Qualitative & Historical Research - Pub.

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    Chapter 6: Background to the Eugenics Movement and Influences on Friedrich Hayek” in Robert Leeson, editor. Hayek: A Collaborative Biography Part X: Eugenics, Cultural Evolution, and the Fatal Conceit.
    (Palgrave-Macmillan. Cham, Switzerland, 2017., 2017) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    The first part of this chapter describes eugenics, the eugenics movement and its leaders in the United States, Great Britain and Germany through the late 1930s when Friedrich Hayek was formulating his theories. The second part focuses on Hayek and how the topic through his culture, family, friends and colleagues may have influenced him. The research questions for this chapter are: did Hayek support eugenics, and in particular Nordic superiority and anti-Semitic negative eugenics; and did his eugenicist colleagues influence him in the development of his theories? It was concluded, based on the information available, that Hayek was not directly involved in any aspect of the eugenics movement nor did he write on the subject in any eugenic journals or other publications. Hayek was against eugenics practices as illustrated by his opposition to state controlled central planning and social engineering programs which included eugenics. Eugenicist colleagues, family, friends and his environment appear to have had some influence on the development of his economic theories.
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    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014-08) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    Agitation for eugenics, immigration restriction, and birth control were intertwined during the first decades of the twentieth century along with numerous other health issues. Campaigns for these causes led to public policies in an effort to improve the physical, mental and social health of the nation. However, these issues were not considered of historical interest until the post-World War II era. Eugenics and the leaders of the eugenics movement were often discredited by late twentieth-century historians as elitists or racists, while early immigration restriction laws and nativism gained renewed interest, and birth control and its early leaders such as Margaret Sanger were both eulogized and demonized. Contested interpretations of all three of these reform movements and their leaders have been found since the 1950s.
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    (Abbey Press, 2008) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    St. Benedict of Nursia, the founder of western monasticism, compiled the Rule of St. Benedict (RB), a guide for monastic organizations and common-sense living. Numerous works over the centuries have been written about RB and St. Benedict. Although myth and legend surround him, scholarly arguments and symbolic meaning abound concerning his traditional biography.
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    (Saint Meinrad Archabbey, 2003) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    St. Scholastica, based upon centuries of tradition, is considered the twin sister of St. Benedict of Nursia, founder of monastic communities and compiler of the Rule of St. Benedict, a guide to common-sense living and monastic organizations. St. Scholastica is the patron saint of Benedictine women's religious communities. Although the narrative material about Scholastica is very brief, she is considered significantly more important than might appear.
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    (Routledge - Taylor and Francis, 2001) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    This chapter is part of a book that is based on the premise that drinking behaviors are primarily learned. This chapter highlights the deep entrenchment of cultural differences that have their origins in antiquity. Without an understanding of these differences, there is a tendency to restrict research to limited topics or to repeat or implement, policies that have little effect in reducing problematic alcohol consumption. The chapter briefly touches upon the origins of Western culture’s drinking norms and the association of the past with present attitudes and behaviors in regard to drinking, including religious differences, health reform, and temperance cycles, and transmission of cultural values through the family and other vehicles. It discusses phases of temperance cycles and theories of problematic drinking among youth including Reactance, Control of Consumption, along with new thinking concerning educational programming arising from evidence based research.Lastly it identifies emerging directions for research, especially involving youth issues.
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    Do Traditional Western European Drinking Practices Have Origins in Antiquity?
    (Informa Healthcare, 1995) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    To explore the question of the etiology of western European drinking cultures, some tentative hypotheses will be offered. It is hoped that these speculations will generate discussion and a more thorough examination of the inception of drinking attitudes, practices and norms in many cultures. Although a many faceted hypothesis is presented, there is space in this paper only for a focus on one aspect, namely the reasons why different patterns formed in the first place. Questions concerning the process of Romanization and the Germanic influences of the early Middle Ages upon drinking patterns will have to wait for another time. In short, this paper is a tour through some questions, and extremely tentative hints of some answers. Because this paper is a social-science comment synthesizing material from many fields of study, both primary and secondary published sources are used.
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    Resurgence of a New "Clean Living" Movement in the United States
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 1991) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    During the late 19th century, a "clean living" movement emerged in the U.S. dominated by efforts to control alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and females' reproductive health. The movement also advocated proper diet, exercise and physical fitness, pure water, and moderation in caffeine and red meat consumption. Remarkably similar concerns. have emerged again m contemporary American society. The current "movement" lacks central organization. Rather, it reflects a loosely related coalition of single-issue advocacy groups. Yet, the focus seems remarkably similar to the 19th century movement - legislative limitation of individual choice regarding personal health behavior, particularly with substance use and females' reproductive health. This article reviews the 19th century movement, describes aspects of the contemporary movement, and offers implications and recommendations for school health professionals.
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    Mass Hysteria or Toxic Fumes? A Case Study for University Administrators
    (This article was originally published in the Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, published by the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators., 1996) Engs, Ruth Clifford; McKaig, Richard; Jacobs, Bruce
    The authors trace the historical background and describe the symptomology relating to mass hysteria and psychogenic illness. After presenting a case study of an incident of such behavior at a mid-western university, they explore the implications for staff training in student service areas.
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    Cycles of Social Reform: Is the Current Anti-Alcohol Movement Cresting?
    (Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 1997) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    A letter to the editor proposing that signs suggest a cresting of the anti-alcohol movement and that prohibition of alcohol for those under 21 has done little to decrease negative drinking behaviors.
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    Protestants and Catholics: Drunken Barbarians and Mellow Romans?
    (Indiana University, 2000) Engs, Ruth Clifford
    The United States, as a nation, has great confusion concerning drinking. It does not appear to be able to come to a consensus regarding alcohol consumption or what constitutes moderate and responsible drinking. More awareness concerning the importance of religion in shaping aptitudes toward drinking may shed light on this ambivalence. Different religious backgrounds along with differences in cultural attitudes, that originated "in the old country" among the ancestors of immigrants of many Americans today, still shape every day thinking and assumptions concerning alcohol. Numerous studies from both the United States and Europe have suggested that Protestants consume less alcohol but perceived great problems with the substance. In contrast Roman Catholics consume more alcohol but do not perceived its consumption as problematic. The reason for this may be based in the distant past as from antiquity different drinking cultures developed in the Northern and in the Mediterranean areas of Western Europe that still influence modern drinking patterns. These different drinking cultures were due to a number of factors the expansion and decline of the Roman Empire.