All manuscript text, quotations, notes, and references should be double-spaced and conform to the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (author-date style, sometimes called Chicago B; see www.chicagomanualofstyle.org). This style uses an in-text author-date citation [T], followed by a reference list [R]. (Prior to volume 47, the Journal of Folklore Research used a hybrid style; please do not use past JFR issues as style guides.) If you have questions about format and style not answered below or at the CMS website or 16th print edition, please contact JFR's Editorial Assistant (email@example.com).
In addition to following the guidelines elucidated in the CMS, please attend to the following matters:
- Leave a 1-inch margin for copyediting and number manuscript pages consecutively.
- Notes should be substantive (i.e., discursive) and formatted as endnotes.
- Set the article abstract in roman type (i.e., not in italics).
- Italicize words in languages other than English in their first usage and leave them in roman type thereafter.
- Whenever possible, avoid using imported diacritic fonts to indicate special characters (font characters included as part of standard word processing programs are fine).
- Always use the "tab" function (not the space bar or other manual paragraph indents) to begin a new paragraph.
- Determine whether the first full sentence after an indented block quote continues the paragraph or begins a new one. Lines that continue a paragraph should be flush left (i.e., no indent).
- Use a single space (rather than two spaces) after periods (full stops) and colons. Authors in the habit of double-spacing can use the "find and replace" function in most word processing programs to remove extra spaces.
- Visual elements should be submitted in digital form. Please scan images (including slides) at a resolution of 300 dpi, in TIF or EPS format. Size all images to no more than 5 inches horizontally. Low-resolution images (such as those taken from the Internet) must be at least 900 pixels across to ensure print quality.
- All images, tables, diagrams, and figures should be uploaded as supplemental files rather than embedded in the manuscript itself. In the text file, please indicate where each graphic should appear by placing a "callout" description in the appropriate location (e.g., ). Drawings and maps must be submitted in a form suitable for publication without redrawing.
- Submit captions for all graphic elements by completing the supplemental file information form during the manuscript submission phase.
General guidelines, citations within the text
All references cited within the text must also appear in the references cited section. In general, text citations take the following forms:
Simple citation with no page numbers specified:
(Shuman and Bohmer 2004)
Works by four or more authors (use "et al." in text citation, but list all authors in reference list entry):
(Benson et al. 1986)
Works by different authors cited in one place (alphabetize by author name and separate with semicolons):
(Benedict 1935; Bunzel 1972; Parsons 1918)
Several references by the same author (separated with commas):
(Dundes 1965, 1977, 1990)
Two or more references by the same author or authors in the same year:
(Hymes 1987; Karp and Levine 1991a, 1991b)
Citation with pages, figures, or tables specified:
(Ives 1964, 56)
(Ancelet and Lindahl 1996, figure 2)
(Jones 1989, 115-35; Tedlock 1992a, 33)
(Wilson et al. 1984, table 3)
(Hufford 1982, 11, 72-78)
Works already titled and under contract with a publisher:
Works with no specified author (cite issuing group or publisher):
(American Association of Museums 2004)
(Kosei Publishing 1981, 63).
Works with no specified date (use n.d.):
(Herder n.d., 12)
Substantive notes: endnotes should not be used solely to cite sources; however, discursive endnotes can include text citations formatted in author-date style. Complete bibliographic information for these sources should be included in the reference list.
All sources included in the references list must be cited within the text. Reference list entries should include as much of the following information as possible (full facts of publication are also required for electronic resources, as far as they can be determined):
- Author(s) and editor(s). Include full first names (and full middle names or initials), if known and commonly used. When two authors have the same family name, the name is repeated. If no author is listed, use the name of an editor or sponsoring institution, if applicable. Multiple authors are listed in the order found on the title page.
- Year of publication. List earliest publication first; original publication date of a reprinted work may be placed in brackets and followed by the publication date of the source consulted.
- Title(s). Do not abbreviate names of books and articles or chapters (i.e., include subtitles). Titles are capitalized headline-style unless they are in a language other than English; titles of larger works such as books and journals are italicized, and titles of smaller works such as journal articles are presented in roman and enclosed in quotation marks.
