners, their relationship building strategies, and perceptions of the co-design relationship. Validity was maintained through transparency; member checking; audit trails; thick, rich descriptions; researcher reflexivity; prolonged field engagement; disconfirming evidence; member checking; and triangulation. Thematic analysis and document analysis were used for the data analysis process. Results suggest that the co-design dyads used rapport building strategies identified within multidisciplinary rapport literature to establish a partnership while collaboratively leading the course design, managing the project, and building the faculty partner’s skillset. The findings suggest that the two dyads regularly communicated with verbal and non-verbal components; created a personal connection by getting to know each other, being authentic, and having fun; shared the work through shared expectations and partnering in the design; and adapted to their partner’s needs. The findings provide definitions of rapport, indicator words of rapport, and descriptions of the dyad’s perception of the co-design relationship.
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    DETERMINANTS OF INSTRUCTORS’ INTENTION TO USE ONLINE PROCTORING TO PROMOTE ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-05) Gribbins, Michele Lee; Bonk, Curtis J. Ph.D.
    As universities moved to remotely taught courses during the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of maintaining academic integrity in online environments grew. At many universities, the decision whether to use tools to deter or detect academic dishonesty is often left to the instructor teaching the course. While many instructors and universities have found plagiarism detection tools to be valuable in upholding academic integrity on written assignments, there has been less usage of online proctoring solutions to deter and detect academic dishonesty during remote testing. This research study investigated instructors’ perceptions about the use of online proctoring to uncover what drives faculty to adopt online proctoring as an academic integrity tool. The study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology framework to examine the determinants that influence whether an instructor intended to use online proctoring. An online survey was completed by 158 instructors at a variety of higher education institutions. Through the use of structural equation modeling, the study found that performance expectancy is the primary determinant of an instructor’s intention to use online proctoring. Social influence had a significant impact on instructors who had moderate to no online teaching experience but did not have an impact on instructors who had significant online teaching experience. Effort expectancy had no significant impact on an instructor’s intention to use online proctoring. Thematic analysis of open-ended comments identified the benefits of online proctoring to faculty, students, and the learning process beyond ensuring academic integrity. Comments also identified several challenges with using online proctoring including additional burdens placed on students when required to use online proctoring. Instructors also raised legal, ethical, and social concerns with the use of online proctoring. Despite these concerns, instructors identified strong use cases for online proctoring and alternative strategies for ensuring academic integrity in online courses.
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    STEPPING THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: PERSPECTIVES OF BLACK GIRLS’ SENSE OF BELONGING IN A PREDOMINANTLY WHITE SUBURBAN SETTING
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-06) Gibson, Tajharjha L.; Decker, Janet J.D., Ph.D.
    In light of the disproportionate ways Black girls have been treated, disciplined, perceived, ignored, and discounted in public schools (See Annamma et al., 2016; Gibson & Decker, 2019; Morris, 2007; Morris, 2016a; OCR Data, 2016; USDOE & USDOJ, 2014), the school leader must be aware of and make moves to support the welfare of Black girls and their success. If school leaders are the most influential person both instructionally and academically, and they also set the tone for the climate in schools (Bryk et al., 2010; Leithwood et al., 2004), then it behooves school leaders to be aware of the supports that Black girls need to be successful in predominately White schools. A gap in the current research exists as to whether school leaders in predominately White suburban schools build relationships, provide mentoring, and foster a sense of belonging for Black girls. This study uniquely hones in on Black girls’ perspectives to articulate if there is indeed support for the girls, and whether they feel a sense of belonging at school. This study provides school leaders with insights about how they can help Black girls to feel supported academically and emotionally in their school environment.
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    SCAFFOLDING SYSTEMS IN HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE PROBLEM SOLVING: A CASE STUDY
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-06) Farnsworth, Kimberly; Glazewski, Krista Ph.D.
    This descriptive case-based study examined the scaffolding practices of a high school science teacher in a problem-based learning (PBL) biochemistry unit. Qualitative methods were used to analyze the scaffolding system used on multiple planes (individual, group, whole class), scaffolding types (hard, soft) and functions (structuring, problematizing) to support learning in the PBL science unit. Teacher perceptions and attitudes related to scaffolding goals were also considered. Data were collected from classroom observations, semi-structured interviews, and lesson artifacts. Findings revealed emergent themes including the teacher’s: (1) Use of a dialogic system of scaffolding; (2) shifting between scaffolding planes; (3) incorporating a spectrum of scaffolding types; (4) shifting between problematizing and structuring; (5) perception of scaffolding as an ongoing conversation; and (6) orienting herself in the role of co-learner. Based on these six themes, it was evident that the teacher’s scaffolding system was process-drive as opposed to goal-driven and that she used an adaptive system to promote productive struggle. Implications for classroom practice in similar PBL contexts were described and suggestions included leveraging the problem-solving process for deep understanding, use of an adaptive dialogic approach, positioning teacher and students as co-learners and co-teachers, and becoming comfortable with ambiguity in implementing a scaffolding system. Limitations of the study were noted as well as the potential for this study’s findings to contribute to the body of literature on scaffolding complex learning. The findings of this case study revealed a scaffolding system that was robust and allowed for deep learning and the potential affordances of a process-oriented PBL environment.
