contributor.author: Mary Alberi

title.none: Niederkorn-Bruck and Scharer, eds., Erzbischof Arn von Salzburg (Mary Alberi)

identifier.other: baj9928.0710.014 07.10.14

identifier.issn: 1096-746X

description.statementofresponsibility: Mary Alberi, Pace University, malberi@pace.edu

publisher.none: .

date.issued: 2007

identifier.citation: Niederkorn-Bruck, Meta, and Anton Scharer, eds. Erzbischof Arn von Salzburg. Series: Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Osterreichische Geschictsforschung, vol. 40. Wien: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2004. Pp. 178. 34.8 EUR (pb). ISBN: 3-7029-0478-6.

type.none: Review

relation.ispartof: The Medieval Review

The Medieval Review 07.10.14

Niederkorn-Bruck, Meta, and Anton Scharer, eds. Erzbischof Arn von Salzburg. Series: Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Osterreichische Geschictsforschung, vol. 40. Wien: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2004. Pp. 178. 34.8 EUR (pb). ISBN: 3-7029-0478-6.

Reviewed by:

Mary Alberi
Pace University
malberi@pace.edu

After surviving a nearly fatal wound, a Bavarian aristocrat named Haholt decided to dedicate his son Arn (740/41-821) to Freising's church. Eventually, Arn became one of the leading figures of Charlemagne's empire, as abbot of St. Amand, archbishop of Salzburg, and missus dominicus. A collection of conference papers delivered in Vienna in 2000, Erzbischof Arn von Salzburg offers new insights into Arn's personality and his environment through close examination of a variety of sources. Some papers have been revised for publication; others have been published as delivered. All offer extensive bibliography. Unfortunately, two papers, by Anton Scharer on the Rupertus Cross and Andreas Schwarcz on Salzburg's mission to the Slavs, were published elsewhere. Their inclusion would have enhanced this volume's portrait of Arn of Salzburg.

Wilhelm Strmer traces the family and personal networks which fostered Arn's ecclesiastical career and allowed him, in turn, to provide opportunities for his own kin when he became bishop--and then archbishop--of Salzburg. Like other local boys from the region of Bittlbach, Arn, along with his inheritance, was given to the Freising church by his aristocratic father. Bishop Arbeo of Freising (764-783) then trained his young charges in monastic culture and ecclesiastical administration. Extensive personal contacts allowed Arbeo to launch Arn and others on careers as abbots and bishops in Bavaria, Francia, and Italy. Arn became a key figure linking Bavaria to the Frankish kingdom, as abbot of St. Amand after 782 and then bishop of Salzburg after 785, probably with the agreement of both the duke of Bavaria, Tassilo, and the king of the Franks, Charlemagne.

According to Heinz Dopsch, early medieval Salzburg developed around a church, St. Peter's, built by St. Rupert, and the fortified residence of the Agilolfinger duke, rather than the old Roman city of Iuvavum. Salzburg became a wealthy episcopal see as a result of Boniface's activity in Bavaria in the early 740s and donations from the Agilolfinger dukes. Protecting this property was one of Arn's most important duties as bishop of Salzburg, a task he carried out successfully in the period after Charlemagne's annexation of Bavaria in 788. The Notitia Arnonis of 788/90, which records the donations made to Salzburg by the Agilolfinger dukes, provided a basis for Charlemagne's confirmation of Salzburg's title to its extensive holdings. Arn also became Charlemagne's trusted missus dominicus in Bavaria and represented Frankish interests in Rome during the troubled years before Charlemagne's imperial coronation. As a result, Charlemagne insisted that Pope Leo III raise Salzburg to metropolitan status in 798, despite the resentment of other Bavarian bishops. Arn, however, asserted his church's property rights and claim to metropolitan status in the Breves notitiae of 798, a second record of gifts made to Salzburg by Bavaria's dukes, nobles, and free property owners. Arn administered his diocese as efficiently as possible and presided over several provincial synods.