- Editor, compiler, or translator, if any, if listed on title page in addition to author.
- Edition, if not the first.
- Volume. For books: If a multivolume work is referred to as a whole, list total number of volumes. List an individual number when citing a single volume of a multivolume work, and give the title of individual volume if applicable. Use arabic (not roman) numerals. For periodicals: list volume and issue (or month/season). For magazines and newspapers: use dates.
- Series title if applicable, and volume number within the series if the series is numbered. Use headline-style capitalization for series titles, and set in roman font. Do not include name of series editor.
- Facts of publication (city, publisher, and date). For publisher name, do not include "and Company," "Inc.," "Publishers," "Publishing Company," etc. If city of publication is not well known, not revealed in the publisher name, or may be confused with another, include state/province name or country with place of publication.
- Page number or numbers if applicable. List inclusive page numbers (first-last) for journal articles and book chapters.
- Where possible, include a digital object identifier (DOI) in addition to page numbers or other locators. (A DOI is a unique and permanent "name" assigned to a piece of intellectual property such as a journal article, book, etc., in any medium in which it is published.)
- Where relevant, include a (permanent/persistent/stable) URL for electronic/Internet sources, or indicate the medium consulted (e.g., DVD, CD-ROM). For electronic resources, do not list an access date unless the source is likely to be frequently and substantively updated. Revision dates are also unnecessary.
- Noun forms such as editor, translator, volume, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited by and translated by are spelled out.
Common reference list entries
Book, single author
[T:] (Noyes 2003)
[R:] Noyes, Dorothy. 2003. Fire in the Plaça: Catalan Festival Politics after Franco. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Book, multiple authors
[T:] (Iwasaka and Toelken 1994)
[R:] Iwasaka, Michiko, and Barre Toelken. 1994. Ghosts and the Japanese: Cultural Experiences in Japanese Death Legends. Logan: Utah State University Press.
Books, etc., single or multiple authors, more than one entry
(use 3 em-dashes to replace author name after the first usage)
[T:] (Bauman and Briggs 1990, 2003)
[R:] Bauman, Richard, and Charles L. Briggs. 1990. "Poetics and Performance as Critical Perspectives on Language and Social Life." Annual Review of Anthropology 19:59-88.
---. 2003. Voices of Modernity: Language Ideologies and the Politics of Inequality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[T:] (Abrahams 1970a, 1970 b)
[R:] Abrahams, Roger D. 1970a. "British West Indian Folk Drama and the ‘Life Cycle' Problem." Folklore 81 (4): 241-65.
---. 1970b. "Traditions of Eloquence in Afro-American Communities." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 12 (4): 505-27.
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
[T:] (Bakhtin 1981, 78)
[R:] Bakhtin, M. M. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Edited by Michael Holquist, translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Edited book, listed by editor(s)
[T:] (Brady 2001)
[R:] Brady, Erika, ed. 2001. Healing Logics: Culture and Medicine in Modern Health Belief Systems. Logan: Utah State University Press.
[T:] (Sherzer and Woodbury 1987)
[R:] Sherzer, Joel, and Anthony C. Woodbury, eds. 1987. Native American Discourse: Poetic and Rhetoric. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chapter or other part of a book
[T:] (Wallace 1986)
[R:] Wallace, Michael. 1986. "Visiting the Past: History Museums in the United States." In Presenting the Past: Essays on History and the Public, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenweig, 137-61. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format (PDF e-book, Kindle edition, Microsoft Reader e-book, Palm e-book, etc.), note the version consulted. Citations of books on CD-ROM and other fixed media should carry an indication of the medium; other extant formats may be listed at the end of the citation.
[T:] (Propp  2010)
[R:] Propp, Vladimir.  2010. Morphology of the Folktale. 2nd ed. Austin: University of Texas Press. Kindle edition.
[T:] (Child [1882-1898] 2003)
[R:] Child, Francis James, ed. [1882-1898] 2003. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. Digital ed., release 1.01. New York: Heritage Muse. CD-ROM. Also available in print form, in 5 vols.