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    EXPLORING LANGUAGE LEARNERS’ DIGITAL PRACTICES FOR INFORMAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-09) Dizon, Gilbert; Wohlwend, Karen Ph.D.
    The ubiquity of technology has given language learners increased access to foreign language (FL) content and provided them with opportunities to engage in various digital activities in the FL. These digital practices such as gaming, social media, and video streaming are often not explicitly connected to FL learning, yet language learners are able to gain valuable linguistic and cultural knowledge that can aid their FL development. In this vein, this dissertation details three studies (Dizon, 2021; Dizon, 2023a; Dizon, 2023b) I conducted involving technology-mediated informal FL learning. Specifically, the focus of the research was on self- directed FL learning via digital technologies and resources in beyond-the-class settings. Two of the studies (Dizon, 2021; Dizon, 2023b) investigated a specific digital resource, namely, video streaming, to better understand how this technology can be used to support informal FL learning. The other study (Dizon, 2023a) was a systematic review paper on FL learning in the digital wilds, i.e., technology-mediated FL learning in which language learning is not the primary goal. Taken together, the findings from these three studies shed light on the benefits of technology-mediated informal FL learning in self-directed, out-of-class contexts. The results suggest that video streaming in a FL provided the learners with an authentic way to learn more about FLs and foreign cultures that better connected with their personal backgrounds and interests compared to classroom-based learning. Findings from the systematic review on the digital wilds further highlights the affordances of engaging in digital practices in a FL. That is, this informal learning environment offers learners an authentic means to collaborate and receive feedback from other FL speakers while also making use of a wide range of multimodal resources. These studies underscore the importance of identifying learners’ informal digital practices in order to link them with the formal language classroom, which in turn, can lead to a more equitable learning environment that is grounded in students’ identities.
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    DOS VOICES, ONE IDENTIDAD: THE ROLE OF TRANSLANGUAGING IN REIMAGINING THE SECONDARY LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-09) Carrillo Gonzalez, Aura; Hines, Mary Beth Ph.D.
    Culturally and linguistically diverse students come to the classroom equipped with unique skills, language capabilities, learning needs, and funds of knowledge and funds of identity that are often ignored in the curricular planning for academic activities and experiences for these students. Even in programs designed to optimize the potential of emergent bilinguals’ language use (such as dual immersion programs), prescribed language models often ask for strict language separation which counter the natural translanguaging thinking and speaking patterns of emergent bilingual students. This practitioner study examines middle school English Language Arts students in a Spanish-English dual immersion setting to describe and analyze their use of translanguaging. Through narrative and poetic analysis and individual and interwoven stories, the study explores how students use language to form and express their identities, as well as explores my own experiences as a multilingual student and educator. This study highlights the importance of natural translanguaging practices and processes for students who use them as part of their language development and expression. Exploring this possibility can turn into a powerful and important pedagogical tool for educators in dual immersion settings, and all educators who serve multilingual students.
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    DESAHOGARSE: AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NARRATIVES WITH EMERGING BILINGUALS
    ([Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2023-05) Campbell, Sarah E.; Coronel-Molina, Serafin Ph.D.
    Emerging bilinguals, or English Language Learners, come to the United States for a better life, un futuro mejor, yet they do not always find a better life when they arrive. Immigrant students come to U.S. schools and have to manage not only learning a new language, but the emotions of leaving behind a former life, family, and more while building a new life in a foreign land. This practitioner inquiry narrative study examines how high school emerging bilinguals navigate their lives as language learners while documenting their life stories through autobiographical narratives. Autobiography collection was via instructional practices and guided by the theoretical foundation of asset-based pedagogies, Funds of Knowledge, and New Literacy Studies. This study shows how autobiographical narratives within language instruction can help students reflect on their situations as they move forward with their transnational lives. The sources of data collected were observational notes, bilingual student writing and multimodal representations, bilingual individual recorded conversations, and bilingual group recorded conversations. Thematic analysis guided data analysis, with restorying used to share data. The three emerging themes were difficulty integrating, struggles of transnationalism, and hope for the future. The students’ shared stories, narratives, and perspectives indicate how knowledgeable emerging bilinguals, how reflective they are as individuals, and how they desperately need to be “heard” by the entire educational community. Recommendations include further research using emerging bilingual autobiographies and in language instruction and educators’ need to listen to and know their students.