Brigitte Merta examines documents pertaining to Salzburg's relations with the Carolingians. After Charlemagne decided all donations granted before his takeover of Bavaria had no legal standing, Arn had to guarantee Salzburg's property rights against challenges from other churches. With Charlemagne's permission, Arn began work on the Notitia Arnonis in 788 and, then, in 790, obtained a royal diploma confirming Salzburg's title to its properties. The Breves notitiae, helped Arn obtain a grant of immunity from Charlemagne and asserted Salzburg's metropolitan status by portraying Rupert as Bavaria's apostle. The Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum also affirmed Salzburg's leading role as missionary center. Both the Frankish king and Salzburg's archbishop continued to benefit from good relations in the later Carolingian period. Salzburg provided supporters and material resources to Louis the German, who responded by granting archbishops diplomas confirming their church's title to its properties. Yet loyalties shifted in the later ninth century, as difficult political circumstances compelled Salzburg's archbishop to seek protection from the duke of Bavaria, rather than a weak Carolingian king.

Rosamond McKitterick analyzes the Liber vitae written in St. Peter's monastery for clues about local understanding of Salzburg's history. St. Peter's monks began listing the names of the living and dead for liturgical commemoration in their Liber vitae in 784, during the episcopacy of Arn's predecessor, Virgil. The monks arranged these names in distinct ordines derived from the Bible and their own social experience, as their contribution to the biblical book of life. St. Peter's Liber vitae also reveals complex influences and loyalties, challenging the assumption that Charlemagne's annexation of Bavaria in 788 brought about a distinct break with its Agilolfinger past. Recording names in a Liber vitae was a Frankish custom. Moreover, St. Peter's Liber vitae lists both Bavarians and Franks, most notably the families of Tassilo and Charlemagne, whose hostility to Tassilo was becoming overt in this period. The inclusion of Charlemagne and his family in the Liber vitae highlights their close family relationship, as first cousins, as well as Tassilo's subordination to Charlemagne.

Maximilian Diesenberger and Herwig Wolfram trace Arn's friendship with Alcuin through the correspondence and manuscripts which reveal their common interests. Alcuin's letters and the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum provide evidence for Arn's itinerary after 798. Arn was constantly on the move, travelling between Charlemagne's court, Salzburg, St. Amand, and Rome. Alcuin wrote many letters, hoping to influence Arn's actions in reinstating Pope Leo III after a particularly violent uprising in 798. Alcuin and Arn disagreed on the best way to resolve this crisis, for Arn insisted that Leo take an oath exonerating himself, despite Alcuin's reservations. Despite areas of conflict, the friendship uniting the two men has left many traces in manuscripts, such as Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek lat. 795. Copied in Salzburg at Arn's behest, this manuscript contains texts written before 799, beginning with Alcuin's Ep. 113, whose discussion of missionary activity and baptism was well suited to Arn's status as archbishop and his leadership of the mission to the Avars. Another of Alcuin's letters, Ep. 161, recalls the Admonitio generalis by suggesting that the letter's unnamed recipient establish a school for boys. Perhaps his commitment to Alcuin's views on education led Arn to commission NB lat. 795 for use in such a school. The manuscript also reflects the two friends' interest in Rome's churches, saints, and libraries. This and other manuscripts written during or shortly after Arn's episcopacy collected and disseminated Alcuin's works for use in Bavarian churches.

Mary Garrison's paper also discusses Alcuin and Arn's friendship. Alcuin deliberately combined learned references to the Bible and Isidore of Seville to create a nickname, "Aquila," well suited to Arn's activities as bishop and missionary. Arn so valued his nickname that he decided to place Alcuin's Ep. 113, pointedly addressed to Aquila, first in NB lat. 795. Garrison also challenges the attribution of erotic meaning to Alcuin's wish that he, like Habakkuk, might fly to Arn and kiss him repeatedly. Besides displaying his knowledge of Jerome's letters, the source of this allusion, Alcuin wanted to show reverence for Arn, since kisses were part of ceremonial greetings. Garrison rightly emphasizes our limited comprehension of many passages in Alcuin's correspondence.