Batchen, Geoffrey, guest curator. 1997. Photography's Objects. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Art Museum. Published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, shown at the University of New Mexico Art Museum August 26-October 31, 1997.
Glassie, Henry, and Firoz Mahmud. 2000. Contemporary Traditional Art of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Bangladesh National Museum. Exhibition catalog.
Article in journal
Ben-Amos, Dan. 1984. "The Seven Strands of Tradition: Varieties in Its Meaning in American Folklore Studies." Journal of Folklore Research 21 (2-3): 97-131. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3814548.
Gabbert, Lisa. 2007. "Distanciation and the Recontextualization of Space: Finding One's Way in a Small Western Community." Journal of American Folklore 120 (476): 178-203. doi: 10.1353/jaf.2007.0035.
Article in online journal
Saloul, Ihab. 2008. "‘Performative Narrativity': Palestinian Identity and the Performance of Catastrophe." Cultural Analysis 7, http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~caforum/volume7/vol7_article1.html.
Popular magazine article
[T:] (Knowlton 2009)
[R:] Knowlton, Andrew. 2009. "America's Foodiest Small Town." Bon Appétit, October 8.
Newspaper article (unsigned)
[T:] (New York Times 1985)
[R:] New York Times. 1985. "Folklore Thriving in Cities." February 25, Fashion and Style section. http://www.nytimes.com/1985/02/25/style/folklore-thriving-in-cities.html
[T:] (Madrid 2005, 319)
[R:] Madrid, Alejandro L. 2005. Review of Jefe de jefes: Corridos y narcocultura en México, by José Manuel Valenzuela. Ethnomusicology 49 (2): 318-20.
Thesis or dissertation
[T:] (Turner 1985, 67)
[R:] Turner, Patricia Ann. 1985. "Tampered Truths: A Rhetorical Analysis of Antebellum Slave Narratives." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
[T:] (Swanepoel 2009)
[R:] Swanepoel, Christiaan Frederick. 2009. "Basotho Miners' Chants and the Ethics of Place." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Folklore Society, October 21-24, in Boise, Idaho, USA.
Item in online database
To cite materials (such as archived primary sources) made accessible through an online database, create a text citation that will allow the reader to search the database (i.e., item title, database name). If the database is updated frequently, add an access date to the reference list entry.
[T:] (Yakama camp at Astoria, Plateau Peoples' Web Portal)
[R:] Plateau Peoples' Web Portal. Plateau Center for American Indian Studies, Washington State University. http://plateauportal.wsulibs.wsu.edu/html/ppp/index.php (accessed June 30, 2010).
Web sites may be cited in running text ("On its Web site, the Societé Internationale d´Ethnologie et de Folklore recommends . . .") rather than in a text citation, and should be added to a reference list as follows:
[R:] Societé Internationale d´Ethnologie et de Folklore (SIEF). http://www.siefhome.org/.
Specific works or collections posted on websites may be referenced this way:
[T:] (Rogan 2008)
[R:] Rogan, Bjarne. 2008. "A Brief Outline of SIEF and Its Forerunner CIAP." Societé Internationale d´Ethnologie et de Folklore (SIEF). http://www.siefhome.org/ (accessed July 3, 2010).
[T:] (American Folklife Center, 2005)
[R:] American Folklife Center. 2005. Tending the Commons: Folklife and Landscape in Southern West Virginia. American Memory Collection, Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/tending/index.html
E-mail messages and Web log (blog) entries
Cite e-mails and blogs in running text ("In an e-mail message to the author on May 17, 2009, Jane Doe remarked . . .") rather than using a text author-date citation. An entry in the reference list is unnecessary for e-mails; blog entries should be listed in references like Web sites.
Cite interviews in running text, introducing the name of the person being interviewed and other relevant information that would lead the reader to the correct entry in the references list ("When I spoke with George Little at his home in 1986, he told me . . ."). Format the reference list as follows:
[R:] Little, George [pseud.]. 1986. Interview by author, Show Low, AZ. Tape recording. May 16. Western Folklife Center Archives, Elko, NV.