The late Donald Bullough devotes more attention to Alcuin than Arn in his paper on the insertion of the Creed into the Mass. Alcuin cited a number of creeds, often inconsistently, as attested by the different versions found in the two manuscripts of his De laude Dei. Alcuin's Ep. 139 praises Paulinus of Aquileia for providing a version of the Nicene or Constantinopolitan creed for inclusion in the Mass. This creed became part of the court's liturgy in reaction to theological controversy with Adoptionists and the Byzantine stance on icons at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Although he was not deeply involved in these theological questions, since his expertise was in canon law, Arn might have prepared texts for the Aachen synod of 809, which defended the insertion of the filioque into the creed.

Klaus Herber seeks a more rounded picture of Leo III's papacy in the Liber pontificalis. Drawing upon liturgical and hagiographic traditions, Leo's Vita emphasizes his legitimacy and building projects, while glossing over the factionalism that repeatedly troubled his papacy. As a result of this orientation, Leo's Vita omits detailed information about his adversaries' attempt to depose him in 798. Instead, it recounts the miraculous healing of his wounds, followed by liturgical ceremonies, which demonstrated God's grace toward his pontificate. The Roman author of this Vita emphasized Leo's legitimacy and his role in heightening Rome's glory, without much concern for his complex relations with Carolingian rulers.

Meta Niederkorn-Bruck notes continued Insular influences on Salzburg's liturgy, despite demands for liturgical unity in royal capitularies, which Arn must certainly have been aware of. This anomalous situation allows Niederkorn-Bruck to examine a particular Insular text preserved by Salzburg's scribes. This text is a martyrologium found in two copies of the Encyclopedia of 809, written when Arn or his nephew Adalram was archbishop. Niederkorn-Bruck demonstrates the importance of the Salzburg martyrologium as a bridge between the earliest text of Bede's martyrology and later versions.

Fritz Losek's paper suggests that the Carmina Salisburgensia, a collection of poems copied during Liuprams's tenure as Salzburg's archbishop (836-859), are a valuable, yet often neglected, source. Verses praising Salzburg's archbishops, including Arn, reveal awareness of controversy over Salzburg's metropolitan status, its missionary activity, and contacts with Louis the German. The Carmina Salisburgensia and other poems should be considered more closely for a more accurate understanding of Salzburg's culture during Arn's time.

The papers in Erzbischof Arn von Salzburg focus on particular aspects of Arn's career and environment, with the assumption that the reader is already familiar with his career's general outline. Yet, through close scrutiny of particular issues and sources, these papers shed considerable light on Arn's many complex personal relationships and his cultural milieu. Clearly, Arn benefited from opportunities available to an aristocratic churchman with a good education and administrative talent in the resurgent Frankish empire of the late eighth century. These opportunities arose from family relationships and the ties of friendship. Although these bonds must have created conflicting loyalties, Arn was able to retain the trust of both Tassilo and Charlemagne in the later 780s. After the annexation of Bavaria, Arn increased Salzburg's status as a result of Charlemagne's trust in him.

The papers in this volume give a sense of the formality of these personal bonds and their significance for Arn. Alcuin's nickname for Arn, resulting from much thought about Arn's duties as bishop, belies its casual appearance. His ties to Charlemagne helped him secure Salzburg's property rights and metropolitan status, although the burden of royal service wearied him as he criss-crossed Charlemagne's empire on official business. Arn's work in resolving the crisis which nearly ended Leo III's pontificate and eventually led to Charlemagne's imperial coronation was especially demanding.

Still, this volume pays less attention to Arn's political activities and more to his cultural interests. Closely bound up with the obligation to teach his clergy and evangelize his people, these interests are reflected in manuscripts written during Arn's lifetime or shortly afterwards. Several papers in the volume are particularly effective in revealing Arn's cultural interests, especially his contribution to Salzburg's importance as a center of learning, through close study of important manuscripts.

Despite some gaps in its portrait of Arn, Erzbischof Arn von Salzburg makes a significant contribution to our understanding of a leading figure in Charlemagne's reign and a major contributor to the development of Carolingian culture.